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Corporate Social Responsibility: Intentions and Practice  [PDF]
Susan Njeri Wamitu
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2014.22015

CSR is the continued commitment by a business to behave ethically and contribute to the economic development and welfare of the society while at the same time improves the quality of life of its workforce, their families as well as the larger society. The national government, together with institutions like state corporations, the police and the judiciary among others are obligated to provide its publics with necessities and amenities that ease and make life worthwhile. Businesses, NGO activists and local communities have taken a lead in addressing those issues which the national government has failed or is slow to come up with solutions so as to ensure that the public’s life is comfortable. Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, a corporation, an organization or individual has the responsibility to society. It is the economic, legal, ethical and discretionally expectations that society has organizations at a given point and time [1]. The pressure on businesses to play a role in social issues is growing and over the last ten years, these institutions have grown in power and influence as they compete in playing CSR roles to a point where the public is forced to define a business by how much and how conspicuously it contributes towards CSR. The modern day business has almost capitalized on CSR, to create awareness that it exists, advertised its goods and services and demonstrated how philanthropic it is. Actually CSR is more of an advertising side show where the media plays an important role in ensuring that all and sundry notice that “we give back to society”. The largest corporate giving programs are driven by either strategic or commercial interest with their basic motivation being a combination of wanting to acquire greater market share, improve public image and to encourage staff motivation and competition in the labor market. Therefore, over the years, the brand and public image of a corporation has increasingly become CSR’s focal point providing support so as to look good and drive up sales. The major cry is that business organization plays CSR roles not with any hidden agenda but for the very purpose of giving back to the public who keeps giving to the organization by purchasing their products and services. The objectives of this review are: to give an overview of CSR practice, to bring to light wrong motives in CSR performance by some organizations and to give recommendations on positive CSR practices. This article reviews documents such as research studies,

Tacit Knowledge Sharing in Public Sector Departments in Kenya  [PDF]
Susan Njeri Wamitu
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2015.31011
Abstract: Organizational employees know valuable information but sharing that information throughout the organization is a challenge. Organizational employees need to share problems, experiences, insights, templates, tools and best practices. Many organizations concentrate on hard technology as the only way to gain competitive advantage and ignore the very crucial strategy that gives it a competitive edge. Tacit knowledge well guarded in the employee’s mind is the only non-imitable organizational resource (Senge, P., 1990) [1]. Knowledge focus is the third wave of human socio-economic development, the first having been the agricultural age with wealth being defined as ownership of land and the second being the industrial age where wealth is based on ownership of capital e.g. factories. In the knowledge age, wealth is based upon the ownership of knowledge and the ability to use, create and use it to improve goods and services .This review wishes to expose the challenges of functional boundaries, communication, motivation and organizational culture on tacit knowledge sharing in Kenya public sector organizations. The review will be guided by the following theories: constructivism theory that advocates for creation of knowledge through individual constructs, self efficacy theory where persons believe on their ability to organize and execute courses of action necessary to achieve a goal and Nonaka’s model of knowledge creation which demonstrates knowledge dynamics using the SECI model. The review will also look at other researcher’s literature and display the relationship between tacit knowledge sharing and the four variables.
Functional Boundaries as a Tacit Knowledge Sharing Factor and Its Effect on Public Sector Performance in Kenya  [PDF]
Susan Njeri Wamitu
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2016.42024
Abstract: Knowledge is a crucial component in the growth of any organization and it forms a significant fraction of all the resources required for organizational growth. Out of the renowned factors of production namely land, labor, capital, entrepreneur and management, three out of the five factors (60%) are human factors (resource) which are actually the main drivers of knowledge management and tacit knowledge sharing. The world revolution has seen economies come from reliance on land ownership (the agricultural age), where the backbone of the economy is purely agriculture, through to the industrial age (reliance on industrialization) and now is the knowledge focus (reliance on knowledge gathering, acquisition and storage as a competitive advantage) which is the third wave of human socio-economic development. In a knowledge society, the basic economic resource is no longer capital, or natural resources or even labour, but knowledge. Knowledge is now recognized as a resource that is at par with other economic resources. It is noted that in the knowledge age, 2% of the working population will work on the land (agriculture), 10% will work in the industry (industrialization) and the rest will be in knowledge (tacit). In the Kenyan civil service, there seems to be ignorance in the amount of knowledge that flows through the Kenyan civil service every day. Chief among the reasons for this scenario is strong hierarchical (functional boundaries or strict demarcations), and bureaucracies that impede generation, distribution and sharing of knowledge and information. The performance of the Kenya public sector had failed to meet the stipulated targets as was indicated by the performance of the economic, social and other sectors in the year 2012 and 2013. In addition, empirical evidence reveals that there is a lacuna in the studies associated with tacit knowledge sharing and performance of the public sector in Kenya. The study therefore focuses on the influence of functional boundaries as a factor of tacit knowledge sharing and how they affect public sector performance in Kenya.
Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Metallo-β-Lactamase Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates at Kenyatta National Hospital  [PDF]
Jane Njeri Karuitha, Odera Susan Akinyi, Maina Anne Njeri, Mureithi Marianne
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.811059
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infections with high mortality rates. The organism is highly resistant to most classes of drugs used and can develop resistance during treatment. One of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosais is Metallo-β-Lactamase (MBL) production. MBL producing P. aeruginosa is a major health concern given it’s resistance to almost all available drugs. The prevalence of this resistant strain is unknown since there is no standardized method for testing MBL production. This was a laboratory based cross-sectional prospective study that was carried out from September 2015 to March 2016 at Kenyatta National Hospital. Ninety-nine isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected during the period and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and isolates found to be resistant to imipenem tested for MBL production. The results indicated high resistance of P. aeruginosa to commonly used drugs. Of the isolates tested 69.7% were resistant to piperacillin, 63.6% were resistant to aztreonam, 58.6% were resistant to levofloxacin, 55.6% were resistant to cefipime, 65.7% were resistant to ceftazidime, 68.7% were resistant to ticarcillin-clavulanate, 72.2% were resistant to meropenem, 64.9% were resistance to imipenem while 86.4% of urine isolates were resistant to ofloxacin. Of the isolates resistant to imipenem 87.3% were found to be MBL producers. In conclusion, P. aeruginosais highly resistant to the drugs currently is used for treatment and resistance to carbapenems is largely due to MBL production.
Evaluation of the shoot regeneration response in tissue culture of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.) varieties adapted to eastern and southern Africa
S de Villiers, Q Emongor, R Njeri, E Gwata, D Hoisington, I Njagi, S Silim, K Sharma
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Seven varieties of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.) of varying growth durations and adapted to a wide range of environments across eastern and southern Africa were evaluated for their shoot regeneration response in tissue culture. On a standardized shoot regeneration medium, the short duration varieties (ICPV 88091 and ICPV 86012) generally responded faster and better than the medium duration (ICEAP 00554 and ICEAP 00557) and long duration (ICEAP 00020, ICEAP 00040 and ICEAP 00053) varieties. However, all the tested varieties produced healthy rooted plants in vitro that could be transferred to the greenhouse where they exhibited normal growth, flowering and viable seed set. This study established the basis for genetic engineering of African pigeonpea varieties.
Determination of Suitable Sites for Establishment of Large-Scale Concentrated Solar Power Plants in Kenya  [PDF]
Joan Njeri Gathu, Patroba Achola Odera, Edward Hunja Waithaka
Natural Resources (NR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2017.81001
Abstract: The demand for energy in Kenya, especially for electricity, is increasing rapidly due to population growth, decentralization of governance, and technological and industrial development. Hydroelectricity, the core source of power, has proved unreliable due to the rapid climate change. In response, the country has ventured into other renewable sources to counter the issues posed by the alternative nonrenewable sources such as unreliability, high costs, and environmental degradation as seen with the use of diesel and kerosene. The purpose of this research is to determine the viability of setting up a large-scale concentrated solar power plantation in Kenya that will assist in stabilizing Kenya’s energy demand and supply as well as increase its affordability. The project is divided into three phases. The first phase conducts an overlay analysis to determine the Kenya’s solar energy potential. The results show that the northern region has the highest potential. The second step involves the creation of an exclusion mask which eliminates the unsuitable land forms and Land Use Land Cover. Based on the results, the best ten sites are situated in Turkana and Marsabit counties. The final phase involves the evaluation of the potential capacity of power that could be generated per square kilometer. The study finds out that the potential varies based on the technologies: parabolic trough, linear Fresnel reflector, or dish systems.
Effects of Foliar Fertilizer Application on Quality of Tea (Camellia sinensis) Grown in the Kenyan Highlands  [PDF]
Rachael Njeri E. Njogu, David K. Kariuki, David M. Kamau, Francis N. Wachira
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.518286

In Kenya, foliar fertilizers have not found use in tea production despite their numerous advantages as exhibited in other crops. A fertilizer trial test was established in three sites of the major tea growing regions, with 36 plots per site to determine the effects of foliar fertilizer application on tea quality. Two foliar fertilizers were tested; foliar fertilizer 1 (FF1) and foliar fertilizer 2 (FF2), with a positive control of soil fertilizer (SF) and a blank. Two leaves and a bud tea samples were collected every two weeks after each foliar fertilizer application. These were then analyzed for tea quality (total polyphenols, TP), nutrient residues for the different clones and geographical locations. The TP contents for clone TRFK 31/8 were as follows: FF1 = 17.8%, FF2 = 17.9%, SF = 16.56% and Zero = 17.4%. Tukey-Kramer pair wise comparison test results between the foliar fertilizers and SF showed that the FF1 (HSD = 4.78) and FF2 (HSD = 5.27) fertilizers had significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of TP content as compared to control SF fertilizer. Nutrients analyzed had average means as follows: N = 4% - 5%, P = 0.25% - 0.28%, K = 1.35% - 1.69%, Ca = 0.3 - 0.5 ppm, Mg = 0.19 - 0.27 ppm, Mn = 0.05 - 0.13 ppm, Zn = 25 - 40.5 ppm, Cu = 11 - 17 ppm and Fe = 72 - 122 ppm. The nutrient residue levels had non-significantly statistical differences at P < 0.05 level between pairs of zero applied plots and the FF1, FF2 and SF applied plots respectively. It was concluded that the foliar fertilizers increased the TP content in tested tea samples and the nutrients analyzed were all within the dietary reference intake (DRI) levels for SF, FF1 and FF2. Overall, the foliar fertilizer increased the quality of the tested tea samples.

Functions of Gichuka Discourse Markers in Gichuka Speech  [PDF]
Elsie Njeri Kirimo, Humphrey Kirimi Ireri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104931
Discourse markers are linguistic items that are frequently used in the course of daily communication. These are not only connecting words that contribute to cohesion of discourse but are also crucial tools for achieving intended commu-nicative purposes in the course of discourse. Studies have been carried out on discourse markers as used in other languages of the world but since every lin-guistic variety is unique and culture dependent, it is not obvious that these lin-guistic items are similar in all languages. This paper’s goal is to discuss the functions of discourse markers Gichuka speeches. The study is guided by the Relevance Theory by Sperber and Wilson. It utilizes qualitative research tech-nique and was carried out in Chuka, Meru South Sub County, Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya. The population for this study includes all discourse markers captured in social events conducted in Gichuka. The researcher purposively sampled five real life events conducted in Gichuka. Data was collected using an observation schedule that was used to record the contextual information, and a guiding card was used to record the functions of discourse markers. The transcribed discourse markers are ninety-two. Guided by the principles of relevance the researcher identified and discussed the functions of all the discourse markers identified, taking into account the speakers meaning conveyed by the Gichuka discourse markers from various speech situations. The study established that most Gichuka discourse markers are used either to achieve conversational coherence in speech or to seek the attention of the audience. The study enhances the analysis of Gichuka discourse markers and adds to the existing knowledge on the analysis of discourse markers in various languages. It specifically enriches knowledge on the application of the tenets of the Relevance Theory. The study also contributes to scholarly literature in linguistics; especially in pragmatics.
Selection, Phenotyping and Identification of Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide Producing Bacteria from Vaginal Samples of Canadian and East African Women
John J. Schellenberg, Tim J. Dumonceaux, Janet E. Hill, Joshua Kimani, Walter Jaoko, Charles Wachihi, Jane Njeri Mungai, Margo Lane, Keith R. Fowke, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041217
Abstract: The common but poorly understood condition known as bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases vulnerability to HIV infection and is associated with the absence of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus. Vaginal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce anti-HIV factors such as organic acids and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and may bind and inactivate HIV particles during scavenging of mannose. These factors define potential criteria for initial selection of candidate probiotics to block heterosexual transmission of HIV. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to characterize acid production on mannose and H2O2 production in vaginal isolates from Canadian adolescents (192 isolates, 16 individuals) and commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya (576 isolates, 96 individuals). Selection of isolates from H2O2-detecting media suggested an idiosyncratic individual-level profile and extensive phenotypic diversity, including the identification of a subset of “double-strong” acid- and H2O2-producers with phenotypes similar to well-characterized probiotic strains. Molecular fingerprinting of all isolates by capillary electrophoresis of 16S-23S rRNA interspacer amplicons was coupled with chaperonin-60 universal target (cpn60 UT) sequencing in a subset, tentatively identifying 96% of isolates although only 19% were sequenced. Most isolates belonged to Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium or Gardnerella, with a total of 37 species in 15 genera, as well as 5 potentially novel organisms, identified in this study. This sensitivity was likely enhanced by phenotype-based selection on two chromogenic media formulations. Identification of double-strong isolates may provide a rational basis for selection and further characterization of vaginal probiotics, with potential application as part of HIV prevention initiatives in western Canada and East Africa.
The Prevalence of Depression among Family Caregivers of Children with Intellectual Disability in a Rural Setting in Kenya
Margaret Njeri Mbugua,Mary W. Kuria,David M. Ndetei
International Journal of Family Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/534513
Abstract: Caregivers of children with intellectual disability have a great responsibility that may be stressful. The psychological well-being of the care giver may affect the quality of care given to children with intellectual disability. Objective. The objective of the study was to determine the risk of depression in caregivers of children with intellectual disability. Setting. The study was conducted at Gachie Catholic Parish, Archdiocese of Nairobi (Kenya). Design. Cross sectional, descriptive study. Method. The study was conducted among 114 caregivers registered at the Gachie Parish program (in Kenya) for the intellectual disabled children. A researcher-designed social demographic questionnaire and the Beck depression inventory were administered to those that met the inclusion criteria. Results. Seventy-nine percent (79%) of the caregivers were at risk of clinical depression. Conclusion. Majority of the caregivers of children with intellectual disability were at risk of developing clinical depression. 1. Introduction There is an increased demand on the care givers of children with developmental disability [1] especially when it is intellectual in nature. Intellectual disability is associated with poor communication, academic and social skills that make the child more dependent on the caregiver than the normal child. In the past (in Kenya), the extended family would be available to provide care to an intellectually disabled child easing the burden of care expected from the nuclear family. However, in recent times, there is a shift from extended family to nuclear family. In addition, over the past 2 decades, family units have become smaller [2] and the rate of marriage break down has increased [3]. Though the magnitude of the responsibility depends on the level of intellectual disability, it is greater for those in small nuclear families. It is also important to note that the economic situation in Kenya dictates that people work long hours with little pay especially if they are in nonskilled employment. This coupled with the fact that there are few institutions or organizations that school or take care of the intellectually disabled makes the role of caregivers enormous. The caregivers are usually the mother of the child, elderly family members, or the unemployed members of the family. Such people do not normally plan to be caregivers [4] but find the need unavoidable. In addition, the caregivers do not receive preparation for this role, and, in the process of engaging in the same, they later on find it very demanding [4]. Unlike other carers, the caregiver may
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