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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223803 matches for " R Thorstrom "
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Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management – lessons from the Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, western Madagascar
J Rabearivony, E Fanameha, J Mampiandra, R Thorstrom
Madagascar Conservation & Development , 2008,
Abstract: Traditional taboos and social contracts played an important role in managing the Manambolomaty RAMSAR site. Taboos are defined as a prohibition imposed by social custom as a protective measure’ and social contracts are – in conservation sense – a common agreement for achieving conservation, sustainable development and development of resources objectives. The Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, District of Antsalova in western Madagascar, is composed of four lakes (Soamalipo, Befotaka, Ankerika and Antsamaka) surrounded by the Tsimembo deciduous forest. The first three lakes with forest surrounding encompass 14,701 ha and are being managed by two local Associations: FIZAMI (FIkambanana Zanatany Andranobe MIray) and FIFAMA (FIkambanana FAmpandrosoana Mamokatra Ankerika). The associations have used traditional taboos and social conventions to manage their local natural resources by incorporating a GELOSE (GEstion Locale SEcurisée) management system to conserve biological diversity, maintain resource sustainability and socio - economic viability. This site has the highest concentration of the endemic and critically endangered Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides), representing 10 % of the global population, and many other species of different faunal groups are also in good conservation status such as Decken’s sifaka (Propithecus deckeni) and Western lesser bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur occidentalis) and Madagascar flying fox (Pteropus rufus). Culturally, the site is known as a unique source of the endemic tree Hazomalania voyroni (Hernandiaceae), which is used by the Sakalava people for constructing coffins, and being buried in a coffin made of this wood is a great honour for the Sakalava people. From Manambolomaty’s Lakes fish yields, estimated at 60 - 100 tons per fishing season, FIZAMI and FIFAMA are one of the few Malagasy Associations with active bank accounts supported by management of their natural resources and associated activities. Their fisheries management system has increased the annual local revenue estimated at more than $ 1,562 US / fisherman per season. The tax of fish sales to wholesale fish buyers forms 56 % of the two local Commune’s budgets. This has made the Community - Based Wetlands Conservation at the Manambolomaty Lakes site well known in the conservation circles within Madagascar and has been modelled vy other organizations and associations. Consequently, the Manambolomaty Lakes site is in the process of being added into the System of Protected Areas of Madagascar (SAPM) (Figure 1).
Protected area surface extension in Madagascar: Do endemism and threatened species remain useful criteria for site selection ?
J Rabearivony, R Thorstrom, L-A R de Roland, M Rakotondratsima, TRA Andriamalala, ST Sam, G Razafimanjato, D Rakotondravony, AP Raselimanana, M Rakotoson
Madagascar Conservation & Development , 2010,
Abstract: The ‘hotspot approach’ considers that endemism and threatened species are key factors in protected area designation. Three wetland and forest sites have been proposed to be included into Madagascar’s system of protected areas (SAPM – Système des Aires Protégées de Madagascar). These sites are Manambolomaty (14,701 ha) and Mandrozo (15,145 ha) in the west and Bemanevika (37,041 ha) in the north. Biodiversity inventories of these three sites recorded 243 endemic species comprised of 44 reptiles, 54 amphibians, 104 birds, 23 small mammals, 17 lemurs and one fish. Of these 243 species, 30 are threatened taxa comprising two Critically Endangered (CR), 11 Endangered (EN) and 17 Vulnerable (VU) species. The long term ecological viability of these sites has been shown by population stability of the two Critically Endangered flagship species, the Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) in Manambolomaty and Mandrozo and the recently rediscovered Madagascar pochard (Aythya innotata) in Bemanevika. Other threatened species and high biological diversity also justifies their inclusion into Madagascar’s SAPM.
Taboos and social contracts: Tools for ecosystem management – lessons from the Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, western Madagascar
Jeanneney Rabearivony,Eloi Fanameha,Jules Mampiandra,Russell Thorstrom
Madagascar Conservation & Development , 2008,
Abstract: Traditional taboos and social contracts played an importantrole in managing the Manambolomaty RAMSAR site. Taboosare defined as a prohibition imposed by social custom as aprotective measure’ and social contracts are – in conservationsense – a common agreement for achieving conservation,sustainable development and development of resourcesobjectives. The Manambolomaty Lakes RAMSAR site, District ofAntsalova in western Madagascar, is composed of four lakes(Soamalipo, Befotaka, Ankerika and Antsamaka) surroundedby the Tsimembo deciduous forest. The first three lakes withforest surrounding encompass 14,701 ha and are being managedby two local Associations: FIZAMI (FIkambanana ZanatanyAndranobe MIray) and FIFAMA (FIkambanana FAmpandrosoanaMamokatra Ankerika). The associations have used traditionaltaboos and social conventions to manage their local naturalresources by incorporating a GELOSE (GEstion Locale SEcurisée)management system to conserve biological diversity, maintainresource sustainability and socio - economic viability. This sitehas the highest concentration of the endemic and criticallyendangered Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides),representing 10 % of the global population, and many otherspecies of different faunal groups are also in good conservationstatus such as Decken’s sifaka (Propithecus deckeni) andWestern lesser bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur occidentalis) andMadagascar flying fox (Pteropus rufus). Culturally, the site isknown as a unique source of the endemic tree Hazomalaniavoyroni (Hernandiaceae), which is used by the Sakalava peoplefor constructing coffins, and being buried in a coffin madeof this wood is a great honour for the Sakalava people. FromManambolomaty’s Lakes fish yields, estimated at 60 - 100 tonsper fishing season, FIZAMI and FIFAMA are one of the fewMalagasy Associations with active bank accounts supportedby management of their natural resources and associatedactivities. Their fisheries management system has increasedthe annual local revenue estimated at more than $ 1,562US / fisherman per season. The tax of fish sales to wholesalefish buyers forms 56 % of the two local Commune’s budgets. Thishas made the Community - Based Wetlands Conservation at theManambolomaty Lakes site well known in the conservation circles within Madagascar and has been modelled by other organizationsand associations. Consequently, the ManambolomatyLakes site is in the process of being added into the System ofProtected Areas of Madagascar (SAPM).
Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP) for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
R. Prema, R. Rangarajan
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2012.45019
Abstract: Several wireless sensor network applications ought to decide the intrinsic variance between energy efficient communication and the requirement to attain preferred quality of service (QoS) such as packet delivery ratio, delay and to reduce the power consumption of wireless sensor nodes. In order to address this challenge, we propose the Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP), which attains application-specified communication delays at low energy cost by dynamically adapting transmission power and routing decisions. Extensive simulation results prove that the proposed PARP attains better QoS and reduced power consumption.
An Innovative Low Cost EM Pollution Measurement System  [PDF]
R. Sittalatchoumy, R. Seetharaman
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78176
Abstract: Mobile phones and other electronic devices are emitting radiations that will provide harmful effects to the human health. In order to measure the radiation, an innovative low cost measurement system is proposed in this paper. The ideology is to simplify the circuit’s value by converting a voltage detecting circuit to a field detecting circuit by finding an optimum resistance on trial and error basis. The requirement for a trial and error technique is to not allow too high or too low resistance which can be either short or open, resulting provides more damage to the circuit.
Ant Lion Optimization Approach for Load Frequency Control of Multi-Area Interconnected Power Systems  [PDF]
R. Satheeshkumar, R. Shivakumar
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.79206
Abstract: This work proposes a novel nature-inspired algorithm called Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO). The ALO algorithm mimics the search mechanism of antlions in nature. A time domain based objective function is established to tune the parameters of the PI controller based LFC, which is solved by the proposed ALO algorithm to reach the most convenient solutions. A three-area interconnected power system is investigated as a test system under various loading conditions to confirm the effectiveness of the suggested algorithm. Simulation results are given to show the enhanced performance of the developed ALO algorithm based controllers in comparison with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Bat Algorithm (BAT) and conventional PI controller. These results represent that the proposed BAT algorithm tuned PI controller offers better performance over other soft computing algorithms in conditions of settling times and several performance indices.
Obtaining Optimal Solution by Using Very Good Non-Basic Feasible Solution of the Transportation and Linear Programming Problem  [PDF]
R. R. K. Sharma
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2017.75021
Abstract: For the transportation problem, Sharma and Sharma [1] have given a very computationally efficient heuristic (runs in O(c*n2) time) to give very good dual solution to transportation problem. Sharma and Prasad [2] have given an efficient heuristic (complexity O(n3) procedure to give a very good primal solution (that is generally non-basic feasible solution) to transportation problem by using the very good dual solution given by Sharma and Sharma [2]. In this paper we use the solution given by Sharma and Prasad [2] to get a very good Basic Feasible Solution to transportation problem, so that network simplex (worst case complexity (O(n3*(log(n))) can be used to reach the optimal solution to transportation problem. In the second part of this paper, we give a simple heuristic procedure to get a very good BFS to linear programming problem from the solution given by Karmarkar [3] (that generally produces a very good non-basic feasible solution in polynomial time (O(n5.5)). We give a procedure to obtain a good BFS for LP by starting from the solution given by Karmarkar [3]. We note that this procedure (given here) is significantly different from the procedure given in [4].
Power Analysis of Sensor Node Using Simulation Tool  [PDF]
R. Sittalatchoumy, R. Kanthavel, R. Seetharaman
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.713348
Abstract: Power consumption of sensor node is analyzed in this paper. In order to analyze the energy consumption, the node model is simulated using Proteus Software tool. The proposed sensor nodes power characteristics are measured by using different combinations of microprocessors and sensors. Using this, the energy consumption of the node is calculated. This is a cost-effective method and provides appropriate power model for specific applications.
Studies on Dissolution Behaviour of Nanoparticulate Curcumin Formulation  [PDF]
R. Ravichandran
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.21010
Abstract:

Curcumin is the main biologically active phytochemical compound of turmeric that has been widely used by ancient cultures throughout Asia. However the dissolution rate limited absorption and pre-absorption degradation limits its use as a potential therapeutic. In this study an attempt has been made to overcome the above limitations by curcumin delivery through nanotechnology. Nanocurcumin solid dosage formulations were prepared and studied for its dissolution behaviour. Considerable improvement in the dissolution behavior was observed in the drug nanocrystal-loaded solid dosage forms. This is expected to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble medicinal herbs such as turmeric in the body.

Pharmacokinetic Study of Nanoparticulate Curcumin: Oral Formulation for Enhanced Bioavailability  [PDF]
R. Ravichandran
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.43037
Abstract:

Curcumin, a bioactive component of turmeric, which is a commonly used spice and nutritional supplement, is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae). In recent years, the potential pharmacological actions of Curcumin in inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and neurological disorders have been shown. However, the clinical application of Curcumin is severely limited by its main drawbacks such as instability, low solubility, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism. Multifarious nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for Curcumin including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, nanoemulsions, complexes and dendrimer/dimer, have been attempted to enhance the oral bioavailability, biological activity or tissue-targeting ability of Curcumin. We attempted the nanosuspensions based delivery of curcumin. Nanonisation renders curcumin completely dispersible in aqueous media. To enhance the curcumin absorption by oral administration, nanoparticulate solid oral formulation of curcumin was prepared by us and the resulting capsule was then examined for its efficiency on bioavailability in Male Wistar rats at a dose of 100 mg curcumin/kg body weight and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared to those of normal curcumin powder and a commercial curcumin capsule CUR-500. The bio-distribution of curcumin in organs of rat was also studied. Nanoparticulation significantly raised the curcumin concentration in selective organs in the body. The results obtained provide promising results for nanoparticulate Curcumin to improve its biological activities. Enhanced bioavailability of curcumin in the form of nanoparticle is likely to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of therapeutic agents for treatment of human disease. The available information also strongly suggests that nano-formulation of ingredients such as curcumin may be used as a novel nutrient delivery system too.

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