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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3295 matches for " Rachel Ellerson "
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Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women in Cape Town, South Africa: Drug Use, Sexual Behavior, and the Need for Comprehensive Services
Hendrée E. Jones,Felicia A. Browne,Bronwyn J. Myers,Tara Carney,Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson,Tracy L. Kline,Winona Poulton,William A. Zule,Wendee M. Wechsberg
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/353410
Abstract: The multiple risks associated with methamphetamine use are of serious concern for women. These risks and consequences are magnified during pregnancy. This secondary analysis of a parent study compared 26 pregnant to 356 nonpregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa, on selected demographic, psychosocial, and HIV-risk domains to identify their treatment service needs. Proportionally, more pregnant than nonpregnant women are using methamphetamine, =.01, although a very high rate of women used methamphetamine. Women reported similar monthly rates of sexual intercourse, but pregnant women were significantly less likely to report condom use, <.0001, maintaining their risky behavior. Both groups reported elevated Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale CES-D means, suggesting a need for depression treatment. Results demonstrate a pervasive need for women's comprehensive treatment, regardless of pregnancy status. Moreover, findings support the urgent need for women-focused and pregnancy-specific treatment services for methamphetamine use. Finally, a job-skills training/employment component focus is suggested.
Initial Feasibility of a Woman-Focused Intervention for Pregnant African-American Women
Hendrée E. Jones,Nancy D. Berkman,Tracy L. Kline,Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson,Felicia A. Browne,Winona Poulton,Wendee M. Wechsberg
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/389285
Abstract: African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.
Double jeopardy--drug and sex risks among Russian women who inject drugs: initial feasibility and efficacy results of a small randomized controlled trial
Wendee M Wechsberg, Evgeny Krupitsky, Tatiana Romanova, Edwin Zvartau, Tracy L Kline, Felicia A Browne, Rachel Ellerson, Georgiy Bobashev, William A Zule, Hendrée E Jones
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-7-1
Abstract: Women (N = 100) were randomized into one of two one-hour long intervention conditions--the Woman-Focused intervention (n = 51) or a time and attention-matched Nutrition control condition (n = 49).The results showed that 57% of the participants had been told that they were HIV-positive. At 3-month follow-up, both groups showed reduced levels of injecting frequency. However, participants in the Woman-Focused intervention reported, on average, a lower frequency of partner impairment at last sex act and a lower average number of unprotected vaginal sex acts with their main sex partner than the Nutrition condition.The findings suggest that improvements in sexual risk reduction are possible for these at-risk women and that more comprehensive treatment is needed to address HIV and drug risks in this vulnerable population.Russia is an emerging epicenter of the global HIV epidemic [1], accounting for 66% of all newly registered HIV cases in Eastern Europe and Eurasia [2]. The geographical nexus of Russia's HIV epidemic is St. Petersburg, with an HIV prevalence rate of 30-47% among injecting drug users (IDUs) [3]. Additionally, 80-90% of the HIV cases in St. Petersburg are associated with IDUs, many of whom are unaware of their HIV status [4-6]. Further, HIV morbidity is reported to be highest among IDUs in St. Petersburg [7].In earlier studies, Russian women in general and female IDUs in particular appeared to be at high risk of HIV, but HIV prevalence among them was relatively low [8,9]. However, between 1996 and 2006, the number of HIV-infected women increased rapidly from 29% to 44% [2,9]. In St. Petersburg, HIV prevalence among female IDUs was estimated to be 20% [10]. Consequently, there is a critical need to address the HIV risks of female IDUs [11-13].Because of the multifaceted risks women face, they are at high risk for contracting and spreading HIV. For example, sharing contaminated injecting equipment and sexual transmission are the main causes of HIV infection fo
Initial Feasibility of a Woman-Focused Intervention for Pregnant African-American Women
Hendrée E. Jones,Nancy D. Berkman,Tracy L. Kline,Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson,Felicia A. Browne,Winona Poulton,Wendee M. Wechsberg
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/389285
Abstract: African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. 1. Introduction The risk of contracting HIV is one of the most devastating health threats African-American women who use crack cocaine face. HIV prevalence rates among African-American women range from a low rate of 1.7% among noninjecting drug users who do not trade sex to a high rate of 54% among homeless African-American women, many of whom trade sex for drugs and survival items [1–5]. Crack cocaine use also has been repeatedly associated with increased sexual activity; if the sex is unprotected, unplanned pregnancies and HIV can result [6, 7]. African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. These social circumstances may produce situations where these women engage in multiple high-risk HIV behaviors [8]. Furthermore, the combination of crack, alcohol use, and sexual-risk behaviors (e.g., trading sex for drugs or survival items, inconsistent condom use, multiple partners) place African-American women at greater risk for HIV infection than other drug-using groups [9]. Many of these crack-using African-American women lack self-sufficiency, rely on public assistance for long durations, are often unstably housed, experience repeated episodes of homelessness, have no or scanty employment records, lack education and job skills, and live in poverty [9–15]. The lives of substance-using African-American women also are often characterized by inflicting or being a victim of violence, crime, childhood and current sexual, physical, and emotional victimization, as well
Does the Behavioral Science Curriculum in a Private College Fit the Needs of the Job Market?  [PDF]
Rachel Pasternak
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.52016
Abstract:

The perception of knowledge as consumer goods appeared with the development of private education and reflects a marketing or consumer needs approach. The consumer-needs approach sees advantages in adapting higher education to the needs of the consumer. This article examines whether the behavioral science curriculum (scope, and content) in the private college is based on the approach of knowledge as consumer goods. In addition, what is the level of satisfaction expressed by the alumni of the course, i.e. those who completed the curriculum? The study used a multi-method approach, combining textual analysis of archived documents and an online questionnaire survey of 250 alumni. The results: the scope and contents of the curriculum were only partially affected by this approach. Nonetheless, the graduates were very satisfied with the curriculums contribution to their personal and professional skills and occupations.

Drones under International Law  [PDF]
Rachel Alberstadt
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.44023
Abstract: There is a notable absence of legal approaches to the discourse evaluating use of drones. Even when drones are discussed in a legal context, arguments assert that drones require a new legal regime to adapt to modern qualities and circumstances. In the alternative, this paper argues that drones compatibly fit into existing legal regimes, particularly international criminal law (ICL) and international humanitarian law (IHL) in accordance with general principles of international law. This paper argues that use of drones in armed conflict fits within existing laws governing use of force as the frameworks in use today. It demonstrates that ICL and IHL provide flexible guidelines appropriately suitable to particulars of drones, such as types and capabilities, but more importantly, they continue to provide legal governance applicable to drones as weapons. Legal uncertainty as to the use of drones is thus evaluated within the hypothetical exploration of drone usage culminating in a war crime before the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Has the Status of “Maximum Sustainable Yield” Become an International Customary Rule?  [PDF]
Rachel Alberstadt
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.54025
Abstract: The concept of maximum sustainable yield has emerged as a popularly accepted concept for the benefit of the environment, yet the practical implementation of this concept and the dubious acceptance by fisherman of its lawfulness provides the CORE discussion of this article. Customary law exists as a two pillared system depending both on an element of practice in addition to the belief that the behavior in question is lawfully mandated. As such, for customary status to apply to maximum sustainable yield, this requires both pillars. This article therefore evaluates the application of the customary status to maximum sustainable yield and in doing so, demonstrates that maximum sustainable yield is itself an implementation of the greater notion of sustainable development as a whole.
Significance of Prenuptial Rituals as Ethnic Definitional Ceremonies among Immigrants  [PDF]
Rachel Sharaby
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2017.72005
Abstract: This article adopts the paradigm that claims the non-disappearance of the ritual and ritual changes in modern and postmodern society. A wedding is an event in which a group of people speaks to itself and about itself. Images of the social structure and cultural content, of couplehood, family and personal and group identity surface through this cultural act. Weddings and their customs thus comprise a window through which the social values of a group can be observed, be it a modern or a traditional society. The anthropological study of the prenuptial rituals of immigrants from Georgia to Israel, and my experience with the ethnic pride of the celebrators, most of them young, lead me to conclude that these rituals serve as collective ethnic definitional ceremonies for them, where crossing between ethnicity, culture and identity takes place. The new ritual tradition in Israel fulfills an important role in the identity of the youths of this community and in the solidarity of the Georgian family and community. Tradition was processed anew and interpreted through the renewed ritual patterns, and became intertwined with modernity. A process of syncretism was thus created.
Agents of Patriarchy Teach Gender  [PDF]
Rachel Sharaby
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2019.91002
Abstract: This article discusses veteran instructors who were employed by the ab-sorbing establishment as instructors for women immigrants from Yemen who settled in moshav-type cooperative settlements in Israel. The findings indicate that the instruction messages in the first stage after the Yemenite immigrants settled on the land included a blurring of gender. However, differential instruction was created when the permanent homes were constructed: male instructors taught the men the hard physical labor, and female instructors taught the women their roles within the domestic sphere. The instruction system recruited to the new moshav-type cooperative settlements thus perpetuated the gender division of labor and used an effective “tool” for transmitting the patriarchic messages of the absorbing establishment.
Higher Education—Educating for Higher Order Skills  [PDF]
Rachel Or-Bach
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47A2004
Abstract:

Preparing college students for a knowledge-based economy is a challenge that requires curriculum design that puts more emphasis on learning skills than on content to be taught. Cognitive skills should be practiced in a context of some content, but the choice of content, the choice of the learning environment, and the choice of the assessment procedures can enhance the development of such skills. In this paper we present these choices for a course that was specially designed to provide a motivating and engaging context that requires the use of higher order cognitive skills. The title of the course is “Design of computer-based games and interactive stories” and it is provided to students with no prior exposure to computer programming. At the end of the course students are required to submit an interactive artifact (a game or a story) implemented in Scratch, which is a visual programming environment. In this qualitative study we present the results from a thematic analysis of students’ post-course reflection reports.

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