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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 912 matches for " RC;Grassi "
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PP65 antigenemia in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS patients
Capela, RC;Grassi, A;Souza, LR;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992012000100013
Abstract: cytomegalovirus causes significant morbidity and mortality in aids patients and those having undergone bone marrow or another transplant. pp65 antigenemia is based on detecting viral antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes through immunochemistry and by monitoring the infection in immunocompromised individuals. the present study aimed to set up this diagnostic technique in aids patients with active cytomegalovirus infection and verify its occurrence in the botucatu region of s?o paulo state, brazil. fifty patients, 35 men and 15 women aged from 24 to 69 years, were recruited from those attended at the department of tropical diseases of botucatu medical school, unesp, and divided into three groups according to cd4+ t lymphocyte counts and antiretroviral treatment. the control group comprised bone marrow transplant patients. fourteen aids patients with low cd4+ cell counts tested positive for pp65 antigenemia, which could predict cytomegalovirus infection and indicate prophylactic treatment.
Side effects of selection in laboratory animals
RC Roberts
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1978, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-10-1-143b
Europe: history, current situation and control measures for infectious bronchitis
Jones, RC;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2010000200009
Abstract: the emergence and nature of different strains of infectious bronchitis virus (ibv) in europe are described. infectious bronchitis (ib) is the most important endemic viral respiratory disease where highly pathogenic newcastle disease and avian influenza are not present. ib was first described in the uk in 1948 and identified as massachusetts type. in the 1970s and 80s new serotypes were reported in holland and elsewhere and new vaccines were developed. the 1990s saw the emergence of the major variant commonly called 793b, again needing a new vaccine. two novel types have been recognised since 2000, italy 02 and qx. italy 02 appears to be well controlled by the use of two different live vaccines (h120 and the 793b-related 4/91) while for qx, associated with nephritis in young birds and silent layers, new vaccines are in development. the use of two vaccines as above is a widely used protocol and is capable of protecting against a wide range of different types. alternative approaches to ib vaccination are discussed. the importance of constant surveillance for prevalent and novel ibv types is emphasised and the value of experimental infections in chickens to determine the pathogenesis and pathology of new types in addition to testing efficacy of vaccines is outlined.
Parametric analysis of rail vehicle parameters influencing ride behavior
RC Sharma
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents the influence of rail vehicle parameters on vertical and lateral ride behavior. The analysis considers coupled vertical-lateral 37 degrees of freedom mathematical model of an Indian Railway General Sleeper ICF coach formulated using Largangian dynamics. Both vertical and lateral irregularities of the railway track, considered as random function of time are incorporated in analysis. The ride analysis of the mathematical model suggests that discomfort frequency range lies from 4 to 10.5 Hz and improvements in the design of rail vehicle coach are required for better ride comfort. It is seen from parametric analysis that car body mass, secondary suspension vertical damping, primary suspension vertical damping and wheel base are the most sensitive parameters influencing vertical ride. While lateral ride is significantly influenced by car body mass, roll & yaw mass moment of inertia and secondary suspension lateral stiffness.
The ageing eye
RC Amod
Continuing Medical Education , 2007,
Zooplankton biomass to chlorophyll ratios in relation to trophic status within and between ten South African reservoirs: Causal inferences, and implications for biomanipulation
RC Hart
Water SA , 2011,
Abstract: Rising eutrophication in South African reservoirs is of major concern, leading to the consideration of top-down biomanipulation as a management option – reducing zooplankton-eating fish to sustain zooplankton grazing pressure and thus restrict autotrophic plankton that proliferate with nutrient increases. The biomass ratio of zooplankton to phytoplankton (ZB/PB) is used as an index of the likely value of biomanipulation to achieve this outcome, but values have not been explored for South African systems. Using chlorophyll (Chl) as a surrogate for PB, available ZB/Chl data are assembled for the first time for ten reservoirs of three types (minerally-turbid systems, oligo/mesotrophic clear water systems, and eutrophic/hypertrophic systems), and the results are discussed in relation to a generalised conceptual model proposed. With the exception of one minerally-turbid system, ZB/Chl values decline quasi-exponentially with rising chlorophyll within individual reservoirs. Conversely, between individual systems, median (or mean) values of ZB/Chl conversely increase rather than decline with rising trophic status – broadly contradicting observations reported elsewhere. Underlying causal reasons for the observed pattern and its implications for biomanipulation are considered. This assessment evaluates: the negative impacts of general declines in food quality that stem from rising eutrophication on zooplankton feeding ability and resulting seasonal changes in ZB and community structure; prospects of food sources other than living autochthonous autotrophs in sustaining ZB between systems; and inferences about fish predation pressure on zooplankton, derived from empirical data regarding the large body sizes of species and individuals of Daphnia that occur in the reservoirs. Observed increases in median ZB/Chl ratios with rising nutrient status are consistent with the inference that obligate visual zooplanktivorous fishes are scarce or absent, particularly in eutrophic reservoirs, suggesting that biomanipulative management is unlikely to assist in controlling the consequences of nutrient enrichment in local reservoirs.
Access to adequate water in post-apartheid South African provinces: An overview of numerical trends
RC Nnadozie
Water SA , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents an insight into water service access and demand, with a numerical review of official data from the national household survey from 1995 to 2006, and the 1996 and 2001 census data. The findings show that in provinces (Eastern Cape, Limpopo and Mpumalanga) where the existing service base is low, with a relatively high level of outmigration leading to a decrease in household numbers, the annual rate of delivery is lower than in other areas and percentage access has risen marginally (from about 68% to 70%). In provinces (North West, Northern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal) where the existing service base is higher, with relatively lower levels of out-migration, there is a marginal change in household numbers and the annual rate of delivery is higher and percentage access has risen remarkably (from about 72% to 88%). In the provinces (Gauteng, Western Cape and Free State) with the most favourable initial conditions, that is, where the existing service base is the highest, there is a remarkable change in household numbers, possibly as a result of in-migration and the annual rate of delivery is quite sustainable. Percentage access rises at an early stage and remains stable at the limiting value of about 98%.
Phytoplankton dynamics and periodicity in two cascading warm-water reservoirs from 1989 to 1997 – taxonomic and functional (C-S-R) patterns, and determining factors
RC Hart
Water SA , 2005,
Abstract: The composition and abundance of distinctive planktonic autotrophs (ca 60 taxa) were examined at roughly fortnightly intervals in two sizeable reservoirs (Midmar and Albert Falls) on the uMngeni River, KwaZulu-Natal, between 1989 and 1997. The dynamics of community structure and abundance were examined in both taxonomic and functional (C-S-R) terms in relation to physical abiotic variables (thermal stratification, light climate, water level) and biotic influences of predation (zooplankton abundance). Annual periodicity was exhibited by most taxa apart from Cryptomonas, although patterns tended to be indistinct and inter-annual repeatability was generally weak – in line with year-to-year and between-system environmental variability. Water level fluctuation, with concomitant change in stratification intensity and hydraulic mixing and accompanying changes in water clarity associated with suspended sediment levels was clearly a major (direct and indirect) determinant of phytoplankton composition and abundance. The influence of top-down controls as inferred from phytoplankton-zooplankton relationships was fundamentally different in the two reservoirs – potentially stimulatory in Midmar, but clearly regulatory in Albert Falls, where episodic collapses of Daphnia populations resulted in chlorophyll values well into the eutrophic level range. In addition to annual patterns, changes in chlorophyll content implied progressive long-term changes in trophic status, especially in Albert Falls, with the emergence of various ‘new' taxa (and/or higher peak densities of others). Consideration of phytoplankton dynamics in terms of functional groups offers certain advantages over conventional phyletic taxonomic analyses, although algal response forecasting by either approach appears potentially constrained by hydrological variability. Site-specific bio-monitoring, possibly using new rapid technologies, is likely to be necessary for ongoing management purposes until predictive capabilities under regionally characteristic conditions improve. Despite limitations, functional classification proffers faster advances to this end than conventional taxonomic appraisal. Water SA Vol 32(1)pp:81-92
Food web (bio-)manipulation of South African reservoirs – viable eutrophication management prospect or illusory pipe dream? A reflective commentary and position paper
RC Hart
Water SA , 2006,
Abstract: An overview of prospects and limitations for the application of ‘classical' top-down biomanipulation as a management tool to ameliorate the consequences of eutrophication under the conditions applicable to reservoirs in South Africa is presented. This is structured by considering successive stages in reservoir food-web structure and function as far as can be generalised for South African biophysical conditions. Features and conditions that influence the potential vulnerability of local reservoirs to the effects of eutrophication, and prospects for its amelioration by biomanipulation intervention are examined. Physical factors linked to latitude (irradiation pattern and water-column stability) enhance the potential severity of eutrophication consequences in local reservoirs, although conversely, these are offset by suspended-clay turbidity. The predominance of Microcystis in local eutrophic waters is perceived as a primary major constraint in implementing ‘classical' food-web manipulation. Intrinsic limitations on the ability of zooplankton grazers to control this cyanobacterium, and subsequent food-web linkages widely applicable in local reservoirs are discussed and evaluated accordingly. On balance, available evidence indicates a range of limitations that are likely to apply in respect of familiar contemporary approaches to biomanipulation in use today, although the uniqueness of each reservoir ecosystem is recognised. Some novel alternative management approaches are suggested, and a range of associated research requirements necessary to advance locally relevant scientific comprehension of ‘biomanipulation' and its application are itemised. National revitalisation of reservoir limnology remains paramount. Water SA Vol.32 (4) 2006: pp.567-575
The Concept of a "Decision" as the Threshold Requirement for Judicial Review in terms of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act
RC Williams
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2011,
Abstract: The Promotion of Administrative Justice Act 3 of 2000 defines administrative action as “any decision [of a specified kind]" taken by specified persons or entities. The Act goes on to define decision as “any decision of an administrative nature made, proposed to be made, or required to be made, as the case may be”, including certain specified categories of decision. The decision in Bhugwan v JSE Ltd 2010 3 SA 335 (GSJ) highlights the distinction between a “decision”, as so defined (which may be amenable to judicial review in terms of the Act) and an inchoate decision (that is not amenable to such review).. The judgment in this case is, to date, the only judicial authority in South Africa on this critical threshold requirement to be established by any applicant for judicial review in terms of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act.
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