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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1585 matches for " Radiotherapy "
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Impact of Postoperative Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy on Survival for Patients with Node Positive Oral Cancer  [PDF]
Mohamed Mahmoud, Tarek Shouman, Hesham Elhosseny, Mona Aboelenin, Mohamed Amin
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.411A001

Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare between the use of post-operative concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy alone on survival for patients with high risk oral cavity tumors at the National cancer Institute of Egypt, undergoing surgery and receiving adjuvant treatment. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study, which was carried out at the National Cancer Institute (Cairo University) on patients with node positive oral cavity cancer diagnosed between the year 2000 and 2008. The study included 60 patients (45 males and 15 females) with median age 57 years old. The patients underwent surgery, followed by postoperative radiotherapy 60 Gy/6 weeks versus postoperative radiotherapy 60 Gy/6 weeks with concurrent cisplatin 100 mg/m2 at day 1, day 22 and day 43. Results: Regarding use of concurrent chemotherapy, there was a significant difference in overall survival rate and locoregional control favoring patients who received concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 3 years and 5 years overall survival rates respectively were 53.8% and 40.4% compared to 37.5% and 26.3% for patients who didnt receive any chemotherapy with (p < 0.038) for 5 years. Regarding age, there was a significant difference in overall survival rate favoring patients ≤57 years in both arm groups, 3 years and 5 years overall survival rates respectively were 51.6% and 38.9% compared to 28.3% and 18.9% for patients >57 years with (p < 0.028) for 5 years.

Involved Nodal Radiotherapy vs. Involved Field Radiotherapy after Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Early Stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma  [PDF]
Hamdy M. Zwam, Emad E. Habib, Mustafa E. AL-Daly
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.41034

Aim of work: This study is a prospective randomized trial aiming to investigate whether radiotherapy volume can be reduced without loss of efficacy from involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) to involved node radiotherapy (INRT) after four cycles of ABVD chemotherapy in the treatment of early stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Patients and Methods: Between September 2009 and January 2012, all patients with newly diagnosed early-stage favorable and unfavorable Hodgkin’s lymphoma attending to the Clinical Oncology department of Cairo University, faculty of medicine were enrolled into this study after a written consent was obtained from those cases enrolled. Patients were assigned to receive (ABVD) for four cycles followed by randomization for radiotherapy into two arms one arm of 30 Gy INRT +/ 6 Gy to residual disease or another arm of 30 Gy IFRT +/ 6 Gy to residual disease. Results: 35 patients were enrolled in this study: 16 patients in the INRT arm and 19 patients in the IFRT arm. The median observation time was 25 months. The overall survival for all eligible patients was 97% and freedom from treatment failure was 85.7%. Survival rates at the end of the study revealed no differences between INRT and IFRT arms. Also, in terms of complete remission post radiotherapy (14 versus 15), relapse (1 versus 4), and death (0 versus 1) respectively the outcome was similar in both arms. As regard acute and sub-acute toxicities no significant difference could be detected between both arms except that IFRT arm was associated with a higher incidence of radiation pneumonitis (4 versus 1 patient). Conclusion: Radiotherapy volume size reduction from IFRT to INRT after ABVD chemotherapy for four cycles produces similar results and less toxicity in patients with early-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma especially in patients with mediastinal disease.

Proteomic Profile Modification of Anaplastic Medulloblastoma after in-Vivo Radiotherapy: A Case Study  [PDF]
C. Zanini, D. Baci, G. Mandili, M. Leone, I. Morra, M. Forni
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2010.12017
Abstract: Medulloblastoma (MDB) is an aggressive tumor of Central Nervous System (CNS). Radiotherapy after radical surgery has an important role in treatment of standard and high risk patients and is followed by intensive chemotherapy. To explore modifications of protein expression induced by in vivo radiotherapy proteomic analysis was performed on a case of Anaplastic MDB. 2D-gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry detected qualitative differences of protein expression in Anaplastic MDB at diagnosis and in relapse after radiotherapy. Relevant proteomic data were confirmed by western blot and Real-Time PCR analysis, validating the presence of Sthatmin 1 (STMN1), Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), HSP27 and Disulfide Isomerase (ER60) among the six proteins present in both samples. The most relevant modification induced by radiotherapy was a drastic reduction of the total number of proteins (60.6%) and the appearance of few new proteins. The modifications and the striking simplification of proteins expressed by the tumor after radiotherapy may allow to tailor subsequent chemotherapy on a rational basis. A proteomic guided chemotherapy may be of great benefit to patients.
Management of Painful Bone Metastases: The Interaction between Radiation Therapy and Zoledronate  [PDF]
Rossella Di Franco, Mariagrazia Calvanese, Mariagrazia Cuomo, Roberto Manzo, Paola Murino, Salvatore Cappabianca, Vincenzo Ravo
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.25094
Abstract: Background: Advanced cancers frequently metastasize to bone, and the presence of bone metastases is the most common cause of cancer-related pain. Pain management requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves the use of analgesics, bisphosphonates, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery. The aim of our study was to evaluate the enhancement of radiotherapy on painful bone metastases in patients treated also with bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the differences in benefit on pain and on quality of life comparing two groups of treatment. The first group comprised 104 patients treated with Radiotherapy (RT), the second one included 50 patients treated with radiotherapy associated to zoledronic acid (RT + Z). All patients completed before, during and after treatment, a questionnaire that rated the grade of pain, the pharmacological type of analgesic therapy and patient’s performance status. For each patient a total score was calculated, from a minimum value of 0% to a maximum of 20%, then expressed as a percentage. Patients were classified as responder if at the follow-up reported a reduction of over 20% of the initial score, no-change if there was a reduction of between 0% and 20%, progression if there was an increasing of the score. Results: In the group RT + Z we found fewer patients that started radiation therapy with severe pain (16% vs 32%), no patient had pain of grade 10, and a higher proportion of asymptomatic patients (12% vs 4%) was observed. In the RT alone group a higher percentage of patients started treatment assuming strong opioid more than once a day (26% vs 24%) and a reduction in number of these patients was about 14% compared with the reduction of 23.6% observed in the group RT + Z. Furthermore an increased total score was calculated only in the 6% of patient belonged to group RT alone. Finally, in the group RT + Z responder patients are 52%, compared to 36% of the RT group, non-responder were 36% versus 60% in the RT. The risk of adverse events (Pz) in the RT + Z was Pz = 0.36, with an odds (Oz) equal to 0.56, while the risk of adverse events (Pc) in the RT group was Pc = 0.60 with an odds (OC) of 1.5. The odds ratio was OR = 0.37, showing a value in favor of treatment RT + Z. Conclusions: In our retrospective observational study it is relevant a clear potentiation of benefit effects related to palliative radiation therapy in patients receiving also bisphosphonate therapy, so obtaining a better control over pain, a decreased need for pain relief and consequently an improved quality of life.
Organ Preservation in Bilharzial Bladder Cancer in Egypt: Single Institutional Experience  [PDF]
Hamza Abbas, Mohamed Abdel Aboziada, Mostafa Elsayed Abdalwanis, Mohamed Abdallah El-Gmal, Ahmed Mokhtar, Mohamed Ahmed Abo-Almagd, Farouk Morad Amr, Ashraf Elyamany
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.31008
Abstract: Background: Phase II study was conducted to evaluate bladder preservation protocol in Bilharzial and non Bilharzial invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) bladder cancer using gemcitabine and conformal radiotherapy (RT). Methods: 30 TCC patients with good performance status and renal function subjected to maximum trans-urethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). Patients received 66 Gy/33 fractions/6.5 weeks with weekly gemcitabine 125 mg/m2. Evaluation was done after one month with cystoscopy and CT/MRI pelvis. Patients who had complete remission (CR) subjected for follow up and patients who had invasive bladder tumor subjected to radical cystectomy. Results: 24 patients had CR after one month evaluation. Stage 2 tumor, low grade, non Bilharzial and maximum TUR were the only prognostic factors. The treatment schedule was tolerable and was associated with infrequent incidence of moderate toxicity that was easily controlled without interruption of RT. Cystectomy free survival was 88% at a median follow up for 2 years. Conclusions: Gemcitabine and conformal RT after TURBT treatment could be an effective way to achieve a high response rate in the treatment of invasive TCC of the bladder with good tolerance. Organ preservation in Bilharzial bladder is still possible.
A Model for the Characterization and Selection of Beeswaxes for Use as Base Substitute Tissue in Photon Teletherapy  [PDF]
Rogério Matias Vidal, Divanízia do Nascimento Souza
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.34032
Abstract: This paper presents a model for the characterization and selection of beeswaxes for use as base substitute tissue for the manufacture of objects suitable for external radiotherapy using megavoltage photon beams. The model of characterization was divided into three distinct stages: 1) verification of aspects related to the origin of the beeswax, the bee species, the flora in the vicinity of the beehives and procedures to detect adulterations; 2) evaluation of physical and chemical properties; and 3) evaluation of beam attenuation capacity. The chemical composition of the beeswax evaluated in this study was similar to other simulators commonly used in radiotherapy. The behavior of the mass attenuation coefficient in the radiotherapy energy range was comparable to other simulators. The proposed model is efficient and enables convenient assessment of the use of any particular beeswax as a base substitute tissue for radiotherapy.
Overview of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast  [PDF]
Papa Macoumba Gaye, Abdoul Aziz Kassé
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.52028

We review relevant publications on ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in the past three years and we discuss pattern of outcome lightened by new molecular approach and techniques of radiotherapy.

A Retrospective Study of Clinicoepidemiological Aspects of Nasopharyngeal Cancer at NCI-Cairo (2000-2010)  [PDF]
Hebatallah K. Ibrahim, Tarek Shouman, Azza Niazy Taher, Azza M. Nasr, Hesham Atef
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.611105
Abstract: Aim of Work: The aim of this work was to study the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), analyse the prognostic factors of the disease and to analyse the results of different treatment modalities and their effect on loco-regional, distal metastatic disease control and both overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective study reviewing all adult nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients who presented to the radiotherapy department—National Cancer Institute Cairo University in the period from (2000-2010). Results: In this study, it was found that the mean age was 45 years; most of the patients were of locally advanced stages. Multivariate cox proportional hazards regression identified T-stage, radiotherapy course completion & addition of chemotherapy as independent prognostic factors for local control (LC), DFS, & OS. The 5-year LC, DFS and OS rates for all studied patients were 38.2%, 33.5% & 37.2% respectively. The median DFS was 26 months and median OS was 36.5 months. Conclusion: This study matches the published data that support that radical concurrent chemoradiation is the mainstay of treatment of locally advanced NPC, & that T-stage, M-stage, prescribed dose completion, response to initial treatment are independent prognostic factors for survival. All measures should be taken to improve the local response during primary treatment as this will improve survival rates of patients with NPC.
A Retrospective Study of the Treatment Results & Patterns of Failure of Type II Endometrial Cancer Patients Treated at Radiotherapy Department, NCI, Cairo University during the Period from January 2000 till December 2012  [PDF]
Mohamed Serag, Mohamed Mahmoud, Ahmed Seleem, Mervat Elnagar
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.78063
Abstract: Aim of the study: To identify all clinico-pathological data, different treatment modalities and the different prognostic factors which affected the locoregional control (LC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) of Type II endometrial cancer patients. Patients and methods: Data of Type II endometrial carcinoma patients who presented to the Radiation Oncology department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University during the period from (2000-2012) were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Multivariate analysis identified stage as an independent prognostic factor for OS & DFS, and age was an independent prognostic factor for DFS and LC. Low pretreatment hemoglobin levels significantly affected OS. Conclusion: Large and multicentric clinical trials are required to further study this group of patients and define optimum treatment modalities.
Simple EPR/Alanine Dosimeter for Medical Application  [PDF]
Mohamed A. Morsy
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2012.24022
Abstract: Linac x-ray and direct gamma irradiation sources were used in this study to irradiate simple polycrystalline alanine- in-glass (AiG) dosimeters with low-doses, typical for medical therapy, and high-doses, typical for syringes’ sterilization processe, respectively. The generated “stable” alanine radicals were quantitatively investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in the presence of an external standard reference (Mn2+/MgO) to correct for spec- trometer sensitivity variation. The results indicated that the de-amination of L-alanine is the main reaction to form the “stable” radical and the AiG-dosimeter gives comparable sensitivity for both low and high radiation doses. Moreover, a linear EPR-radiation dose response is observed over a very wide range, from 0 to 50 kGy, which is contrary to what has been reported by Bruker BioSpin using alanine’s pellet. This linear response and the well-known doses’ cumulative characteristics of alanine are in favor of the use of this simple dosimeter in ample medical applications, particularly the conventional radiotherapy treatment per patient.
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