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Iron-Restricted Erythropoiesis in a Population of Elderly Hospitalized Anemic Patients  [PDF]
Torbj?rn Karlsson
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2012.22006
Abstract: The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of iron-restricted erythropoiesis (IRE) in a population of elderly hospitalized anemic patients. Prevalence of IRE was found to be 41% and the most common clinical diagnoses in such patients were hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Comparison between patients with IRE and non-IRE patients revealed that mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, iron, and transferrin saturation were significantly lower in the IRE group, whereas no significant difference was found for Hb, transferrin, or ferritin. There was a more pronounced inflammatory response in the IRE group demonstrated by a higher C-reactive protein level.
Application of Pedagogical Perspectives in the Teaching and Training of New Cataract Surgeons—A Literature-Based Essay  [PDF]
Bj?rn Johansson
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2013.33015
Abstract:

Cataract is the most common cause of visual impairment that can be effectively treated by surgery and cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the world. With modern cataract operation techniques, patients expect excellent results. Teaching and training of new surgeons involve both pedagogical and ethical challenges for teachers and trainees, and also may pose a potential risk to patients. This literature-based essay aims to describe how behavioristic, cognitive and conceptual learning perspectives can be recognized during the trainee surgeons progress. It also describes how teacher-pupil relationships may vary during the training process. Finally it presents the concept of situational tutorship, where the teacher adapts to the stages that the trainee passes through with increasing experience. Teaching and trainee surgeons who are aware of pedagogical concepts such as teacher-pupil relationships and tutoring strategies may use this knowledge to optimize the learning process. Further research is needed to clarify how using this knowledge may affect the training of new cataract surgeons.

Iron-Restricted Erythropoiesis in Anaemic Patients with Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica  [PDF]
Torbj?rn Karlsson
Open Journal of Blood Diseases (OJBD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbd.2013.31010
Abstract:

The aim of this observational study was to biochemically characterize the anaemia in GCA (giant cell arteritis) and PMR (polymyalgia rheumatica) patients. Values for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and soluble transferrin receptor were normal, whereas serum iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were subnormal, and mean ferritin was above the upper reference limit. Iron-restricted erythropoiesis (IRE), defined as a bone marrow smear staining positive for iron in combination with transferrin saturation less than 20%, was present in all patients. All patients exhibited clinical and biochemical signs of active inflammation with elevated C-reactive protein and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

Reviewing the Learning Process through Creative Puzzle Solving  [PDF]
Bj?rn Petter Jelle
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.813137
Abstract: Human beings are at a continuous learning process at various levels and with different motivations during their whole lifetime. Puzzle solving may beneficially be applied to increase the motivation, enhance the mastering apprehension, promote the creative processes, expand the ability to engage and solve miscellaneous challenges from various viewpoints, and hence lead to an improved learning process and problem solving capability. That is, the application of puzzles may lead to better learning and increased knowledge in general, stimulating the reasoning process and the apprehension of the need for both creativity and hard work. Thus, teachers of both students and teachers may find it beneficial to utilize the art of puzzle solving. Typically, the puzzles are very suitable for and mostly used in mathematics and natural science classes. Nevertheless, the puzzles are in general also applicable for any type of class. The aim of this study is to examine and discuss the learning process through applying creative puzzle solving as a teaching tool. These aspects are illustrated through a review of several selected puzzle examples.
Industrial Progress: New Energy-Efficient Absorbents for the CO2 Separation from Natural Gas, Syngas and Flue Gas  [PDF]
J?rn Rolker, Matthias Seiler
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2011.14039
Abstract: The CO2 separation from natural gas, syngas or flue gas represents an important industrial field of applications. An economic and energy-efficient CO2 separation from these gas streams is a prerequisite for sustainable industry contributions to the megatrends resource efficiency and globalization of technologies. One way of reducing operational expenditure for these separation processes is the development of better performing CO2 absorbents. Although a number of absorbents for the separation of CO2 from process gas streams exist, the need for the development of CO2 absorbents with an improved absorption performance, less corrosion and foaming, no nitrosamine formation, lower energy requirement and therefore less operational expenditure remains. Recent industrial activities have led to the development of novel high-performance CO2 scrubbing agents that can be employed in numerous industrial processes such as natural gas treatment, purification of syngas and the scrubbing of flue gas. The objective of this paper is to introduce these new high-performance scrubbing agents and to compare their performance with other state-of-the-art absorbents. It turned out, that the evaluated absorbents offer high cyclic capacities in the range of 2.4 to 2.6 mol CO2/kg absorbent and low absorption enthalpies (–30 kJ/mol) allowing for distinctive savings in the regeneration energy of the absorbent. Calculations with the modified Kremser model resulted in a reduction of the specific reboiler heat duty of 55%. Furthermore, the absorbents are less corrosive than standard amines as indicated by the measured corrosion rates of 0.21 mm/y versus 1.18 mm/y for a piperazine/methyldiethanolamine mixture. Based on new experimental results it is shown how substantial savings in operational and capital expenditure can be realized due to favorable absorbent properties. The novel high-performance CO2 system solutions meet recent industrial absorbent requirements and allow for more efficient or new CO2 separation processes.
Limited Focus on the Use of Health Care by Elderly Migrants—A Literature Review  [PDF]
Katarina Hjelm, Bj?rn Albin
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.46049
Abstract:

Our premise for this literature review is the global demographic change caused by the world’s population living longer and becoming older, and extensive international migration leading to multicultural societies. Increasing age leads to health problems, often long-term or chronic, requiring investments in health care. Worse health and dissimilarities in pattern of morbidity/ mortality have been found in foreign-compared to Swedish-born persons, so it is reasonable to assume that this affects use of health care. The exploratory review focuses on elderly migrants’ (>65 years) use of healthcare. The databases Pub Med, EBSCO, CINAHL and ERIC were searched in 2000-2013. A limited number of studies were found; few had a comparative approach, most were from the USA, and focused on migrants from the former Soviet Union or countries in South-East Asia. A range of factors were identified that influence patterns of health care use: language fluency, ability to communicate, self-reported health status, prevalence of chronic disease, physical distance from care provision, availability of transport to reach care, cost of care, the health insurance system, cultural norms and values regarding different forms of care, level of education, and length of residence in the host country. Most studies treated health care from a general perspective and collected data from community and hospital settings, without analysing usage separately. Some studies indicated elderly migrants making use of health care less than other groups but the pattern is not unambiguous: other studies show that there is an overuse of health care. It is therefore difficult to show any particular pattern, or possible differences in use, regarding community versus in-patient care. Studies focusing on migrants’ actual use of health care are few and further research is needed, especially because elderly people form the largest group of users of health care and will be even larger in the future.

Peeling Potatoes as Health Promotion? Self-Perceived Benefits of Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers in a Norwegian Volunteer Centre  [PDF]
Anita Berg, Oddbj?rn Johansen
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.54016
Abstract: In recent years, voluntary work undertaken by older people has been viewed as a possible way to link aging populations with individual and societal needs related to healthy aging. Based on focus group interviews, the study aims to clarify how volunteering is maintained in older populations and examines how older adults (aged 65+years) in a Norwegian volunteer centre perceived the benefits of volunteering. The results of the study highlight the importance of the volunteer centre as a place in which to participate and be social, for a sense of belonging to a fellowship of co-volunteers, and as an arena for personal growth and adaption to old age. These aspects were described by the volunteers as health promoting. Additionally, the context of the voluntary work, as the volunteer activities and the way they were organized, was significant for their experiences. From these findings, it is a need for in-depth studies of the dynamics of everyday volunteer work in order to gain a better understanding of the relationship between self-rated health benefits and the organizational contexts in which older adults retain to work voluntarily.
Cement Bonded Particle Boards with Different Types of Natural Fibres—Using Carbon Dioxide Injection for Increased Initial Bonding  [PDF]
Bj?rn Marteinsson, Edgar Gudmundsson
Open Journal of Composite Materials (OJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2018.81003
Abstract: The effect of CO2 injection on initial strength increase and hardening of cement-fibre mix in a cement bonded particle board (CBPB) production was evaluated. Different cement contents, formation pressure and types of fibres were considered. The initial strength increase with CO2 injection is so much faster than this caused by conventional hydration that the produced samples do not need additional curing before they can be stored. Similar strength and stiffness values as in conventional products on the market are gained with lower cement content for similar types of fibres. Visual inspection of board surfaces aged for 13 years in a harsh exterior environment as well as comparison of strength and stiffness values for these boards when new and after ageing, gives a very satisfying result. The combined effect of the above discussed gains results in markedly increased productivity at lower cost and lower environmental impacts than is possible in traditional CBPB production.
Wildlife-community conflicts in conservation areas in Kenya
RN Okech
African Journal on Conflict Resolution , 2010,
Abstract: Kenya is rich in biological diversity to which wildlife resources contribute a significant proportion. Many of the regions with abundant and diverse wildlife communities remaining in East Africa are occupied by pastoralists. Recent studies show that the majority of the local people around protected areas have negative feelings about state policies and conservation programmes. The alienation of grazing land for the exclusive use of wildlife and tourists has a very direct impact upon the pastoralist communities, and prompts them to raise questions about African wildlife policy – as if it leads to a ‘people versus animals’ conflict. Nevertheless, large areas of pastoral rangelands have been expropriated for exclusive wildlife conservation use. This has commonly been justified by the argument that pastoralists overstock, overgraze and damage their range while wild animals are seen as existing in harmony with their surroundings. Wildlifehuman conflicts, therefore, are a consequence of the problem of resource utilisation in conservation areas. Such conflicts do not solve this problem, however, but adversely affect the biodiversity. They harm people and property, and lead to the retaliatory killing of wildlife in 82% of the protected areas. This paper reviews literature that seeks to address the important issue of wildlifehuman conflicts and also explores the aspects of pastoralism and conservation in Kenya.
Anaesthesia and ARV
RN Rodseth
Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia , 2006,
Abstract:
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