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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223793 matches for " R Pramathan "
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Lung tissue bioenergetics and caspase activity in rodents
Ahmed R Alsuwaidi, Mohammed T Alsamri, Ali S Alfazari, Saeeda Almarzooqi, Alia Albawardi, Aws R Othman, Thachillath Pramathan, Stacey M Hartwig, Steven M Varga, Abdul-Kader Souid
BMC Research Notes , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-6-12
Abstract: For Wistar rats, the values of kc and ATP for 0?<?t?≤?7 h (mean?±?SD) were 0.15?±?0.02 μM O2 min-1 mg-1 (n?=?18, coefficient of variation, Cv?=?13%) and 131?±?69 pmol mg-1 (n?=?16, Cv?=?53%), respectively. The AMC peak areas remained relatively small despite a ~5-fold rise over 6 h. Good tissue preservation was evident despite time-dependent increases in apoptotic cells. Lung tissue bioenergetics, caspase activity and structure were deleterious in unoxygenated or intermittently oxygenated solutions. Incubating lung tissue in O2 depleted MEM for 30 min or anesthesia by urethane had no effect on lung bioenergetics, but produced higher caspase activity.Lung tissue bioenergetics and structure could be maintained in vitro in oxygenated buffer for several hours and, thus, used as biomarkers for investigating respiratory pathogens or toxins.In vitro systems for studying tissue mitochondrial O2 consumption (cellular respiration) and morphology in BALB/c mice are recently described [1-3]. These parameters, however, are insufficient for fully assessing cellular viability. For example, cells may respire (consume O2) at a higher rate due to uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation (short-circuiting the inner mitochondrial membrane), an event that results from increased caspase activities [4]. Therefore, measuring cellular ATP and caspase activity are essential biomarkers for a more comprehensive assessment of tissues in vitro.Lung toxicity is a major health concern in the drug development. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several post-marketing drug recalls due to adverse events related to mitochondrial dysfunctions [5]. Thus, developing in vitro systems to assess adverse effects of drugs on lung tissue bioenergetics is important. Drug-induced mitochondrial disturbances have been investigated using different methods, including fluorescence-based oxygen sensitive probes [6-8].In this study, the previously described method [1-3,7] is expanded to include measuremen
Analphoid supernumerary marker chromosome characterized by aCGH and FISH as inv dup(3)(q25.33qter) de novo in a child with dysmorphic features and streaky pigmentation: case report
Sabita K Murthy, Ashok K Malhotra, Preenu S Jacob, Sehba Naveed, Eman EM Al-Rowaished, Sara Mani, Shabeer Padariyakam, R Pramathan, Ravi Nath, Mahmoud Al-Ali, Lihadh Al-Gazali
Molecular Cytogenetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8166-1-19
Abstract: We describe here a one month old female child with several dysmorphic features and with a de novo analphoid supernumerary marker chromosome only in cultured skin fibroblast cells and not in lymphocytes. The marker was characterized as analphoid inversion-duplication 3q25.33-qter by oligo array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies. The final skin fibroblast karyotype was interpreted as 47,XX,+der(3).ish inv dup(3)(qter-q25.33::q25.33-qter)(subtel 3q+,subtel 3q+) de novo.In addition to the eight reported cases of analphoid inversion-duplication 3q supernumerary marker in the literature, this is yet another case of 3q sSMC with a new breakpoint at 3q25.33 and with varying phenotype as described in the case report. Identification of more and more similar cases of analphoid inversion-duplication 3q marker will help in establishing a better genotype-phenotype correlation. The study further demonstrates that aCGH in conjunction with routine cytogenetics and FISH is very useful in precisely identifying and characterizing a marker chromosome, and more importantly help in providing with an accurate genetic diagnosis and better counseling to the family.Small supernumerary marker chromosomes occur in 0.075% of unselected prenatal cases and in 0.044% of consecutively studied postnatal cases, and majority of them are de novo in origin [1-4]. Phenotype of individuals with de novo sSMC vary from normal to extremely mild or severe, depending on the chromosomal region involved and the euchromatic content present [5-7]. Although a number of reports describe the occurrence of a variety of sSMC for nearly all the chromosomes, the number for each type is not large enough to suggest a good genotype-phenotype correlation for a given sSMC, except for inv dup(15) and inv dup(22) where the phenotypic consequences are well described [6,8-10]. We describe here the phenotype and corresponding molecular cytogenetic results of a child with
In vitro biocompatibility of calcined mesoporous silica particles and fetal blood cells
Al Samri MT, Biradar AV, Alsuwaidi AR, Balhaj G, Al-Hammadi S, Shehab S, Al-Salam S, Tariq S, Pramathan T, Benedict S, Asefa T, Souid AK
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S32711
Abstract: vitro biocompatibility of calcined mesoporous silica particles and fetal blood cells Original Research (1971) Total Article Views Authors: Al Samri MT, Biradar AV, Alsuwaidi AR, Balhaj G, Al-Hammadi S, Shehab S, Al-Salam S, Tariq S, Pramathan T, Benedict S, Asefa T, Souid AK Published Date August 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 3111 - 3121 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S32711 Received: 06 April 2012 Accepted: 25 April 2012 Published: 03 August 2012 Mohammed T Al Samri,1,* Ankush V Biradar,2,3,* Ahmed R Alsuwaidi,1 Ghazala Balhaj,1 Suleiman Al-Hammadi,1 Safa Shehab,4 Suhail Al-Salam,5 Saeed Tariq,4 Thachillath Pramathan,1 Sheela Benedict,1 Tewodros Asefa,2,3 Abdul-Kader Souid1 1Department of Pediatrics, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 2Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 3Department of Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA; 4Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 5Department of Pathology Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The biocompatibility of two forms of calcined mesoporous silica particles, labeled as MCM41-cal and SBA15-cal, with fetal blood mononuclear cells was assessed in vitro. Methods and results: Fetal mononuclear cells were isolated from umbilical cord blood and exposed to 0.5 mg/mL of MCM41-cal or SBA15-cal for several hours. Transmission electron micrographs confirmed the presence of particles in the cytosol of macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes without noticeable damage to the cellular organelles. The particles (especially MCM41-cal) were in close proximity to plasma, and nuclear and mitochondrial membranes. Biocompatibility was assessed by a functional assay that measured cellular respiration, ie, mitochondrial O2 consumption. The rate of respiration (kc, in μM O2 per minute per 107 cells) for untreated cells was 0.42 ± 0.16 (n = 10), for cells treated with MCM41-cal was 0.39 ± 0.22 (n = 5, P > 0.966) and for cells treated with SBA15-cal was 0.44 ± 0.13 (n = 5, P >0.981). Conclusion: The results show reasonable biocompatibility of MCM41-cal and SBA15-cal in fetal blood mononuclear cells. Future studies are needed to determine the potential of collecting fetal cells from a fetus or neonate, loading the cells in vitro with therapeutic MCM41-cal or SBA15-cal, and reinfusing them into the fetus or neonate.
Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP) for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
R. Prema, R. Rangarajan
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2012.45019
Abstract: Several wireless sensor network applications ought to decide the intrinsic variance between energy efficient communication and the requirement to attain preferred quality of service (QoS) such as packet delivery ratio, delay and to reduce the power consumption of wireless sensor nodes. In order to address this challenge, we propose the Power Aware Routing Protocol (PARP), which attains application-specified communication delays at low energy cost by dynamically adapting transmission power and routing decisions. Extensive simulation results prove that the proposed PARP attains better QoS and reduced power consumption.
An Innovative Low Cost EM Pollution Measurement System  [PDF]
R. Sittalatchoumy, R. Seetharaman
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78176
Abstract: Mobile phones and other electronic devices are emitting radiations that will provide harmful effects to the human health. In order to measure the radiation, an innovative low cost measurement system is proposed in this paper. The ideology is to simplify the circuit’s value by converting a voltage detecting circuit to a field detecting circuit by finding an optimum resistance on trial and error basis. The requirement for a trial and error technique is to not allow too high or too low resistance which can be either short or open, resulting provides more damage to the circuit.
Ant Lion Optimization Approach for Load Frequency Control of Multi-Area Interconnected Power Systems  [PDF]
R. Satheeshkumar, R. Shivakumar
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.79206
Abstract: This work proposes a novel nature-inspired algorithm called Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO). The ALO algorithm mimics the search mechanism of antlions in nature. A time domain based objective function is established to tune the parameters of the PI controller based LFC, which is solved by the proposed ALO algorithm to reach the most convenient solutions. A three-area interconnected power system is investigated as a test system under various loading conditions to confirm the effectiveness of the suggested algorithm. Simulation results are given to show the enhanced performance of the developed ALO algorithm based controllers in comparison with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Bat Algorithm (BAT) and conventional PI controller. These results represent that the proposed BAT algorithm tuned PI controller offers better performance over other soft computing algorithms in conditions of settling times and several performance indices.
Obtaining Optimal Solution by Using Very Good Non-Basic Feasible Solution of the Transportation and Linear Programming Problem  [PDF]
R. R. K. Sharma
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2017.75021
Abstract: For the transportation problem, Sharma and Sharma [1] have given a very computationally efficient heuristic (runs in O(c*n2) time) to give very good dual solution to transportation problem. Sharma and Prasad [2] have given an efficient heuristic (complexity O(n3) procedure to give a very good primal solution (that is generally non-basic feasible solution) to transportation problem by using the very good dual solution given by Sharma and Sharma [2]. In this paper we use the solution given by Sharma and Prasad [2] to get a very good Basic Feasible Solution to transportation problem, so that network simplex (worst case complexity (O(n3*(log(n))) can be used to reach the optimal solution to transportation problem. In the second part of this paper, we give a simple heuristic procedure to get a very good BFS to linear programming problem from the solution given by Karmarkar [3] (that generally produces a very good non-basic feasible solution in polynomial time (O(n5.5)). We give a procedure to obtain a good BFS for LP by starting from the solution given by Karmarkar [3]. We note that this procedure (given here) is significantly different from the procedure given in [4].
Power Analysis of Sensor Node Using Simulation Tool  [PDF]
R. Sittalatchoumy, R. Kanthavel, R. Seetharaman
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.713348
Abstract: Power consumption of sensor node is analyzed in this paper. In order to analyze the energy consumption, the node model is simulated using Proteus Software tool. The proposed sensor nodes power characteristics are measured by using different combinations of microprocessors and sensors. Using this, the energy consumption of the node is calculated. This is a cost-effective method and provides appropriate power model for specific applications.
Studies on Dissolution Behaviour of Nanoparticulate Curcumin Formulation  [PDF]
R. Ravichandran
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2013.21010

Curcumin is the main biologically active phytochemical compound of turmeric that has been widely used by ancient cultures throughout Asia. However the dissolution rate limited absorption and pre-absorption degradation limits its use as a potential therapeutic. In this study an attempt has been made to overcome the above limitations by curcumin delivery through nanotechnology. Nanocurcumin solid dosage formulations were prepared and studied for its dissolution behaviour. Considerable improvement in the dissolution behavior was observed in the drug nanocrystal-loaded solid dosage forms. This is expected to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble medicinal herbs such as turmeric in the body.

Pharmacokinetic Study of Nanoparticulate Curcumin: Oral Formulation for Enhanced Bioavailability  [PDF]
R. Ravichandran
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.43037

Curcumin, a bioactive component of turmeric, which is a commonly used spice and nutritional supplement, is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae). In recent years, the potential pharmacological actions of Curcumin in inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and neurological disorders have been shown. However, the clinical application of Curcumin is severely limited by its main drawbacks such as instability, low solubility, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism. Multifarious nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for Curcumin including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, nanoemulsions, complexes and dendrimer/dimer, have been attempted to enhance the oral bioavailability, biological activity or tissue-targeting ability of Curcumin. We attempted the nanosuspensions based delivery of curcumin. Nanonisation renders curcumin completely dispersible in aqueous media. To enhance the curcumin absorption by oral administration, nanoparticulate solid oral formulation of curcumin was prepared by us and the resulting capsule was then examined for its efficiency on bioavailability in Male Wistar rats at a dose of 100 mg curcumin/kg body weight and the pharmacokinetic parameters were compared to those of normal curcumin powder and a commercial curcumin capsule CUR-500. The bio-distribution of curcumin in organs of rat was also studied. Nanoparticulation significantly raised the curcumin concentration in selective organs in the body. The results obtained provide promising results for nanoparticulate Curcumin to improve its biological activities. Enhanced bioavailability of curcumin in the form of nanoparticle is likely to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of therapeutic agents for treatment of human disease. The available information also strongly suggests that nano-formulation of ingredients such as curcumin may be used as a novel nutrient delivery system too.

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