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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9297 matches for " Rae-Anne Hardie "
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Diversity and Frequencies of HLA Class I and Class II Genes of an East African Population  [PDF]
Trevor A. Peterson, Thomas Bielawny, Philip Lacap, Rae-Anne Hardie, Christina Daniuk, Lillian Mendoza, Subotheni Thavaneswaran, Tony Kariri, Joshua Kimani, Charles Wachihi, Maboku Kimani, Terry Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer, Ma Luo
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2014.42013

Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLAs) play an important role in host immune responses to infectious pathogens, and influence organ transplantation, cancer and autoimmune diseases. In this study we conducted a high resolution, sequence-based genotyping of HLA class I and class II genes of more than 2000 women from Kenya, eastern Tanzania and southern Uganda around Lake Victoria and analyzed their allele, phenotype and haplotype frequencies. A considerable genetic diversity was observed at both class I and II loci. A total of 79 HLA-A, 113 HLA-B, 53 HLA-C, 25 HLA-DPA1, 60 HLA-DPB1, 15 HLA-DQA1, 44 HLA-DQB1 and 38 HLA-DRB1 alleles have been identified. The most common class I alleles were A * 02:01:01 (10.90%), B * 58:02 (8.79%), and C * 06:02:01 (16.98%). The most common class II alleles were DPA1*01:03:01 (40.60%), DPB1 * 01:01:01 (23.45%), DQA1 * 01:02:01 (31.03%), DQB1 * 03:01:01 (21.79%), DRB1 * 11:01:02 (11.65%), DRB3 * 02:02:01 (31.65%), DRB4 * 01:01:01 (10.50%), and DRB5 * 01:01:01 (10.50%). Higher than expected homozygosity was observed at HLA-B (P = 0.022), DQA1 (P = 0.004), DQB1 (P = 0.023), and DRB1 (P = 0.0006) loci. The allele frequency distribution of this population is very similar to the ones observed in other sub-Saharan populations with the exception of lower frequencies of A * 23 (5.55% versus 11.21%) and DQA1 * 03 (4.79% versus 11.72%), and higher frequencies of DPB1 * 30 (2.26% versus 0.37%) and DRB1 * 11 (21.51% versus 15.89%). The knowledge of the diversity and allele/ phenotype frequencies of the HLA alleles of this east African population, can contribute to the understanding of how host genetic factors influence disease susceptibility and effective anti-retroviral treatment of HIV infections and future vaccine trials.

Complex Patterns of Genomic Admixture within Southern Africa
Desiree C. Petersen,Ondrej Libiger,Elizabeth A. Tindall,Rae-Anne Hardie,Linda I. Hannick,Richard H. Glashoff,Mitali Mukerji,Indian Genome Variation Consortium,Pedro Fernandez,Wilfrid Haacke,Nicholas J. Schork,Vanessa M. Hayes
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003309
Abstract: Within-population genetic diversity is greatest within Africa, while between-population genetic diversity is directly proportional to geographic distance. The most divergent contemporary human populations include the click-speaking forager peoples of southern Africa, broadly defined as Khoesan. Both intra- (Bantu expansion) and inter-continental migration (European-driven colonization) have resulted in complex patterns of admixture between ancient geographically isolated Khoesan and more recently diverged populations. Using gender-specific analysis and almost 1 million autosomal markers, we determine the significance of estimated ancestral contributions that have shaped five contemporary southern African populations in a cohort of 103 individuals. Limited by lack of available data for homogenous Khoesan representation, we identify the Ju/'hoan (n = 19) as a distinct early diverging human lineage with little to no significant non-Khoesan contribution. In contrast to the Ju/'hoan, we identify ancient signatures of Khoesan and Bantu unions resulting in significant Khoesan- and Bantu-derived contributions to the Southern Bantu amaXhosa (n = 15) and Khoesan !Xun (n = 14), respectively. Our data further suggests that contemporary !Xun represent distinct Khoesan prehistories. Khoesan assimilation with European settlement at the most southern tip of Africa resulted in significant ancestral Khoesan contributions to the Coloured (n = 25) and Baster (n = 30) populations. The latter populations were further impacted by 170 years of East Indian slave trade and intra-continental migrations resulting in a complex pattern of genetic variation (admixture). The populations of southern Africa provide a unique opportunity to investigate the genomic variability from some of the oldest human lineages to the implications of complex admixture patterns including ancient and recently diverged human lineages.
Constraints on the Galactic Magnetic Field from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey
Kyle Rae,Jo-Anne Brown
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: The Galactic magnetic field is important in the dynamics of our Galaxy. It is believed to play a role in star formation and influence the structure of the Galaxy. In order to understand how the Galactic magnetic field originally formed or how it is evolving, we must first determine its present topology. To this end, we have used observations from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) to calculate the highest source density of rotation measures (RM) to date in the disk of the Galaxy. Using these data, we estimate the Galactic longitude of the RM null point in the outer Galaxy (where the RMs of extragalactic sources are observed to pass through zero, on average, with increasing Galactic longitude). We have also examined the RM scale height using the CGPS latitude extension. The values of these parameters offer critical constraints for modeling the large-scale magnetic field in the Galactic disk.
Rainwater Storage Gutters for Houses
Mary Hardie
Sustainability , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/su2010266
Abstract: A history of the implementation of a system of water storage roof gutters illustrates the difficulties which may be encountered in delivering more sustainable construction systems. Utilizing some rainwater at the site where it falls has considerable conservation benefit but it requires builders, roofers and plumbers to vary some of their standard practices. The observed change delivery process involves incorporation of trade knowledge, attention to detail, flexibility and the willingness of all parties including local building control authorities to try new options. Lessons learned have implications for the introduction of many kinds of environmentally driven improvements to domestic construction.
Calling the shots — postexposure prophylaxis against viruses
D Hardie
Continuing Medical Education , 2003,
Approximative Similes in Ovid. Incest and Doubling
Philip Hardie
Dictynna : Revue de Poétique Latine , 2010,
Abstract: This paper is about the pleasures and dangers of getting too close, about a desire to elide difference that operates on both a sexual and a textual plane. My subject is Ovid at his most seriously flirtatious, for this desire is at once the source of typically playful – and, as we say, Ovidian – effects of illusion and mistaken identity, and the obsessive urge that keeps the poet writing. This kind of serioludere is a central topic of my book Ovid’spoeticsofillusion ; the present discussion ma...
Martin Hardie
Nómadas , 2010,
Abstract: El caso espa ol de dopaje conocido como "Operación Puerto" queda enmarcado dentro del abandono de las antiguas concepciones legales y la construcción de un nuevo sistema funcional de alcance global. "Operación Puerto" ilustra el temor de Verner Moeller de que la política anti dopaje se ala el final de la modernidad - donde se elabora y aplica la ley tanto en los tribunales como en los medios de comunicación. OP es el ejemplo perfecto de la distancia existente entre la retórica de la crisis mediática que rodea al dopaje y al ciclismo profesional y la verdadera realidad de los procesos materiales que tienen lugar mientras el ciclismo atraviesa por un proceso global de reajuste estructural y de construcción de una nueva cartografía global del ciclismo. La legitimidad se obtiene a través de la gestión de las crisis y de los acontecimientos : la excepción, la funcionalidad y el espectáculo bajo una apariencia de guerra justa contra el mal del dopaje
Creativity: Cultural Capital in the Mathematics Classroom  [PDF]
Rae Ann Hirsh
Creative Education (CE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2010.13024
Abstract: Contemporary students face unique economic, environmental, and humanitarian challenges. The problem solving required to address these challenges requires solutions that have never been thought of before. In order to tackle these problems, teachers must challenge the traditional problem solving methodologies used in math classes and encourage new problem solving strategies through incorporation of the arts and facilitating of creative problem solving. This article will explore the research surrounding creativity, the arts, and creative problem solving and suggest future applications of creativity in the mathematics classroom.
Five QTL hotspots for yield in short rotation coppice bioenergy poplar: The Poplar Biomass Loci
Anne M Rae, Nathaniel Street, Kathryn Robinson, Nicole Harris, Gail Taylor
BMC Plant Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-9-23
Abstract: QTL mapping identified regions of genetic control for biomass yield. We mapped consistent QTL across multiple coppice cycles and identified five robust QTL hotspots on linkage groups III, IV, X, XIV and XIX, calling these 'Poplar Biomass Loci' (PBL 1–5). In total 20% of the variation in final harvest biomass yield was explained by mapped QTL. We also investigated the genetic correlations between yield related traits to identify 'early diagnostic' indicators of yield showing that early biomass was a reasonable predictor of coppice yield and that leaf size, cell number and stem and sylleptic branch number were also valuable traits.These findings provide insight into the genetic control of biomass production and correlation to 'early diagnostic' traits determining yield in poplar SRC for bioenergy. QTL hotspots serve as useful targets for directed breeding for improved biomass productivity that may also be relevant across additional poplar hybrids.There is currently a new wave of interest in the use of biomass as a renewable fuel source, both for heat and electricity production as well as for liquid transport fuels such as bioethanol, from biochemical fermentation or bio-oil from thermo-chemical conversion. This is particularly true for second generation lignocellulosic crops that are unlikely to compete with food crops on agricultural land. Irrespective of end use, yields of current second generation crops remain a limiting factor to commercial establishment, since they are largely unimproved, with current commercial yields falling far short of both theoretical and experimental yield maxima [1]. Fast-growing tree species such as poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix) that can be grown as short-rotation coppice (SRC) represent one of the most appealing sources of renewable biomass feedstock [2] and have significant yield potential [3]. SRC crops are easy to establish, provide a fuel source that is multi-functional, as well as offering secondary benefits such as low nutrie
The Role of Flagella in Clostridium difficile Pathogenesis: Comparison between a Non-Epidemic and an Epidemic Strain
Soza T. Baban, Sarah A. Kuehne, Amira Barketi-Klai, Stephen T. Cartman, Michelle L. Kelly, Kim R. Hardie, Imad Kansau, Anne Collignon, Nigel P. Minton
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073026
Abstract: Clostridium difficile is a major cause of healthcare-associated infection and inflicts a considerable financial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Disease symptoms range from self-limiting diarrhoea to fatal pseudomembranous colitis. Whilst C. difficile has two major virulence factors, toxin A and B, it is generally accepted that other virulence components of the bacterium contribute to disease. C. difficile colonises the gut of humans and animals and hence the processes of adherence and colonisation are essential for disease onset. Previously it has been suggested that flagella might be implicated in colonisation. Here we tested this hypothesis by comparing flagellated parental strains to strains in which flagella genes were inactivated using ClosTron technology. Our focus was on a UK-outbreak, PCR-ribotype 027 (B1/NAP1) strain, R20291. We compared the flagellated wild-type to a mutant with a paralyzed flagellum and also to mutants (fliC, fliD and flgE) that no longer produce flagella in vitro and in vivo. Our results with R20291 provide the first strong evidence that by disabling the motor of the flagellum, the structural components of the flagellum rather than active motility, is needed for adherence and colonisation of the intestinal epithelium during infection. Comparison to published data on 630Δerm and our own data on that strain revealed major differences between the strains: the R20291 flagellar mutants adhered less than the parental strain in vitro, whereas we saw the opposite in 630Δerm. We also showed that flagella and motility are not needed for successful colonisation in vivo using strain 630Δerm. Finally we demonstrated that in strain R20291, flagella do play a role in colonisation and adherence and that there are striking differences between C. difficile strains. The latter emphasises the overriding need to characterize more than just one strain before drawing general conclusions concerning specific mechanisms of pathogenesis.
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