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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18741 matches for " RG;Almeida Paz "
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Tibial dyschondroplasia and bone mineral density
Almeida, Paz ICL;Mendes, AA;Takita, TS;Vulcano, LC;Guerra, PC;Wescheler, FS;Garcia, RG;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2004000400003
Abstract: this study was carried out at faculdade de medicina veterinária e zootecnia, unesp, botucatu-sp, brazil. the aim was to establish the normal values of bone mineral density (bmd) expressed in millimeters of aluminum in the tibia of broiler chickens using optical densitometry of radiographs. four hundred cobb male chicks were reared from 1 to 40 days of age, when 40 of them were selected and the right femur-tibia articulation was radiographed. radiographs were taken with the x-ray equipment calibrated for 45 kvp and 3.2 mas and a focus-to-film distance of 90 cm. an aluminum phantom astm-6063 consisting of 20 ladder steps with graduate density was placed parallel to the area to be radiographed and used as a densitometry reference standard. radiograph images were analyzed using the software athena - sia. the proximal growth plate of the right tibia epiphysis was used as the standard reading region. the inclination axis of the reading window was 0 and the window was 10 mm high and 40-45 mm wide, depending on the bone size. optical densitometry values of the radiographs ranged from 1.46 to 1.77 mmal, and the coefficient of variation was 9.93%. it was concluded that densitometry values beyond the range established in the present study might indicate the presence of bone alteration in the tibia of broilers.
Litter materials and the incidence of carcass lesions in broilers chickens
Garcia, RG;Almeida Paz, ICL;Caldara, FR;N??s, IA;Bueno, LGF;Freitas, LW;Graciano, JD;Sim, S;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2012000100005
Abstract: the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different litter materials on litter compaction, broiler feathering and the incidence of carcass lesions. in the experiment, 3240 one-day-old ross? chicks were selected by sex and distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement (two sex and six litter materials). the following litter materials were used: wood shavings, rice husks, chopped napier grass, 50% sugar cane bagasse plus 50% wood shavings, 50% sugar cane bagasse plus 50% rice husks, and pure sugar cane bagasse. litter compaction was weekly assessed using a penetrometer. on days 21, 35 and 42 of the experimental period, feathering on the back and legs was scored according to a 0 - 10 scale. on day 42, birds were slaughtered and the presence of bruises, scratches and footpad lesions was recorded. litter material had no effect on bird feathering. carcass lesions (scratches, bruises and footpad lesions) were influenced by the litter material evaluated. birds reared on sugarcane bagasse and chopped napier grass presented more scratches, bruises and footpad lesions than the others. dermatitis was more evident in birds reared on sugarcane bagasse, chopped napier grass and the combination of litter materials. it was found that males presented higher incidence of dermatitis and footpad lesions than females. each litter material presented different compaction degrees, which increased along the experimental period. sugarcane bagasse, chopped napier grass and the combination of bedding materials presented the highest degree of compaction, compared with wood shavings and rice husks.
Efficiency of prebiotics and probiotics on the performance, yield, meat quality and presence of Salmonella spp in carcasses of free-range broiler chickens
Takahashi, SE;Mendes, AA;Saldanha, ESPB;Pizzolante, CC;Pelícia, K;Quinteiro, RR;Komiyama, CM;Garcia, RG;Almeida Paz, ICL;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2005000300003
Abstract: two trials were carried out in the present study. trial i evaluated the performance, carcass yield and breast meat quality, whereas trial ii evaluated the efficacy of utilizing prebiotics + probiotics on the control of salmonella spp incidence in the carcasses of free-range broilers. in trial i, 688 one-day-old male chicks of the naked neck label rouge strain were used, distributed in a randomized block design arranged according to a 2 x 2 factorial: control diet or diet supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics; and two rearing systems (confined or with access to paddocks - 3m2/bird), using four replicates with 35 birds each. the birds were reared until 84 days of age following the recommendations of management and nutrition for free-range strains, and had access to paddocks after 35 days of age. water and food were given inside the experimental poultry house. birds fed probiotics and prebiotics in the diet and the confined birds showed better performance, carcass yield and meat quality compared to the birds of the other treatments. in trial ii, 128 one-day-old male chicks of the free-range naked neck label rouge strain were used. the birds were distributed into four treatments: ncc (non-challenged control), ncs (non-challenged supplemented), cc (challenged control) and cs (challenged supplemented). there were no significant effects of adding probiotics and prebiotics in the diet in regard to salmonella enteritidis recovery from the carcasses.
Infrared thermography applied to the evaluation of metabolic heat loss of chicks fed with different energy densities
Ferreira, VMOS;Francisco, NS;Belloni, M;Aguirre, GMZ;Caldara, FR;N??s, IA;Garcia, RG;Almeida Paz, ICL;Polycarpo, GV;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2011000200005
Abstract: brazil must comply with international quality standards and animal welfare requirements in order to maintain its position as world's largest exporter of poultry meat. with the scenario of global climate change there is the forecast of occurrence of extreme events with characteristics of both excess cold and heat for several regions of the country. this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using images of infrared thermography to evaluate the loss of sensible heat in young broilers fed different dietary energy levels. twenty birds were reared in a house with appropriate brooding using infrared lamps. birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental into two treatments: t1 (control diet with 2950 kcal me/kg-1), and t2 (high-energy diet with 3950 kcal me/kg-1). infrared thermographic images of the birds were recorded for four consecutive days. one bird was randomly chosen per treatment, and had special images taken and analyzed. average surface temperature of the body area was calculated using the surface temperature recorded at 100 spots (50 at the front and 50 at the lateral side of the bird's body). mean surface temperature of the flock was calculated recording 100 spots on the group of birds. total radiant heat loss was calculated based on the average data of surface temperature. the results indicated that the young broilers fed the high-energy diet presented a metabolic energy loss equivalent to 0.64 kcal h-1, while the birds fed with the control diet lost 2.18 kcal h-1. this finding confirms that oil supplementation to the diet reduces bird heat loss. the infrared camera was able to record young broilers' surface temperature variation when birds were fed diets with different energy contents.
Effect of the litter material on drinking water quality in broiler production
Garcia, RG;Almeida, Paz ICL;Caldara, FR;N??s, IA;Pereira, DF;Freitas, LW;Schwingel, AW;Lima, NDS;Graciano, JD;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2010000300005
Abstract: considering the importance of drinking water and its effect on broiler performance, drinking water quality was studied using six different litter materials. the presence of coliform bacteria and escherichia coli was investigated. the following litter materials were used in the trial: wood shavings, rice husks, chopped napier grass (pennisetum pupureum), 50% sugarcane bagasse (saccharum l.) + 50% wood shavings, 50% sugarcane bagasse (saccharum l.) + 50% rice husks, and plain sugarcane bagasse (saccharum l.). a number of 1620 ross? one-day-old chicks were reared in 54 pens measuring 4.5 m2 each, equipped with a bell drinker and a tube feeder. water samples were collected in sterile tubes on days 28 and 42 of the rearing period, and submitted to the laboratory for analyses. microbiological data were organized by classes expressed in a logarithm scale, where the lowest contamination corresponds to class 1 and the highest contamination to class 4. results showed that total coliform contamination was higher on day 28 than in the end of the rearing period, and that e. coli presence was detected during both analyzed periods. the litter materials that presented lower degree of water contamination, predominantly class 1, were sugarcane bagasse and 50% of sugarcane bagasse and 50% of rice husks.
Incidence and physical properties of PSE chicken meat in a commercial processing plant
Garcia, RG;Freitas, LW de;Schwingel, AW;Farias, RM;Caldara, FR;Gabriel, AMA;Graciano, JD;Komiyama, CM;Almeida Paz, ICL;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2010000400003
Abstract: it is known that pse meat present important functional defects, such as low water holding capacity and ultimate ph, which may compromise the quality of further-processed meat products. in this study, l* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) values of 500 chicken breast fillets were determined using a portable colorimeter (minolta, model cr-400) in a commercial processing plant. fillets were considered pale when their l* was >49. out of those samples, 30 fillets with normal color and 30 pale fillets were evaluated as to ph, drip loss, cooking loss, water holding capacity, shear force, and submitted to sensorial analysis. an incidence of 10.20% pse meat was determined. pale and normal fillets presented significantly different (p<0.05) ph values, l* and a* values, water holding capacity, drip loss, and cooking loss, demonstrating changes in the physical properties of pse meat. shear force and sensorial characteristics were not different (p>0.05) between pale and normal fillets. despite the significant differences in meat physical properties, these were not perceived by consumers in terms of tenderness, aspect, and flavor. the observed incidence of pse may cause losses due to its low water retention capacity.
Selecting appropriate bedding to reduce locomotion problems in broilers
Almeida Paz, ICL;Garcia, RG;Bernardi, R;N??s, IA;Caldara, FR;Freitas, LW;Seno, LO;Ferreira, VMOS;Pereira, DF;Cavichiolo, F;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2010000300008
Abstract: two experiments were carried out at the poultry sector of the school of agrarian sciences of the federal university of grande dourados to evaluate the incidence of leg problems in broilers reared on two distinct types of bedding material: rice husks or wood shavings, both new and reused. in both trials, a randomized experimental design was applied in factorial arrangement (2 x 2 x 2) using two genetic strains (cobb? or ross?); two sexes (male or female), and two litter materials (rice husks or wood shavings). in each trial 1080 one day pullets were reared equally divided in the treatments. the birds were placed in 4.5 m2 boxes at a density of 10 birds m-2. all birds were fed diets with equal nutritional density, and water was offered ad libitum. feeds were divided in three phases: starter diet (1 - 21 days), grower diet (22 - 35 days), and finisher diet (36 - 45 days). on day 45, fifty birds were randomly selected in each experiment to evaluate flock leg problems. the following parameters were analyzed: gait score, incidence of valgus and varus disorder, footpad dermatitis, femoral degeneration, tibial dyschondroplasia, and spondylolisthesis. ambient temperature during rearing and litter caking and moisture content were recorded in four boxes per treatment. the analytical hierarchy process was used to organize the data into specific criteria. several criteria, related to the attributes that were determinant according to the statistical analysis, were chosen in order to provide the best input to the process. results indicated that new wood-shavings bedding was the most appropriate bedding to prevent locomotion problems, followed by new rice husks, reused wood shavings, and reused rice husks. however, when leg problems were associated to sex and genetic strain, male ross birds strain presented less problems when reared on new rice husks, followed by new wood shavings
Chicken meat quality as a function of fasting period and water spray
Komiyama, CM;Mendes, AA;Takahashi, SE;Moreira, J;Garcia, RG;Sanfelice, C;Borba, HS;Leonel, FR;Almeida Paz, ICL;Balog, A;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2008000300008
Abstract: this study aimed at evaluating the effect of different fasting periods and water spray during lairage on the quality of chicken meat. a number of 300 male ross broilers were reared up to 42 days of age, and submitted to four pre-slaughter fasting periods (4, 8, 12, and 16 hours) and sprayed with water or not during lairage. deboned breast meat was submitted to the following analysis: ph, color, drip loss, water retention capacity, cooking loss, and shear force. there was a significant effect (p < 0.05) of fasting period on meat luminosity was significantly different, with the highest value obtained for 4-hour fasting, whereas no difference was found among the other fasting periods. meat ph values were different among fasting periods when birds received water spray, with birds fasted for 4, 8, and 12 hours of fasting presenting lower meat ph values (5.87, 5.87, and 6.04, respectively). the interaction between fasting period and water spray influenced meat drip loss and cooking loss, with birds fasted for 16h and not receiving water spray presenting higher drip loss (4.88) and higher cooking loss (28.24) as compared to the other birds. fasting period affects meat quality, and very short periods (4h) impair meat quality.
Comparison of techniques for tibial dyschondroplasia assessment in broiler chickens
Almeida Paz, ICL;Mendes, AA;Takita, TS;Vulcano, LC;Guerra, PC;Wechsler, FS;Garcia, RG;Takahashi, SE;Moreira, J;Pelícia, K;Komiyama, CM;Quinteiro, RR;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2005000100005
Abstract: this study was carried out at faculdade de medicina veterinária e zootecnia, universidade estadual paulista, botucatu, sp, brazil, with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of four techniques in the assessment of tibial dyschondroplasia lesions in broiler chickens. four hundred cobb male chicks were reared from 1 to 39 days of age. at 39 days, forty birds were selected and tibial dyschondroplasia status was assessed by four different techniques: evaluation using the lixiscope, macroscopic examination, histological examination and bone mineral density assessment using optical radiographic densitometry. the efficacy of each technique to assess dyschondroplasia lesions in the tibial growth plate was determined in comparison to histology, which was considered to be 100% efficient. the correlation results between lixiscope analysis and histology were poor. macroscopic scores and densitometry readings were highly correlated with histology scores, and it is considered that these techniques reliably reproduce the status of the growth plate.
Bone mineral density of tibae and femura of broiler breeders: growth, development and production
Almeida Paz, ICL;Mendes, AA;Quinterio, RR;Vulcano, LC;Takahashi, SE;Garcia, RG;Komiyama, CM;Balog, A;Pelícia, K;Wescheler, FS;Scudeller, PSO;Piccinin, A;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2006000200002
Abstract: the aim of this study was to follow-up the physiological variations in the development of the bone tissue, associating them with the egg production curve. this study was carried out in the facilities of the faculdade de medicina veterinária e zootecnia of the unesp, botucatu, brazil. twenty-three families of ross broiler breeders were used, each family consisting of 13 females and 1 male, distributed in 23 pens of 5.0m2 each. the management was that recommended by the genetic company manual (agroceres ross, 2003), with daily feeding until 6th week of age; and birds were fed according to a 5:2 schedule (5 days fed, 2 days of fasting) between 7 and 17 weeks of age, returning to daily feeding starting at 18 weeks of age. birds did not receive afternoon calcium supplementation. on the fourth week of rearing, 84 females were removed for bone analyses of the right tibia and femur, using optical densitometry in radiographic images technique. these analyses were sequentially carried out in 4, 8, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30, 35, 42, 47, and 52 week-old birds. the egg production curve of the birds was followed-up and associated to bone mineral density results. for bone mineral density evaluation (bmd) birds were divided by weight categories as light, intermediate, or heavy within each data age. bmd values of the tibias were not influenced by weight range, but by the age at collection. on the other hand, interactions were found among femur bmd values and weight and age categories. there was no correlation between eggshell quality and femur bmd. a negative correlation (-0.15) was observed between tibia bmd and eggshell percentage. it was possible to conclude that the egg production has little influence on bone mineral density of the birds probably because there was no need of bone mineral mobilization during the production period, since the observed egg production was below that observed under commercial conditions.
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