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User Informatics Optimized Search and Retrieval-Congestion Avoidance Scheme for 4G Networks  [PDF]
Pushpa Pushpa, Sweta Sneha, Rajeev Agrawal
Communications and Network (CN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2012.43026
Abstract: The objective of 4G network is to provide best services to the users which in turn made the performance of existing network more critical. Further, the large traffic generated in such networks creates congestion resulting in overloading of the system. Frequent delays, loss of packets, and in addition the number of retransmission/paging also increases the computational cost of the system. This paper proposes a novel way to reduce overloading and retrieval mechanism for VLR through optimized search, based on the information of users mobility pattern (User profiles based (UPB)) to track the user. This not only improves the overall performance of the system, especially in the events when the visitor location register (VLR) is overloaded due to heavy traffic and congestion of the network. It was also established through simulation studies that the proposed UPB scheme optimizes the search and reduces the average waiting time in a queue. In addition, the provision of VLRW (waiting visitor location register) avoids the overloading of main VLR and provides a recovery/retrieval mechanism for VLR failure.
Sero-Prevalence of Paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) in Cattle Population of South-Western Bangalore Using ELISA Kit  [PDF]
Anvita Gupta, Sobha M. Rani, Pushpa Agrawal, Praveen Kumar Gupta
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.24031
Abstract: Johne's disease or paratuberculosis is a chronic mycobacterial infection that affects cattle, sheep, goats and other ruminants, adversely, leading to huge economic losses throughout the world. The estimation of sero-prevalence of this disease in the cattle population of south-western Bangalore, Karnataka, using an immunological assay and statistical analyses, was the objective of this study. One of the diagnostic tools used to detect an antigen or an antibody in animal serum or milk is the Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay, which has been widely used in the research and diagnosis of animal and human diseases as its accuracy is of nanogram-picogram/milliltre level. In the present study, indirect-ELISA was used to diagnose and estimate the sero-prevalence of paratuberculosis in cattle showing diarrhoea and/or anaemia, at 5 local dairy farms in south-west Bangalore, India. Out of 350 bovine serum samples, 53 (15.14%) were positive, 55 milk samples out of 300 were found positive (18.33%) for antibody against Johne's disease by indirect ELISA. The positive samples were then confirmed by direct smear examination of dung by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Statistical analyses were carried out to indicate the seroprevalence of Johne's disease in the cattle population of this region to be 15 ± 10%, taking a confidence interval of 95%. The results emphasize the need to prevent the further spread of infection to other susceptible animals and humans as the causative organism, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is implicated in Crohn's disease, an irritable bowel syndrome in humans.
Srivastava Ajeet Kumar,Agrawal Pushpa
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Lignocellulosic material is one of the most abundant, renewable and inexpensive energy resources for bioethanol production. These materials are mainly composed of three groups of polymers namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sugar rich fractions of interest for use in fermentation processes such as ethanol production. Cellulase production by the different fungi like Trichoderma reesei (MTCC-4876), Phanerochaete chrysosporium (MTCC-787) and Aspergillus awamori (MTCC-6652) were studied using different substrates (rice straw, wheat straw and rice husk) by keeping the concentration constant at 5g/ 150 ml. The subculture medium was a salt solution consisting of KH2PO4, CaCl2, etc. Fungal cells were sub-cultured in an orbital shaker (180 rpm) at 30°C for 1-2 generations (two days for each generation) and were then used as inoculums. The maximum cellulase production and saccharification observed in the presence of combination of fungi with treated rice straw. Further Zymomonas mobilis bacteria was used for carrying out fermentation of sugars to ethanol production. Among the three raw materials studied the ethanol yield was observed to be the highest in rice straw ( 9.5 g/l ).
Neeta Shivakumar*, Pushpa Agrawal and Praveen Kumar Gupta
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: The people in India have an outstanding knowledge of medicinal plants acquired over centuries. A passion for studying medicinal plants is evident both in folk and scholarly traditions. The indigenous mode of understanding and using plants is different from the modern scientific way. It includes botanical, medical and astrological elements. This is the basis of green pharmacy. Indians obviously care for medicinal plants because they know so many of them, so much about them and have worked extensively on their application. It is a remarkable fact that the use of medicinal plants is still a living tradition in the form of a million village-based folk carriers. These traditional birth attendants, bonesetters, herbal healers and wandering monks are invisible to policy makers and therefore not taken into account as a public health resource. Apart from these specialised folk healers there are also millions of women and elders with traditional knowledge of food and nutrition and herbal home-remedies. However, the revitalisation of this vast and diverse folk tradition does not appear on the Governments agenda. Here is an attempt to introduce these traditional knowledge with an emphasis of Nevadensin that holds a promising substance to cure many of the diseases naturally.
Gupta Praveen Kumar,Agrawal Pushpa,Hegde Prabha
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Xylan is an important structural component of plant biomass left in agricultural wastes. It is the most abundant of all of the hemicellulosic materials in the world. A number of economically valuable products such as xylose and xylitol can be made from Xylan, but one category of emerging importance is Xylooligosaccharides (XOS). Xylans are present not only in wood but also in various other plants such as grasses, cereals, and herbs. They constitute 5-35% of the dry tissues of lignocellulosic materials and occur up to 50% in some cereal grains. Non-digestible oligosaccharides are low molecular weight carbohydrates of intermediate in nature between simple sugars and polysaccharides. They can be obtained by direct extraction from natural sources or produced by chemical processes hydrolyzing polysaccharides or by enzymatic and chemical synthesis from disaccharides. XOS have great prebiotic potential and can be incorporated into many food products. XOS seem to exert their nutritional bene ts in various animal species, which by definition have an intestinal tract populated by a complex, bacterial intestinal ecosystem.
Enterococci in river Ganga surface waters: Propensity of species distribution, dissemination of antimicrobial-resistance and virulence-markers among species along landscape
Pushpa Lata, Siya Ram, Madhoolika Agrawal, Rishi Shanker
BMC Microbiology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-140
Abstract: Enterococci density (χ2: 1900, df: 1; p < 0.0001) increased from up-to-down gradient sites in the landscape. Species diversity exhibit significant (χ2: 100.4, df: 20; p < 0.0001) and progressive distribution of E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. durans and E. hirae down the gradient. Statistically discernible (p: 0.0156 – < 0.0001) background pool of resistance and virulence was observed among different Enterococcus spp. recovered from five sites in the up-to-down gradient landscape. A significant correlation was observed in the distribution of multiple-antimicrobial-resistance (viz., erythromycin-rifampicin-gentamicin-methicillin and vancomycin-gentamicin-streptomycin; rs: 0.9747; p: 0.0083) and multiple-virulence-markers (viz., gelE+esp+; rs: 0.9747; p: 0.0083; gelE+efaA+; rs: 0.8944; p: 0.0417) among different Enterococcus spp.Our observations show prevalence of multiple-antimicrobial-resistance as well as multiple-virulence traits among different Enterococcus spp. The observed high background pool of resistance and virulence in enterococci in river waters of populous countries has the potential to disseminate more alarming antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic bacteria of same or other lineage in the environment. Therefore, the presence of elevated levels of virulent enterococci with emerging vancomycin resistance in surface waters poses serious health risk in developing countries like India.Enterococci, commensal organisms in gastrointestinal tract of human and animals have emerged as a leading cause of nosocomial infections [1]. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and E. faecium are the two major pathogenic species in human, with sporadic infections caused by E. durans, E. hirae and other enterococci [2]. The presence of enterococci as an indicator of fecal contamination has been used in management of recreational water quality standards as it correlates best with the incidence of swimming-related illnesses [3,4]. Various virulence traits such as gelatinase (gelE), ente
Redox biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: protein-protein interaction between GlgB and WhiB1 involves exchange of thiol-disulfide
Saurabh Garg, Md Suhail Alam, Richa Bajpai, KV Radha Kishan, Pushpa Agrawal
BMC Biochemistry , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2091-10-1
Abstract: Using yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified alpha (1,4)-glucan branching enzyme (GlgB) of M. tuberculosis as a interaction partner of WhiB1. In vitro GST pull down assay confirmed the direct physical interaction between GlgB and WhiB1. Both mass spectrometry data of tryptic digests and in vitro labeling of cysteine residues with 4-acetamido-4' maleimidyl-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid showed that in GlgB, C95 and C658 are free but C193 and C617 form an intra-molecular disulfide bond. WhiB1 has a C37XXC40 motif thus a C40S mutation renders C37 to exist as a free thiol to form a hetero-disulfide bond with the cysteine residue of substrate protein. A disulfide mediated binary complex formation between GlgB and WhiB1C40S was shown by both in-solution protein-protein interaction and thioredoxin affinity chromatography. Finally, transfer of reducing equivalent from WhiB1 to GlgB disulfide was confirmed by 4-acetamido-4' maleimidyl-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid trapping by the reduced disulfide of GlgB. Two different thioredoxins, TrxB/Rv1471 and TrxC/Rv3914 of M. tuberculosis could not perform this reaction suggesting that the reduction of GlgB by WhiB1 is specific.We conclude that M. tuberculosis GlgB has one intra-molecular disulfide bond which is formed between C193 and C617. WhiB1, a thioredoxin like protein interacts with GlgB and transfers its electrons to the disulfide thus reduces the intra-molecular disulfide bond of GlgB. For the first time, we report that GlgB is one of the in vivo substrate of M. tuberculosis WhiB1.A large number of cellular processes are mediated through protein-protein interactions. In general, these interactions are non-covalent and are outcome of hydrophobic or ionic or both interactions. In case of thioredoxin (Trx), a protein-protein interaction is followed by the exchange of disulfide from thioredoxin to the substrate protein. Trx is a major protein disulfide reductase responsible for maintaining the redox state of cytosol. They are i
Gupta Praveen kumar,Agrawal Pushpa,Shivakumar Neeta,Hiremath Suhasini.B
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Bioinformatics and Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field that applies the techniques of computer science, applied mathematics and statistics to address biological problems. Research in computational biology often overlaps with systems biology. Major research efforts in the field include sequence alignment, gene finding, genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure prediction, prediction of gene expression and protein-protein interactions, and the in silico drug modelling. Drug discovery is an intense, lengthy and interdisciplinary endeavour. It is mostly portrayed as a linear, consecutive process that starts with target and lead discovery, followed by lead optimization and pre-clinical in vivo and in vitro studies to determine if such compounds satisfy a numbers of pre-set criteria for initiating clinical developments. In silico methods help in identifying drug targets via bioinformatics tools. They can be used to analyze the target structures for possible binding sites, generate candidate molecules, check for their drug likeness, dock these molecules with the target, rank them according to their binding affinities and further optimize the molecules to improve binding characteristics.
CT Findings in Patients with Esophageal Carcinoma and Its Correlation with Esophagographic Findings  [PDF]
Basudev Agrawal
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2018.82013
Abstract: Aim of the Study: Aim of this study is to evaluate the patients of biopsy proven esophageal carcinoma with Contrast CT studies (CECT thorax, abdomen or neck), correlate and compare the CT findings with esophagographic findings in each case and with biopsy findings wherever possible. Materials and Methods: Fifty (50) biopsy proven cases of esophageal carcinoma were taken into study in Radiology Department of Govt. Medical College, Patiala, Punjab after informed consents. All the patients underwent esophagography with barium sulphate as the contrast material and contrast enhanced CT scan of neck and/or thorax and/or abdomen. In all cases, esophagographic study preceded the CT scan. The time gap between the two studies was kept to the minimum to make the studies comparable. Results: The CT findings were found to have significant correlation with the esophagographic findings (p value > 0.05 in each finding) in regard to luminal narrowing, proximal dilatation and hold up of contrast, eccentricity of growth, site involved, length of growth, involvement of pyriform sinuses/valeculla and involvement of GE junction. Conclusions: CT study primarily helps to rule out unresectable or distant metastatic disease. Barium studies cannot provide any information regarding local invasion into mediastinal structures, regional or non-regional lymphadenopathy or metastases to distant organs which are significant for determining the treatment modality. CT has an advantage over esophagography for these information.
Interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RshA and SigH Is Mediated by Salt Bridges
Shiva Kumar, Suguna Badireddy, Kuntal Pal, Shikha Sharma, Chandni Arora, Saurabh K. Garg, Mohamed Suhail Alam, Pushpa Agrawal, Ganesh Srinivasan Anand, Kunchithapadam Swaminathan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043676
Abstract: The alternate sigma factor sigH of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is expressed under stress and acts as a major regulator of several genes, including some other sigma factors and redox systems. While it is auto-regulated by its own promoter at the transcriptional level, its regulation at the post-translational level is through its cognate protein, an anti-sigma factor, RshA. Hither before RshA was believed to be a zinc-associated anti-sigma factor (ZAS) and the binding of RshA to SigH is redox dependent. Here, we show that RshA coordinates a [2Fe-2S] cluster using cysteines as ligands and native RshA has more affinity to [2Fe-2S] cluster than to zinc. Furthermore, we used amide hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS), followed by site-directed mutagenesis in SigH and RshA, to elucidate the interaction mechanism of RshA and SigH and the potential role of metal ion clustering in SigH regulation. Three regions in SigH, comprising of residues 1–25, 58–69, 90–111, 115–132 and 157–196 and residues 35–57 of RshA show decreased deuterium exchange and reflect decreased solvent accessibility upon complexation with SigH. Of the three RshA mutants, created based on the HDX results, the RsHA E37A mutant shows stronger interaction with SigH, relative to WT RshA, while the H49A mutant abolishes interactions and the C(53)XXC(56)AXXA mutant has no effect on complexation with SigH. The D22A, D160A and E162 SigH mutants show significantly decreased binding to RshA and the E168A mutant completely abolished interactions with RshA, indicating that the SigH-RshA interaction is mediated by salt bridges. In addition, SigH-RshA interaction does not require clustering of metal ions. Based on our results, we propose a molecular model of the SigH-RshA interaction.
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