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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 58930 matches for " Quanhe Yang "
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Sample size requirements to detect the effect of a group of genetic variants in case-control studies
Ramal Moonesinghe, Quanhe Yang, Muin J Khoury
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1742-7622-5-24
Abstract: We present a simple method for determining approximate sample sizes required to detect the average joint effect of a group of genetic variants in a case-control study for multiplicative models.For a range of reasonable numbers of genetic variants, the sample size requirements for the test statistic proposed here are generally not larger than those needed for assessing marginal effects of individual variants and actually decline with increasing number of genetic variants in many situations considered in the group.When a significant effect of the group of genetic variants is detected, subsequent multiple tests could be conducted to detect which individual genetic variants and their combinations are associated with disease risk. When testing for an effect size in a group of genetic variants, one can use our global test described in this paper, because the sample size required to detect an effect size in the group is comparatively small. Our method could be viewed as a screening tool for assessing groups of genetic variants involved in pathogenesis and etiology of common complex human diseases.With the completion of the Human Genome Project and continuing advances in gene mapping and sequencing [1], there is an increasing interest in discovery and characterization of thousands of genetic variants as potential risk factors for common diseases of public health significance [2]. The search for genetic variants is currently hampered by numerous challenges, including the sheer number of genetic variants, the lack of replication of findings in many observational studies, and study design considerations (such as selection bias and confounding) [2-4]. Because the etiology of most common diseases such as cancer, heart disease and diabetes is due to complex genetic and environmental factors, a particular concern in the design of epidemiologic studies is the lack of statistical power to examine the joint effects and statistical interactions of several genetic variants, especially
Association between Usual Sodium and Potassium Intake and Blood Pressure and Hypertension among U.S. Adults: NHANES 2005–2010
Zefeng Zhang, Mary E. Cogswell, Cathleen Gillespie, Jing Fang, Fleetwood Loustalot, Shifan Dai, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Elena V. Kuklina, Yuling Hong, Robert Merritt, Quanhe Yang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075289
Abstract: Objectives Studies indicate high sodium and low potassium intake can increase blood pressure suggesting the ratio of sodium-to-potassium may be informative. Yet, limited studies examine the association of the sodium-to-potassium ratio with blood pressure and hypertension. Methods We analyzed data on 10,563 participants aged ≥20 years in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who were neither taking anti-hypertensive medication nor on a low sodium diet. We used measurement error models to estimate usual intakes, multivariable linear regression to assess their associations with blood pressure, and logistic regression to assess their associations with hypertension. Results The average usual intakes of sodium, potassium and sodium-to-potassium ratio were 3,569 mg/d, 2,745 mg/d, and 1.41, respectively. All three measures were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, with an increase of 1.04 mmHg (95% CI, 0.27–1.82) and a decrease of 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 0.31–2.70) per 1,000 mg/d increase in sodium or potassium intake, respectively, and an increase of 1.05 mmHg (95% CI, 0.12–1.98) per 0.5 unit increase in sodium-to-potassium ratio. The adjusted odds ratios for hypertension were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.07–1.83), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.53–0.97) and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.05–1.61), respectively, comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of usual intake of sodium, potassium or sodium-to-potassium ratio. Conclusions Our results provide population-based evidence that concurrent higher sodium and lower potassium consumption are associated with hypertension.
Genomic DNA Methylation Changes in Response to Folic Acid Supplementation in a Population-Based Intervention Study among Women of Reproductive Age
Krista S. Crider, Eoin P. Quinlivan, Robert J. Berry, Ling Hao, Zhu Li, David Maneval, Thomas P. Yang, Sonja A. Rasmussen, Quanhe Yang, Jiang-Hui Zhu, Dale J. Hu, Lynn B. Bailey
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028144
Abstract: Folate is a source of one-carbons necessary for DNA methylation, a critical epigenetic modification necessary for genomic structure and function. The use of supplemental folic acid is widespread however; the potential influence on DNA methylation is unclear. We measured global DNA methylation using DNA extracted from samples from a population-based, double-blind randomized trial of folic acid supplementation (100, 400, 4000 μg per day) taken for 6 months; including a 3 month post-supplementation sample. We observed no changes in global DNA methylation in response to up to 4,000 μg/day for 6 months supplementation in DNA extracted from uncoagulated blood (approximates circulating blood). However, when DNA methylation was determined in coagulated samples from the same individuals at the same time, significant time, dose, and MTHFR genotype-dependent changes were observed. The baseline level of DNA methylation was the same for uncoagulated and coagulated samples; marked differences between sample types were observed only after intervention. In DNA from coagulated blood, DNA methylation decreased (?14%; P<0.001) after 1 month of supplementation and 3 months after supplement withdrawal, methylation decreased an additional 23% (P<0.001) with significant variation among individuals (max+17%; min-94%). Decreases in methylation of ≥25% (vs. <25%) after discontinuation of supplementation were strongly associated with genotype: MTHFR CC vs. TT (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 12.9, 95%CI 6.4, 26.0). The unexpected difference in DNA methylation between DNA extracted from coagulated and uncoagulated samples in response to folic acid supplementation is an important finding for evaluating use of folic acid and investigating the potential effects of folic acid supplementation on coagulation.
Race-ethnic differences in the association of genetic loci with HbA1c levels and mortality in U.S. adults: the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)
Jonna L Grimsby, Bianca C Porneala, Jason L Vassy, Quanhe Yang, José C Florez, Josée Dupuis, Tiebin Liu, Ajay Yesupriya, Man-Huei Chang, Renee M Ned, Nicole F Dowling, Muin J Khoury, James B Meigs, The MAGIC Investigators
BMC Medical Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-13-30
Abstract: We studied 3,041 non-diabetic individuals in the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) III. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity (NHW: non-Hispanic white; NHB: non-Hispanic black; MA: Mexican American) to calculate RAF, calculated a genotype score by adding risk SNPs, and tested associations with SNPs and the genotype score using an additive genetic model, with type 1 error?=?0.05.RAFs varied widely and at six loci race-ethnic differences in RAF were significant (p?<?0.0002), with NHB usually the most divergent. For instance, at ATP11A, the SNP RAF was 54% in NHB, 18% in MA and 14% in NHW (p?<?.0001). The mean genotype score differed by race-ethnicity (NHW: 10.4, NHB: 11.0, MA: 10.7, p?<?.0001), and was associated with increase in HbA1c in NHW (β?=?0.012 HbA1c increase per risk allele, p?=?0.04) and MA (β?=?0.021, p?=?0.005) but not NHB (β?=?0.007, p?=?0.39). The genotype score was not associated with mortality in any group (NHW: OR (per risk allele increase in mortality)?=?1.07, p?=?0.09; NHB: OR?=?1.04, p?=?0.39; MA: OR?=?1.03, p?=?0.71).At many HbA1c loci in NHANES III there is substantial RAF race-ethnic heterogeneity. The combined impact of common HbA1c-associated variants on HbA1c levels varied by race-ethnicity, but did not influence mortality.
Optical Properties of Ag–Al2O3 Cermet Composite Films

WANG Quanhe,XU Gang,LIANG Qing,CHEN Lihua,XU Xueqing,

材料研究学报 , 2010,
Abstract: The Ag–Al2O3 cermet composite films with different filling factor were deposted on borosilicate glass substrates by magnetron sputtering. The spectral properties and structures of the films have been analysed by UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) respectively. The optical constants of the films were calculated by means of the Hadley equation based on the transmittance spectra and reflectance spectra. The variation of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks with filling factor was investigated. The results show that in certain extent the FWHF(full–width at half maximum) and intensity of SPR peaks increase with increasing filling factor, and SPR peaks redshifts with increasing filling factor.
Fundamental Research on the Administrative Discretion Standard  [PDF]
Yang Yang
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.33017
Abstract: This paper describes a system for the analysis of the administrative discretion standard. Now, it is a new phenomenon in the practice of administrative law enforcement. We shall first briefly introduce fuzzy sets and related concepts of the administrative discretion standard, and then, we try to introduce the intrinsic value of its legitimacy. At the same time, the research standard of interpretation, procedure and “requirements-effect” are discussed based on the analysis through its content. From the above discussion, the conclusion can be reached that it is the power’s structure to deal with individuals and societies on the micro side.
Study of Improving the Management System of Temporary Resident Population  [PDF]
Yang Yang
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2013.14019
Abstract: Due to the function for management is abnormally amplified, its service’s function is not well reflected when it is carried out for the Management System for Temporary Resident Population. So it will face enormous pressure and there are many problems for the management system for the temporary residential permit and it need to further be strict and improved. Our government should change from the prevention and control management for the past into the service management which emphasizes on both management and service according to the concept of people-oriented on the basis of retaining and improving the tem-porary residence registration in current. Firstly, they should further intensify the reform of the household registration system to introduce the concept of citizen treatment and continue to reinforce the value of temporary residential permits. Secondly, the departments will perform their functions and adhere to com-prehensively management. Thirdly, they should establish the population management information net-work to share the resources.
Procedure Standard and Administrative Investigation
—Realization of the Self-Discipline Principle
 [PDF]

Yang Yang
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.34016
Abstract:

How to effectively protect the interests and rights of individuals and how to even realize a higher-level goal, individual justice and creative property are disturbing problems in administrative investigation. However, the complexity of the problem is increased because it includes arbitrary investigation and compulsory investigation. The specialness of the problem can be discovered through the clarity of administrative investigations on the attribution of concrete administrative acts. There is another effective method, namely the procedure standard reflecting the self-discipline principle except the mainstream method of right-control (i.e. judicial review). It is a combination of self-discipline with right-control, and may be one of the methods keeping pace with judicial review to realize the above-mentioned goal.

Analysis of Solution to Environmental Law Education for College Students  [PDF]
Yang Yang
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.43013
Abstract:

The environmental crisis is one of three major crises to human’s development. But there are a series of issues in present for environmental law education of college students, such as this course, which are low offered and lack of sustainability, colleges and universities do not pay enough attention to it. They are weak in the relevant basic theory and they are lack of vocational training and so on. In order to solve the above problems, we can try to do the “two combinations”. The first is the combination vocational training and basic knowledge and the second is combining vocational training in the classroom with outside of the classroom in environmental law.

Study of the Development of Youth Culture under the Background of Advanced Culture  [PDF]
Yang Yang
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.41008
Abstract:

It refers to the sum total of value system, behavioral norms and social relationships accepted by young generations for youth culture which has the characteristic of hierarchy, variability and rebellion. It has also had positive and negative functions. It is the mutual influence and mutual promoting relationship between the youth culture and advanced culture. Comrade Hu Jintao puts forward three wishes to the majority of young people, but also gives the youth culture three new elements, which are diligent in learning, good at creating and making contribution. In the new period, the youth culture will further be boosted when we are developing advanced culture.

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