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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8101 matches for " Pulmonary tuberculosis "
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Pulmonary and Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Qatar: A First Retrospective Population-Based Study  [PDF]
Mohammed Abu Khattab, Fahmi Yousef Khan, Mona Al Maslamani, Abdul Latif Al-Khal, Akram El Gendy, Hussam Al Soub, Faraj S. Howady
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2015.54018
Abstract: Background: There is limited information about extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in Qatar. The aim of this study is to describe the demographic characteristics of patients with Tuberculosis (TB) in Qatar, and to compare the characteristics of EPTB with those of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). Patients and Methods: The study was conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) in Qatar, from January 2005 to December 2008. It involves all cases of TB diagnosed in Qatar which do not include patients who are diagnosed by routine screening tests upon entry to state of Qatar. Results: 1221 cases of TB were reported; 654 (53.6%) were EPTB; and 567 (46.4%) were PTB. Nine hundred fifty-one (77.9%) were males and two hundred and seventy (22.1%) were females; the mean age was 32.7 ± 811.7 years; only 6.9% (84/1221) of them were Qataris. The most frequent associated condition was diabetesmellitus (DM) (30; 2.5%), and the most frequent site involved was lymph node (285 cases; 43.5%). One thousand two hundred patients continued on first-line drugs while 21 patients received second line treatment. The mean duration of antituberculous therapy was 6.7 ± 1.7 months. Hepatitis was the main drug toxicity. Eight hundred and forty seven patients (69.3%) cured and eight patients (0.7%) died, whereas the remaining three hundred and sixty-six patients (30.0%) had left the country before completing therapy. The proportion of EPTB among females was higher than males, whereas diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with PTB. Conclusion: TB is still common in Qatar with predominance of EPTB. Although male predominated, the proportion of TB, EPTB among females was higher than males.
Evaluation of Increased Sensitivity of Morning Bleach Sample for Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli in Pulmonary Samples  [PDF]
Pranali Pingle, Pradeep Apte, Rakesh Trivedi
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2014.23015
Abstract: Around 85% of the cases of Tuberculosis (TB) are pulmonary in origin and the routine diagnosis usually depends on sputum microscopy. The conventional direct Ziehl-Nelson (ZN) staining technique has been found to have a low sensitivity. The main objective of the study was to verify whether the bleach concentration method increases the sensitivity of sputum smear microscopy for AFB or not and also to see whether the first single morning sample alone is sufficient and better than the three pooled samples after bleach concentration followed by ZN staining. A total of 365 samples were studied from 131 clinically suspected cases of pulmonary TB which included sputum (112), gastric aspirate (5), endotracheal tube washing (2), and bronchial lavage (12). All these samples were processed for conventional ZN staining and Bleach concentration method followed by ZN staining. An increase in positivity was observed in all the cases after using the bleach concentration method and the most significantly useful was that in the case of first morning sputum samples where it increased from 11.6% to 41.96%. Bleach concentration is a simple, cheap and easily available method and also very safe because it kills the Mycobacteria in the process. Its positivity rate is better as compared to direct conventional ZN staining.
Serum Lipase in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Kinshasa—A Hospital Based Study  [PDF]
M. K. Mbelu, J. J. Malemba, B. Kabengele, J. M. Kayembe, D. N. Kayembe
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.62015
Abstract: Context: The increase of serum lipase is established for pancreatic and bile duct disorders. However, the production of this enzyme by other organs, including the lungs, leads to the question of its potential role in the diagnosis of other conditions including lung diseases. Objective: The aim of the present study was to describe the profile of serum lipase in patients who suffered from the pulmonary tuberculosis and to identify its determinants. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed from July to October 2013 in four hospitals of Kinshasa (The University Hospital of Kinshasa, Lisanga medical Center and 2 medical centers of Save Army). Patients who suffered from tuberculosis were included. The levels of serum lipase, triglyceridemia, cholesterolemia, c-reactive protein were noted, as so as the hemogram profile and the prescribed treatment (category and phase). Results: One hundred and twenty-eight patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis were included. Forty three women (33.6%) and 85 men (66.4%). The sex ratio M/F was 1:9. Hyperlipasemia was observed in 44.5% of patients. The average level of serum lipase was 36.6 ± 5.0 IU/L (normal value: ≤ 38 IU/L) in tuberculosis patients and 30 ± 2.3 IU/L in controls The lipid profile of the patients was normal. Conclusion: L Hyperlipasemia can be encountered, in varying proportions, during pulmonary tuberculosis. It would be an indication of inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma.
Frecuencia de tuberculosis pulmonar y extrapulmonar en un hospital de referencia de la provincia de Córdoba: 1991-2003
Soldá,P.A.; Rojo,S.C.; Cosiansi,M.C.; Barnes,A.I.;
Revista argentina de microbiolog?-a , 2005,
Abstract: tuberculosis continues to be a serious problem of public health causing nearly three million deaths per year all over the world. despite technologic improvements in the diagnostic methods, it is not possible to control the disease in the absence of surveillance and treatment follow-up programs supervising the ending of treatments, and definitive cure of patients. the frequency of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and simultaneous pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis localization among patients assisted at tránsito cáceres de allende hospital during thirteen years (1991-2003), was determined. the benefit of inoculating the specimens on stonebrink medium for the best recuperation of mycobacterium bovis was herein observed, and the contribution of ziehl neelsen staining in extrapulmonary materials was tested as well. out of 790 cases of tuberculosis diagnosed, 723 were pulmonary, and 48 were extrapulmonary localization (pleural 31, renal 7, ganglionar 5, meningeal 2, genital 1, pericardial 1 and digestive 1), and 19 patients presented both, pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. out of the 723 pulmonary cases, 9 were caused by m. bovis. all m. bovis isolates grew on stonebrink medium, and only one grew also on lowenstein jensen. smear microscopy using ziehl neelsen staining resulted positive in 4 extrapulmonary specimens.
Tuberculosis in pregnancy—Diagnostic dilemma  [PDF]
Narmatha Kangeyan, Sophia N. E. Webster, Aparna Sanyal, Remko Beukenholdt
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2012.22035
Abstract: The worldwide incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is rising and is linked to immigration patterns and the rise in incidence of HIV. Extra-pulmonary disease, in particular, can lead to diagnostic dilemmas. Because the total number of cases of TB in pregnancy in developed countries is small and often concentrated in specific urban areas with large immigrant populations, clinicians may rarely encounter the problem. This paper provides actual clinical experience of one recent case.
Association between Weight Change during Treatment and Treatment Outcome in Patients with Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis  [PDF]
Mohammad Khajedaluee, Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam, Davoud Attaran, Amirhossein Zabihi, Seyedhassan Ashrafi
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.46052

Tuberculosis (TB) is known as a disease of poverty and declared as a global public health emergency by World Health Organization (WHO). Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common type of TB and is a wasting disease. It is expected that the patients who lost weight during the course of disease, will gain weight during successful treatment. So the aim of this study was to assess the body weight changes through the treatment and its possible association with treatment outcome in TB patients in Nishapur, an ancient city in Razavi Khorasan province in Iran. This is an observational analytical study. Patients were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and available information. Treatment Protocol for all patients was Directly Observed Treatment, short Course Strategy (at least 6 months). All patients were weighed at the beginning of treatment, after two months and at the end of treatment. Outcome of treatment was classified into: cured, completed treatment, treatment failure and death. Then the impact of weight changes during treatment was compared in subgroups. From 874 patients, 819 patients (93.9%) were new cases, 48 (5.3%) relapse, 5 patients (0.6%) patients who did not complete their treatment and 2 (0.2%) had failed prior therapy. The most common symptoms in all patients were: cough, sputum, weight loss, fever, sweats, and hemoptysis. 8.1% of patients had radiologic signs and the most common signs were cavity (2.9%). The weight change during treatment was 2.91 ± 5.59 kg in cured group, 3.3 ± 3.29 kg in completed treatment group, 2.95 ± 5.59 kg in treatment failure group and 1.02 ± 3.27 in dead group respectively. These differences were statistically significant between the four groups (p < 0.03). We can conclude that body weight change can be used as a predictor for the treatment outcome.

Relationship between Nutritional Support and Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes in West Bengal, India  [PDF]
Blesson Samue, Tyson Volkmann, Sushma Cornelius, Sugata Mukhopadhay,   MejoJose, Kaushik Mitra, Ajay M. V. Kumar, John E. Oeltmann, Sidhajyoti Parija, Aslesh Ottapura Prabhakaran, Patrick K. Moonan, Vineet K. Chadha
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2016.44023
Abstract: Introduction: Poverty and poor nutrition are associated with the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). Socioeconomic factors may interfere with anti-tuberculosis treatment compliance and its outcome. We examined whether providing nutritional support (monthly supply of rice and lentil beans) to TB patients who live below the poverty line was associated with TB treatment outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients living below the poverty line (income of <$1.25 per day) registered for anti-tuberculosis treatment in two rural districts of West Bengal, India during 2012 to 2013. We compared treatment outcomes among patients who received nutritional support with those who did not. A log-binomial regression model was used to assess the relation between nutritional support and unsuccessful treatment outcome (loss-to-follow-up, treatment failure and death). Results: Of 173 TB patients provided nutritional support, 15 (9%) had unsuccessful treatment outcomes, while 84 (21%) of the 400 not provided nutrition support had unsuccessful treatment outcomes (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex and previous treatment, those who received nutritional support had a 50% reduced risk of unsuccessful treatment outcome than those who did not receive nutritional support (Relative Risk: 0.51; 95% Confidence Intervals: 0.30 - 0.86). Conclusion: Under programmatic conditions, monthly rations of rice and lentils were associated with lower risk of unsuccessful treatment outcome among impoverished TB patients. Given the relatively small financial commitment needed per patient ($10 per patient per month), the national TB programme should consider scaling up nutritional support among TB patients living below the poverty line.
Rapid Molecular Detection of Tuberculosis and Rifampicine Resistance in Ecuador  [PDF]
Fabián Pardón, Saddy Andrade, Lilian Campa?á, Homero Jinéz, José P. Barberán, Yolanda Valdés, Alexandra Narváez, Nancy V. Cajas
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2017.74013
Abstract: Background: In Ecuador, tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious problem that is complicated by the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). To evaluate this problem, this study was carried out at the Social Security Hospital (IESS) in Guayaquil, Ecuador from 2013 to 2015. Methods: The Xpert TB/RIF system was used to detect TB and MDR-TB and a survey was carried out to identify the factors that are potentially causing MDR-TB. Findings: 200 TB patients were confirmed on 5649 suspected patients and 20 (10%) with MDR-TB. It was observed that the annual prevalence of TB and MDR-TB had declining during study period. Trends have been declining but co-infection has doubled since 2009 with 16% of patients co-infected with HIV. Potential resistance factors identified were: disruption in drug supply, lack of resources and lack of credibility of treatment.
Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Morocco: A Two Year Retrospective Study  [PDF]
Hanaa Mouchrik, Abdelmajid Soulaymani, Mhammed Jabri, Hinde Hami, Abdelrhani Mokhtari
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.61010
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine the epidemiological features of pulmonary tuberculosis in the region of Gharb-Chrarda-Beni-Hssen in Morocco. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of pulmonary tuberculosis cases, diagnosed and treated at the regional diagnostic center of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases (RDCTRD) in Kenitra between January 2010 and December 2011. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 456 cases diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis at the RDCTRD, accounting for 51.3% of all tuberculosis cases reported during this period. More than two-thirds were men (69%), with a male-female ratio of 2.22 and 3.3% of cases were children under the age of 15 years. The average age of the patients was 37.07 ± 0.78 years. The average body weight at diagnosis of tuberculosis was 56.20 ± 0.55 kg for all patients. According to the results, 89% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases were microscopically positive. The majority of patients (80.3%) showed signs of tuberculous impregnation. Nearly three-quarters of these cases (71%) were smokers, 21% were cannabis addicts and 7% were alcoholics. Among the 427 cases for whom the outcome was known, 3 (0.7%) of them died. CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis can be controlled by preventing transmission and infection, by stopping the progression from latent infection to active tuberculosis, and by treating active disease.
Evaluation of nested PCR targeting IS6110 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis
I. Shukla
Biology and Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare sensitivity and specificity of the PCR from smear and culture in thediagnosis of suspected cases of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis. This study was carried out on 140specimens obtained from suspected cases of tuberculosis. The various specimens collected from these patientsincluded 74 sputum, 38 endometrial biopsies, 16 CSF and 12 gastric aspirates. All the specimens were tested byZN staining, culture was on L-J medium and PCR was performed for targeting IS6110 sequence. Out of 140patients, 61.4% were suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis and 38.5% from extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Inthese 140 patients, 40 (28.5%) were ZN smear positive for AFB, 48 (34.2%) were culture positive for AFB and104 (74.2%) were sensitive to nested PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We observed significant difference insensitivity of PCR for smear positive and negative cases, and also for culture positive and negative cases.
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