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The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of different regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) strategies on productivity, oil quality and water-use efficiency on olive grown in the Sonoran Desert. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010, and in a ten years old traditional (10 × 5 m) “Manzanilla” olive orchard. The control treatment was irrigated at 100% ETc during the whole season while RDI treatments were applied at 75% ETc or 50% ETc. The two RDI were applied during two phenological stages: at postharvest to evaluate the effect on table olive or from pit hardening to harvest to evaluate the effect on oil olive. Our results indicated that RDI applying 50% ETc during postharvest period reduced significantly fruit set and table olive yield, while applied during pit hardening to harvest period, it decreased oil yield but increased oil content. The RDI applying an ETc of 75% during the postharvest period gave similar table olive yield to the control, and applied form of pit hardening to harvest also gave similar oil yield to the control. The RDI using an ETc of 75% resulted in the highest water-use efficiency for oil or table olive production.
Stoichiometric mixtures of FeO and Y2O3 were milled and heat treated to obtain yttrium iron garnet, Y3Fe5O12.
Two types of heating systems were used: one, a spark plasma sintering machine
and the second, an electrical oven. The magnetic properties of the resulting
specimens have been analyzed and discussed as a function of the grain size and
the particles’ morphology. The partial formation of garnet and orthoferrite
phases was revealed on the obtained powder through microstructural analyses
after 9 h of ball milling. The milled powders were transformed into the orthoferrite
phase after the SPS-treatment at 700°C and 900°C. Magnetic-saturation studies
revealed magnetic responses up to 12.7 emu/g for specimens SPS-treated at 700°C,
whereas 2.1 emu/g for samples SPS-treated at 900°C. Conventionally treated
specimens at 700°C developed 0.36 emu/g of magnetization, while 0.93 emu/g was
registered for those treated at 900°C.