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Factors Affecting the Choice of Science Subjects among Female Students in Jigawa Metropolis, Nigeria  [PDF]
Azubuike Adams, Azubuike Amarachi Salome
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.514148

The work is to investigate the factors affecting the choice of science subjects among female students at the senior secondary level in Jigawa metropolis. There are factors that influence the choice of science subject among female students. Some of the factors are the sex of the students, peer group influence, motivation and the choice of a future career. In order to analyze some of these factors and their effect on female students in Jigawa metropolis, questionnaires were administered to female school of SS II and SS III in some randomly selected secondary schools. The hypothesis were tested; the use of data obtained from the questionnaires administered; and results presented in Tables 6-9.

A Quality Improvement Survey to Assess Pain Management in Cardiac Surgery Patients  [PDF]
Mohammad Hamid, Amar Lal Gangwani, Mohammad Irfan Akhtar
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2015.55020
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the quality of pain management in cardiac ICU patients by using a questionnaire. Methodology: All post cardiac surgery patients between 18 and 75 years old were included in this survey. Chronic pain patients, paediatric patients, emergency surgeries were excluded. A predesigned proforma was prepared according to American Pain Society recommendations and distributed among Cardiac ICU patients after 24 hours of extubation. This proforma was explained to the patients and collected later. The questionnaire was related to pain severity, aggravating and relieving factors, side effects of analgesics, affective experience and satisfaction with pain management. Results: Total 308 patients participated in one year period. 243 (78.9%) were male and 65 (21.1%) were female. Multimodal analgesia was used in most of the patients. Severity of pain was described as mild 70% and moderate 28.6%. Most of the patients complained of sharp pain 100 (37.5%), mainly at the site of incision 129 (41.9%). The main aggravating factor associated with increased pain was deep breathing 118 (39.8%) while pain was minimized by taking pain medications 40.6%. A significant association was found between preoperative counseling about pain options and satisfaction. 96.8% reported satisfaction with pain management. Conclusion: Although overall pain control was reported as adequate and patients were highly satisfied, there were areas which need further improvement. These include strategies to provide preoperative information about postoperative pain management and better training of medical staff to assess and manage pain. Additionally, the concerns and fears of patients about pain treatment need to be addressed.
How do Medical Students Learn?  [PDF]
Monem Makki Alshok
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.711085
Abstract: Background & Objectives: In this paper, we try to define learning, to describe how retention of memorized material can be improved and to describe how to help students improve clinical reasoning and problem solving skills. The goal of teaching is to improve learning, but how do we know that students are learning in the proper way? Methods: We depend on our experience in medical and clinical teaching of our undergraduate and postgraduate students during implementation of the curriculum. We interview 1st year (preclinical) and 6th year medical students by certain questionnaires (VARK) in order to know their learning methods and their knowledge about the styles of learning and the techniques of learning. Learning is viewed here as developing a way of thinking and acting that is a characteristic of an expert physician. Such a way of thinking consists of three important elements: We utilize Working Memory in 3 main approaches: First, attention in a way through questions, focus attention and uses of first letter of statement of the word; Second, rule of 7 (Teach < 7 steps); Third, concentration on important relevant materials. We have to keep in our mind that even if we remember something, it doesn't mean we understand it. In addition, the case learning approach & problem solving learning approach are the methods used and we try to be cooperative, active, and experimental and the student must be self directed and the students should be competent in his learning methods, most are confident of their ability. Results: Most of the first year students have poor knowledge in regards to style & learning techniques. For final year students around 30% learn two styles and 20% trimodel, especially more in female students, 10% mention single model in their learning and the remaining learn by Quad modals. In conclusion, learning how to learn must be a standard part of the curriculum in medical school, and student must be aware of that.
Measuring Customer Feedback, Response and Satisfaction  [PDF]
Rebecca Milner, Adrian Furnham
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.83021
Abstract: This paper reviews various different questionnaires designed to measure customer response to a particular service. They differ on various criteria including the dimensions that they are trying to evaluate their established psychometric qualities and their usage. Recommendations for their use are made.
Measuring Religiosity/Spirituality: Theoretical Differentiations and Categorization of Instruments
Christian Zwingmann,Constantin Klein,Arndt Büssing
Religions , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rel2030345
Abstract: There is a multitude of instruments for measuring religiosity/spirituality. Many of these questionnaires are used or even were developed in the context of studies about the connection between religiosity/spirituality and health. Thus, it seems crucial to note that measures can focus on quite different components along a hypothetical path between stressors and health. We present an instructive model which helps to identify these different components and allows the categorization of instruments of religiosity/spirituality according to their primary measurement intention: intensity/centrality, resources, needs, coping, and quality of life/well-being. Furthermore, we point out possibilities as to how religiosity and spirituality can be differentiated. We argue that the distinction between religiosity and spirituality is important in countries with a more secular background where a growing number of people identify themselves as “spiritual, but not religious”.
Questionário específico para sintomas do joelho "Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale": tradu??o e valida??o para a língua portuguesa
Peccin, Maria Stella;Ciconelli, Rozana;Cohen, Moisés;
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-78522006000500008
Abstract: knee diseases present variable consequences for an individual?s function and quality of life. for the purposes of translating, validating and checking the measurement properties of the specific questionnaire for knee symptoms - the "lysholm knee scoring scale" - into portuguese, we selected, for convenience, 50 patients (29 males and 21 females, mean age = 38.7 years) with knee injuries (meniscal injury, anterior cruciate ligament injury, chondromalacia or arthrosis). reproducibility and ordinal consistency inter- and intra-interviewer were excellent (a = 0.9). the nominal consistency inter-interviewers was good (kappa = 0.7) and intra-interviewer was excellent (kappa = 0.8). during validation process, we correlated the lysholm questionnaire with the pain numerical scale (r=-0.6; p=0.001) and with he lequesne index (r= -0.8; p=0.001). correlations between lysholm questionnaire and the global health evaluation by patient and by therapist were poor and not significant. the correlations between lysholm questionnaire and sf-36 were significant for physical aspects (r = 0.4; p = 0.04), pain (r = 0.5; p = 0.001) and function (r = 0.7; p = 0.0001). we concluded that the translation and cultural adaptation of the "lysholm knee scoring scale" into our language have proven to be reproducible and valid in patients with meniscal injury, anterior cruciate ligament injury, chondromalacia or knee arthrosis.
Tradu??o, adapta??o cultural e valida??o do "American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot Scale"
Rodrigues, Reynaldo Costa;Masiero, Danilo;Mizusaki, Jorge Mitsuo;Imoto, Aline Mizusaki;Peccin, Maria Stella;Cohen, Moisés;Alloza, José Felipe Marion;
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-78522008000200009
Abstract: background: the use of outcome assessment scales in scientific studies is necessary so that different treatment forms can be compared among individuals with the same diagnosis. this study targeted the translation, cultural adaptation and validation of aofas? ankle-hindfoot scale into portuguese language. methods: the scale was applied to 50 patients with ankle-hindfoot joint conditions, twice by the interviewer # 1 and once by the interviewer # 2. the patients were also assessed by using the sf-36 quality-of-life generic questionnaire and the visual analogue scale (vas). results: the pearson correlation coefficient (pcc) and the intra-class correlation coefficient (icc) were 0.93 (p<0.001) and 0.96, respectively, for intra-observer reliability and 0.92 (p<0.001) and 0.95, respectively, for inter-observer reliability. the functional capacity and pain components (sf-36) presented the highest correlations (0.67 and 0.64; p<0.001, respectively) at the aofas? ankle-hindfoot scale. the pcc between vas and aofas ankle-hindfoot scale was inversely proportional (- 0,68; p<0,001). conclusions: we conclude that the version of aofas ankle-hindfoot scale for the portuguese language was successfully translated and cultural adapted for application to brazilian patients, with satisfactory reliability and construct validity.
Prevalência e características do tabagismo em jovens da Universidade de Brasília
Andrade, Ana Paula Alves de;Bernardo, Ana Cláudia Corsini;Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis;Ferreira, Denise Bastos Lage;Gomes, Thais Cabral;Sales, Mariana Ramos;
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-37132006000100007
Abstract: objective: to determine the prevalence of smoking and to describe the profile and smoking habits of students attending the universidade de brasília (university of brasília) in brasília, brazil. methods: a total of 1341 students responded to a smoking questionnaire, adapted from the world health organization questionnaire, including questions directed at smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers. twenty different courses in the areas of health, exact sciences and human sciences were evaluated. the students included in the study were duly enrolled in day courses and were evaluated during the second semester of 2003. results: the overall prevalence of smoking was 14.7%. approximately 80.8% of the students were nonsmokers, and 4.5% were former smokers. in the study sample, 57.3% of the students were male. no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of smoking was observed in terms of gender or class year. the mean age of the study population was 21.6 ± 3.6 years, and the mean age at which the smoking habit was acquired was 17 ± 2.8 years. the percentage of smokers was higher in the geology, communication, and history courses (32.9, 26.3 and 24.4%, respectively). mean consumption was 7.5 cigarettes per day. the majority (72.6%) of the students used commercial cigarettes rather than other types of tobacco. conclusion: the high prevalence of smoking observed in the present study is similar to that reported for other universities and indicates the need for smoking control policies in university environments.
Tabagismo em universitários de ciências da saúde: prevalência e conhecimento
Botelho, Clovis;Silva, Ana Maura Pereira da;Melo, Claudia Duarte;
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-37132011000300013
Abstract: objective: to determine the prevalence of smoking and the level of knowledge about smoking among undergraduate health sciences students. methods: this was a cross-sectional study. a self-administered structured questionnaire was completed in the classroom by senior undergraduate health sciences students in the cities of cuiabá and várzea grande, brazil. we evaluated students at one public university and two private universities. five variables were studied: age, gender, type of course, smoking status, and knowledge about smoking. the knowledge variable was divided into five parts: smoking as a disease; smoking/nicotine as a cause of dependence; specific education on smoking; major obstacles to the success of smoking cessation; and forms of smoking treatment. only the medical students responded to questions related to the last two items. results: the prevalence of smoking ranged from 9.3% at the public university to 21.1% at one of the two private universities. approximately 30% of the respondents were unable to identify nicotine as the cause of dependence, 20.8% did not consider smoking a disease, and 47.2% reported that they had never received any instruction on the topic of smoking. the medical students enrolled at the public university showed the highest level of knowledge regarding the various forms of smoking treatment. conclusions: the prevalence of smoking among the university students in our sample was high. their knowledge about smoking was insufficient, which suggests inadequacy of the curricula at these universities
Compara??o entre dois métodos de avalia??o do controle da asma baseados na percep??o individual
Almeida, Paula Cristina Andrade;Souza-Machado, Adelmir;Leite, Mylene dos Santos;Castro, Lourdes Alzimar Mendes de;Coelho, Ana Carla Carvalho;Cruz, Constan?a Sampaio;Cruz, álvaro Augusto;
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-37132012000300004
Abstract: objective: to compare the subjective perception of asthma control reported by the patient with that measured by the score obtained on the asthma control questionnaire 6-item version (acq-6) in patients with severe asthma and to determine whether asthma control is associated with the number of emergency room visits in the previous month. methods: this was a cross-sectional study involving 528 patients treated at the bahia state asthma and allergic rhinitis control program central referral clinic between august of 2008 and march of 2010, in the city of salvador, brazil. the patients completed the acq-6 and answered a specific additional question in order to evaluate their own perception of asthma control in the previous week. results: we evaluated 423 patients who met the inclusion criteria. the sample was predominantly female (81.3%), and 64.3% had an income lower than two times the national minimum wage. the mean age was 49.85 ± 13.71 years, and the duration of asthma symptoms was 32.11 ± 16.35 years. the patients had been regularly treated via the program for 36.65 ± 18.10 months. based on the subjective perception of asthma control, only 8% of the patients considered their asthma to be uncontrolled, whereas 38.8% had an acq-6 score > 1.5, which indicates poor control. the kappa statistic revealed poor concordance between the two methods. there was a direct association between uncontrolled asthma and the number of emergency room visits in the previous month (p < 0.001). conclusions: in this sample of patients, the subjective perception of asthma control differed from that measured by the acq-6 score, and the patients overestimated their own level of asthma control, which puts them at risk of being undertreated.
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