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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 486054 matches for " R. S. Mulholland "
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Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of a Novel Home-Use Device with Diode Arrays and Contact Heating for Facial Skin Rejuvenation  [PDF]
J. Shaoul, R. S. Mulholland
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2011.14018
Abstract: Background: Phototherapy of photoaged skin has been attempted by lasers or intense pulsed light at the visible or near-infrared part of the spectrum. The use of red Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) delivering a low dose energy to the skin has been described for office and home use. Methods: In the present study, a portable home-use device is presented that combines fractional non-thermal red LED with mild contact heating. Forty subjects aged 30 - 55 presenting with facial lax skin, large pores, fine lines, wrinkles and brown pigmentation received 8 bi-weekly treatments for 4 weeks, using the Silk’n Reju/FaceFX device (Home Skinovations, Yokneam, Israel). Skin condition was evaluated before and 1, 2, and 3 months following the last treatment session. Grading of outcome was done according to an independent blinded evaluator and patient satisfaction. Results: Facial skin improvement of wrinkling and skin texture were apparent immediately and scored clinically after 3 months as excellent and considerable by >90% of patients. Pigmentation improvement was less apparent. Overall facial skin improvement was noted by 77% of patients. Conclusions: The combination of fractional red LED and mild contact heating, using an at home portable device, proved to be safe and effective method to improve the quality of photoaged skin.
Non-Excisional Face and Neck Tightening Using a Novel Subdermal Radiofrequency Thermo-Coaugulative Device  [PDF]
D. H. Ahn, R. S. Mulholland, Diane Duncan, Malcolm Paul
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2011.14021
Abstract: 42 patients with broad age and ethnic demographics where treated with a novel, non-excisional, minimally invasive device to coagulate a very thin layer of sub-dermal septo-fascial fat, denature the deep reticular dermis and tighten the skin and sub-dermal matrix of connective tissue. The detailed treatment protocol and results are presented. Patients were observed for up to 6 month following the procedure. No major side effects were observed. The aesthetic outcome of this non-excisional procedure includes improvement of the position and shape of the cheek, lower lid-cheek junction, jawline and neck. The overall aesthetic results deliver a noticeable and impressive tightening of the soft-tissue and may be compared with a conservative, small excisional procedure. The authors propose this versatile device and treatment as a non-excisional, moderate facial rejuvenation procedure on its own, or as an adjunct to open procedures performed simultaneously, or as a simplified treatment for secondary skin laxity in combination with a lift procedure.
Safety and Efficacy of a Thermally Regulated Radiofrequency Home-Device for Rhytide and Laxity Treatment  [PDF]
Judith Hellman, Hela Goren, R. Stephen Mulholland
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2015.53020
Abstract: The growth of the medical aesthetic industry is tremendous, and not surprisingly, has been followed by the introduction of new novel technologies for home use. This study focuses on the Silk’n Home Skin Tightening (HST), a home use device that uses a thermally regulated radiofrequency (RF) delivery technology. This technology allows the end point dermal temperatures to be sustained safely for a prolonged period of time, optimizing the non-ablative dermal collagen, elastin and ground substance production. Enhancement of the clinical results of rhytides and laxity improvement are noted. In this study, the HST protocol and technology innovation is outlined. The results of a blinded, independent assessment of photographs before and 1 month after 20 biweekly sessions demonstrated that 96% of patients achieved an average improvement of 1.6 grades (32%) in their Fitzpatrick wrinkling and elastosis scale, with no significant complications.
The fate of nitrogen fixed by diazotrophs in the ocean
M. R. Mulholland
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2007,
Abstract: While we now know that N2 fixation is a significant source of new nitrogen (N) in the marine environment, little is known about the fate of this N (and associated C), despite the importance of diazotrophs to global carbon and nutrient cycles. Specifically, does N fixed during N2 fixation fuel autotrophic or heterotrophic growth and thus facilitate carbon (C) export from the euphotic zone, or does it contribute primarily to bacterial productivity and respiration in the euphotic zone? For Trichodesmium, the diazotroph we know the most about, the transfer of recently fixed N2 (and C) appears to be primarily through dissolved pools. The release of N varies among and within populations and as a result of the changing physiological state of cells and populations. The net result of trophic transfers appears to depend on the co-occurring organisms and the complexity of the colonizing community. In order to understand the impact of diazotrophy on carbon flow and export in marine systems, we need a better understanding of the trophic flow of elements in Trichodesmium-dominated communities and other diazotrophic communities under various defined physiological states. Nitrogen and carbon fixation rates themselves vary by orders of magnitude within and among studies of Trichodesmium, highlighting the difficulty in extrapolating global rates of N2 fixation from direct measurements. Because the stoichiometry of N2 and C fixation does not appear to be in balance with that of particles, and the relationship between C and N2 fixation rates is also variable, it is equally difficult to derive global rates of one from the other. This paper seeks to synthesize what is known about the fate of diazotrophic production in the environment. A better understanding of the physiology and physiological ecology of Trichodesmium and other marine diazotrophs is necessary to quantify and predict the effects of increased or decreased diazotrophy in the context of the carbon cycle and global change.
The fate of new production from N2 fixation
M. R. Mulholland
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: While we now know that marine N2 fixation is a significant source of new nitrogen (N) in the marine environment, little is known about the fate of this production, despite the importance of diazotrophs to global carbon and nutrient cycles. Specifically, does new production from N2 fixation fuel autotrophic or heterotrophic growth, facilitate carbon (C) export from the euphotic zone, or contribute primarily to microbial productivity and respiration in the euphotic zone? For Trichodesmium, the diazotroph we know the most about, the transfer of recently fixed N2 (and C) appears to be primarily through dissolved pools. The release of N appears to vary among and within populations and, probably as a result of the changing physiological state of cells and populations. The net result of trophic transfers appears to depend on the complexity of the colonizing community and co-occurring organisms. In order to understand the impact of diazotrophy on carbon flow and export in marine systems, we need a better assessment of the trophic flow of elements in Trichodesmium communities dominated by different species, various free and colonial morphologies, and in various defined physiological states. Nitrogen and carbon fixation rates themselves vary by orders of magnitude within and among studies highlighting the difficulty in extrapolating global rates of N2 fixation from direct measurements. Because the stoichiometry of N2 and C fixation does not appear to be in balance with the stoichiometry of particles, and the relationship between C and N2 fixation rates is also variable, it is equally difficult to derive global rates of one from the other. A better understanding of the physiology and physiological ecology of Trichodesmium and other marine diazotrophs is necessary to understand and predict the effects of increased or decreased diazotrophy in the context of the carbon cycle and global change.
Fractional Ablative Radio-Frequency Resurfacing in Asian and Caucasian Skin: A Novel Method for Deep Radiofrequency Fractional Skin Rejuvenation  [PDF]
R. Stephen Mulholland, D. H. Ahn, Michael Kreindel, Malcolm Paul
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2012.23029
Abstract: This paper reports the clinical experience of a multi-center, multiple physician trial with a novel fractional radiofrequency ablative skin resurfacing and rejuvenation device (Fractora, Invasix, Israel) deployed on both Caucasian skin types I - III and Asian skin type IV. Histological study demonstrated deep ablation and collagen restructuring in the papillary and reticular dermis. The Fractora device combines the more “cone shaped” ablation seen with CO2 and Erbium lasers with a deep non-ablative heating pattern, seen with other bipolar RF fractional needle resurfacing devices. Ablation, coagulation zones and healing dynamics are analyzed for different energy settings. Two different treatment protocols are suggested: one for light skin and then one for darker skin with a higher risk of post-inflammatory hypperpigmentation. Treatment results show improvement in skin texture, pores, wrinkles and skin dyschromia.
Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Blended Mode Diode Laser for Hair Removal  [PDF]
Michael H. Gold, Judith Hellman, Serge Dahan, R. Stephen Mulholland
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2019.91002
Abstract: Introduction: Photoepilation by lasers is a popular procedure in aesthetic dermatology for removing unwanted body and facial hair. The use of the most appropriate laser wavelength is crucial as it affects treatment depth and melanin absorption. The three commonly used hair removal lasers are of specific wavelengths: 755 nm, 810 nm, and 1064 nm, each preferred certain types of skin and hair characteristics. The current evaluation reports the safety and efficacy of unique blended modes 755/810 nm and 810/1064 nm diode lasers for hair removal. Methods: Hair removal results from 50 patients treated with the 755/810 nm handpiece and 50 patients treated with the 810/1064 nm handpiece were gathered from a few clinics. 3 treatments on various body areas were conducted 6 weeks apart and patients were followed up with 6 months after the last treatment. Results were evaluated by baseline, follow-up photographs, and hair counts. Results: Treatment area photos demonstrated hair reduction in the treated body and facial areas. Average hair count reduction at 6 months follow-up was 84% for the 755/810 nm handpiece and 81% for the 810/1064 nm handpiece
Nutrient Cycles and Marine Microbes in a CO2-Enriched Ocean
David A. Hutchins,Margaret R. Mulholland,Feixue Fu
Oceanography , 2009,
Abstract: The ocean carbon cycle is tightly linked with the cycles of the major nutrient elements nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon. It is therefore likely that enrichment of the ocean with anthropogenic CO2 and attendant acidification will have large consequences for marine nutrient biogeochemistry, and for the microbes that mediate many key nutrient transformations. The best available evidence suggests that the nitrogen cycle may respond strongly to higher CO2 through increases in global N2 fixation and possibly denitrification, as well as potential decreases in nitrification. These trends could cause nitrification to become a nitrogen cycle “bottleneck,” by increasing the flux of N2 fixed into ammonium while decreasing the fraction being oxidized to nitrite and nitrate. The consequences could include reduced supplies of oxidized nitrogen substrates to denitrifiers, lower levels of nitrate-supported new primary production, and expansion of the regenerated production system accompanied by shifts in current phytoplankton communities. The phosphorus and silicon cycles seem less likely to be directly affected by enhanced CO2 conditions, but will undoubtedly respond indirectly to changing carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry. A review of culture experiments that examined the effects of increased CO2 on elemental ratios of phytoplankton suggests that for most cyanobacteria and eukaryotes, C:N and N:P ratios will either remain at Redfield values or increase substantially. Natural plankton community CO2 manipulation experiments show much more mixed outcomes, with both increases and decreases in C:N and N:P ratios reported at future CO2 levels. We conclude our review with projections of overall trends in the cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon over the next century as they respond to the steady accumulation of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 in a rapidly changing ocean.
Springtime contribution of dinitrogen fixation to primary production across the Mediterranean Sea
E. Rahav,B. Herut,A. Levi,M. R. Mulholland
Ocean Science Discussions (OSD) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/osd-10-1-2013
Abstract: Dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates were measured during early spring across the different provinces of Mediterranean Sea surface waters. N2 fixation rates, measured using 15N2 enriched seawater, were lowest in the eastern basin and increased westward with a maximum at the Strait of Gibraltar (0.10 to 2.35 nmol N L 1 d 1, respectively). These rates were 3–7 fold higher than N2 fixation rates measured previously in the Mediterranean Sea during summertime. Moreover, comparisons between N2 fixation rates measured during dark versus natural light incubations (48 h) show higher rates during dark incubations at the eastern Mediterranean stations but lower rates at the western stations. This suggests that heterotrophic diazotrophy has a significant role in the Eastern Mediterranean while autotrophic diazotrophy has a more dominant role in the Western basin.
Growth and Nitrogen Uptake Kinetics in Cultured Prorocentrum donghaiense
Zhangxi Hu, Shunshan Duan, Ning Xu, Margaret R. Mulholland
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094030
Abstract: We compared growth kinetics of Prorocentrum donghaiense cultures on different nitrogen (N) compounds including nitrate (NO3?), ammonium (NH4+), urea, glutamic acid (glu), dialanine (diala) and cyanate. P. donghaiense exhibited standard Monod-type growth kinetics over a range of N concentraions (0.5–500 μmol N L?1 for NO3? and NH4+, 0.5–50 μmol N L?1 for urea, 0.5–100 μmol N L?1 for glu and cyanate, and 0.5–200 μmol N L?1 for diala) for all of the N compounds tested. Cultures grown on glu and urea had the highest maximum growth rates (μm, 1.51±0.06 d?1 and 1.50±0.05 d?1, respectively). However, cultures grown on cyanate, NO3?, and NH4+ had lower half saturation constants (Kμ, 0.28–0.51 μmol N L?1). N uptake kinetics were measured in NO3?-deplete and -replete batch cultures of P. donghaiense. In NO3?-deplete batch cultures, P. donghaiense exhibited Michaelis-Menten type uptake kinetics for NO3?, NH4+, urea and algal amino acids; uptake was saturated at or below 50 μmol N L?1. In NO3?-replete batch cultures, NH4+, urea, and algal amino acid uptake kinetics were similar to those measured in NO3?-deplete batch cultures. Together, our results demonstrate that P. donghaiense can grow well on a variety of N sources, and exhibits similar uptake kinetics under both nutrient replete and deplete conditions. This may be an important factor facilitating their growth during bloom initiation and development in N-enriched estuaries where many algae compete for bioavailable N and the nutrient environment changes as a result of algal growth.
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