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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 34184 matches for " Rachel Thomas "
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Depressive Symptoms in Spouses of HIV Infected Individuals: A Study of HIV Uninfected Caregivers in Pune, India  [PDF]
Manisha V. Ghate, Thomas D. Marcotte, Hrishikesh D. Rangnekar, Rachel Meyer, Maiko Sakamoto, Sanjay M. Mehendale
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.51001
Abstract: Background: HIV infected individuals are at increased risk of developing psychiatric comorbidities, particularly depression. Coping with a disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality and financial stress is likely to result in psychiatric morbidity even among caregivers, especially family members. However, there is scarcity of such data in HIV uninfected caregiver spouses. Material and Methods: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), a diagnostic tool that measures depressive symptoms, was administered to HIV uninfected caregiver spouses of HIV infected individuals (n = 55) and HIV seronegative individuals from general population (n = 63) with similar demographic profile. Chisquare test was used for categorical data. Results: Caregiver spouses exhibited higher depressive symptoms on the BDI-II (mean score 5.25 vs. 3.03; p = 0.029) as compared to others. The scores tended to be higher on the majority of the items, with sadness (p = 0.032), punishment feeling (p = 0.024) and crying (p = 0.037) being statistically significant. Conclusions: Our results indicate that it is important to address the mental health needs of the spouses of HIV infected individuals as they may play a major role in their care and support in the Indian contex
Liposarcoma: Molecular Genetics and Therapeutics
Rachel Conyers,Sophie Young,David M. Thomas
Sarcoma , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/483154
Abstract: Sarcomas are a group of heterogeneous tumours with varying genetic basis. Cytogenetic abnormalities range from distinct genomic rearrangements such as pathognomonic translocation events and common chromosomal amplification or loss, to more complex rearrangements involving multiple chromosomes. The different subtypes of liposarcoma are spread across this spectrum and constitute an interesting tumour type for molecular review. This paper will outline molecular pathogenesis of the three main subtypes of liposarcoma: well-differentiated/dedifferentiated, myxoid/round cell, and pleomorphic liposarcoma. Both the molecular basis and future avenues for therapeutic intervention will be discussed.
Liposarcoma: Molecular Genetics and Therapeutics
Rachel Conyers,Sophie Young,David M. Thomas
Sarcoma , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/483154
Abstract: Sarcomas are a group of heterogeneous tumours with varying genetic basis. Cytogenetic abnormalities range from distinct genomic rearrangements such as pathognomonic translocation events and common chromosomal amplification or loss, to more complex rearrangements involving multiple chromosomes. The different subtypes of liposarcoma are spread across this spectrum and constitute an interesting tumour type for molecular review. This paper will outline molecular pathogenesis of the three main subtypes of liposarcoma: well-differentiated/dedifferentiated, myxoid/round cell, and pleomorphic liposarcoma. Both the molecular basis and future avenues for therapeutic intervention will be discussed. 1. Introduction An estimated 13,000 people were diagnosed with soft tissue and bone sarcoma in 2009 in America, of which liposarcomas constitute 20% [1, 2]. Despite their rarity these tumours have substantial morbidity and mortality, depending on histological subtype, tumour location, and volume with retroperitoneal sarcomas having particularly poor prognosis [3–9]. Liposarcomas may be classified morphologically into 3 main subtypes consisting of: well-differentiated liposarcoma/de-differentiated liposarcoma (WD/DDLPS), myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MLPS) and pleomorphic liposarcoma (PLPS) [10]. The morphological diversity of liposarcoma reflects the great variation in biological behaviour ranging from tumours with low metastatic potential, that is, WDLPS, to tumours with high propensity to metastasise, that is, the round cell (RC) variant of MLPS or PLPS [11]. In addition to histological characteristics, anatomical location impacts upon prognosis, given that local control is a prime concern for curative intent. Treatment is multimodal with surgical removal and radiotherapy used as cornerstones for local control, along with chemotherapy for systemic disease. Few therapeutic options are available for aggressive local or metastatic disease. Chemotherapy sensitivity varies considerably between subtypes with higher response rates in MLPS compared with WD/DDLPS (48% versus 11%) [12]. MLPS tumours are also highly radiosensitive [13, 14]. Given the small subgroup that is chemo-sensitive, and the overriding lack of chemo-curative disease there are avenues and a need for novel molecular therapies. A recent histological and molecular review of 163 liposarcoma and lipomas at the Netherlands Cancer Institute resulted in 23% of tumours being reclassified based on cytogenetic information. This highlights the importance of molecular classification in these tumours and genetic
Spin texture of generic helical edge states
Alexia Rod,Thomas L. Schmidt,Stephan Rachel
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We study the spin texture of a generic helical liquid, the edge modes of a two-dimensional topological insulator with broken axial spin-symmetry. By considering honeycomb and square lattice realizations of topological insulators, we show that in all cases the generic behavior of a momentum-dependent rotation of the spin quantization axis is realized. Here we establish this mechanism also for disk geometries with continuous rotational symmetry. Finally, we demonstrate that the rotation of spin-quantization axis remains intact for arbitrary geometries, i.e. in the absence of any continuous symmetry. We also calculate the dependence of this rotation on the model and material parameters. Finally we propose a spectroscopy measurement which should directly reveal the rotation of the spin-quantization axis of the helical edge states.
Tipping points near a delayed saddle node bifurcation with periodic forcing
Jielin Zhu,Rachel Kuske,Thomas Erneux
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We consider the effect on tipping from an additive periodic forcing in a canonical model with a saddle node bifurcation and a slowly varying bifurcation parameter. Here tipping refers to the dramatic change in dynamical behavior characterized by a rapid transition away from a previously attracting state. In the absence of the periodic forcing, it is well-known that a slowly varying bifurcation parameter produces a delay in this transition, beyond the bifurcation point for the static case. Using a multiple scales analysis, we consider the effect of amplitude and frequency of the periodic forcing relative to the drifting rate of the slowly varying bifurcation parameter. We show that a high frequency oscillation drives an earlier tipping when the bifurcation parameter varies more slowly, with the advance of the tipping point proportional to the square of the ratio of amplitude to frequency. In the low frequency case the position of the tipping point is affected by the frequency, amplitude and phase of the oscillation. The results are based on an analysis of the local concavity of the trajectory, used for low frequencies both of the same order as the drifting rate of the bifurcation parameter and for low frequencies larger than the drifting rate. The tipping point location is advanced with increased amplitude of the periodic forcing, with critical amplitudes where there are jumps in the location, yielding significant advances in the tipping point. We demonstrate the analysis for two applications with saddle node-type bifurcations.
Gender difference in symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis in the Knee Clinical Assessment – CAS(K): A prospective study in the general population
Rosie J Lacey, Elaine Thomas, Rachel C Duncan, George Peat
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-9-82
Abstract: A community-based prospective study. 819 adults aged ≥50 years reporting knee pain in the previous 12 months were recruited by postal questionnaires to a research clinic involving plain radiography (weight-bearing posteroanterior semiflexed, supine skyline and lateral views), clinical interview and physical examination. Any knee ROA, ROA severity, tibiofemoral joint osteoarthritis (TJOA) and patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (PJOA) were defined using all three radiographic views. Occupational class was derived from current or last job title. Proportions of each gender with symptomatic knee ROA were expressed as percentages, stratified by age; differences between genders were expressed as percentage differences with 95% confidence intervals.745 symptomatic participants were eligible and had complete X-ray data. Males had a higher occurrence (77%) of any knee ROA than females (61%). In 50–64 year olds, the excess in men was mild knee OA (particularly PJOA); in ≥65 year olds, the excess was both mild and moderate/severe knee OA (particularly combined TJOA/PJOA). This male excess persisted when using the posteroanterior view only (64% vs. 52%). The lowest level of participation in the clinic was symptomatic females aged 65+. Within each occupational class there were more males with symptomatic knee ROA than females. In those aged 50–64 years, non-articular conditions were equally common in both genders although, in those aged 65+, they occurred more frequently in symptomatic females (41%) than males (31%).The excess of knee ROA among symptomatic males in this study seems unlikely to be attributable to the use of comprehensive X-ray views. Although prior occupational exposures and the presence of non-articular conditions cannot be fully excluded, selective non-participation bias seems the most likely explanation. This has implications for future study design.Gender differences in the occurrence of knee osteoarthritis are well documented. Population studies in developed
Lentiviral-mediated gene correction of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA
Anson Donald S,McIntyre Chantelle,Thomas Belinda,Koldej Rachel
Genetic Vaccines and Therapy , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-0556-5-1
Abstract: Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA) is the most common of the mucopolysaccharidoses. The disease is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme sulphamidase and results in the storage of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG), heparan sulphate. MPS IIIA is characterised by widespread storage and urinary excretion of heparan sulphate, and a progressive and eventually profound neurological course. Gene therapy is one of the few avenues of treatment that hold promise of a sustainable treatment for this disorder. Methods The murine sulphamidase gene cDNA was cloned into a lentiviral vector and high-titre virus produced. Human MPS IIIA fibroblast cultures were transduced with the sulphamidase vector and analysed using molecular, enzymatic and metabolic assays. High-titre virus was intravenously injected into six 5-week old MPS IIIA mice. Three of these mice were pre-treated with hyperosmotic mannitol. The weight of animals was monitored and GAG content in urine samples was analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results Transduction of cultured MPS IIIA fibroblasts with the sulphamidase gene corrected both the enzymatic and metabolic defects. Sulphamidase secreted by gene-corrected cells was able to cross correct untransduced MPS IIIA cells. Urinary GAG was found to be greatly reduced in samples from mice receiving the vector compared to untreated MPS IIIA controls. In addition, the weight of treated mice became progressively normalised over the 6-months post-treatment. Conclusion Lentiviral vectors appear promising vehicles for the development of gene therapy for MPS IIIA.
Development of Case Stories by Interviewing Students about their Critical Moments in Science, Math, and Engineering Classes
Vicki V. May,Thomas H. Luxon,Kathy Weaver,Rachel Esselstein
Numeracy , 2008,
Abstract: Dartmouth’s Critical Moments project is designed to promote discussions among faculty and graduate students about the retention of students, particularly women and minorities, in science, math, and engineering (SME) disciplines. The first phase of the ongoing project has been the development of four case stories, which are fictionalized composites drawn from surveys and interviews of real Dartmouth students. The surveyed population was 125 students in general chemistry. Of the 77 who agreed to be interviewed, 61 reported having experienced a critical moment – i.e., a positive or negative event or time that had a significant impact on the student’s academic life. Leading critical moments were a poor grade on an exam; challenge from group work; excitement from an internship; and falling in love with a non-SME discipline from other coursework. Interviews of 13 students who had negative critical moments led to the development of case stories for: Antoinetta ’09, who had a disappointing group experience; Dalila ’08, who was poorly prepared; Greg ’09, who got in over his head in his first year; and Michelle ’08, who was shocked by her result in the first exam. The case stories are being discussed by graduate students, TA and faculty in various workshops at the Dartmouth Center for the Advancement of Learning.
Production of Phase Screens for Simulation of Atmospheric Turbulence
Rachel Rampy,Don Gavel,Daren Dillon,Sandrine Thomas
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1364/AO.51.008769
Abstract: The ability to simulate atmospheric turbulence in the lab is a crucial part of testing and developing astronomical adaptive optics technology. We report on the development of a technique for creating phase plates, which involves the strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of these plates is described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried's parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2 - 1.2 mm, with a Kolmogorov power law. These phase plates have been successfully used by the lab for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz, in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed, as part of the Villages (Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments) calibration system, and during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager. This method has proven to be an effective and low cost means to simulate turbulence. We are now distributing the plates to other members of the AO community.
Crumpling a Thin Sheet
Kittiwit Matan,Rachel Williams,Thomas A. Witten,Sidney R. Nagel
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.076101
Abstract: Crumpled sheets have a surprisingly large resistance to further compression. We have studied the crumpling of thin sheets of Mylar under different loading conditions. When placed under a fixed compressive force, the size of a crumpled material decreases logarithmically in time for periods up to three weeks. We also find hysteretic behavior when measuring the compression as a function of applied force. By using a pre-treating protocol, we control this hysteresis and find reproducible scaling behavior for the size of the crumpled material as a function of the applied force.
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