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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1976 matches for " Proteasome inhibition "
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Nuclear effects of ethanol-induced proteasome inhibition in liver cells
Fawzia Bardag-Gorce
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: Alcohol ingestion causes alteration in several cellular mechanisms, and leads to inflammation, apoptosis, immunological response defects, and fibrosis. These phenomena are associated with significant changes in the epigenetic mechanisms, and subsequently, to liver cell memory. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is one of the vital pathways in the cell that becomes dysfunctionial as a result of chronic ethanol consumption. Inhibition of the proteasome activity in the nucleus causes changes in the turnover of transcriptional factors, histone modifying enzymes, and therefore, affects epigenetic mechanisms. Alcohol consumption has been associated with an increase in histone acetylation and a decrease in histone methylation, which leads to gene expression changes. DNA and histone modifications that result from ethanol-induced proteasome inhibition are key players in regulating gene expression, especially genes involved in the cell cycle, immunological responses, and metabolism of ethanol. The present review highlights the consequences of ethanol-induced proteasome inhibition in the nucleus of liver cells that are chronically exposed to ethanol.
Autophagy-independent enhancing effects of Beclin 1 on cytotoxicity of ovarian cancer cells mediated by proteasome inhibitors
Liu Chuan,Yan Xu,Wang Hua-Qin,Gao Yan-Yan
BMC Cancer , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-622
Abstract: Background The ubiquitin-proteasome system and macroautophagy (hereafter referred to autophagy) are two complementary pathways for protein degradation. Emerging evidence suggests that proteasome inhibition might be a promising approach for tumor therapy. Accumulating data suggest that autophagy is activated as a compensatory mechanism upon proteasome activity is impaired. Method Autophagy activation was measured using acridine orange staining and LC3 transition. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Beclin 1 expression vectors or shRNA against Beclin 1 (shBeclin 1) were transfected to investigate the role of Beclin 1 in autophagy activation and cytotoxicity of ovarian cancer cells induced by proteasome inhibitors. Results Proteasome inhibitors suppressed proliferation and induced autophagy in ovarian cancer cells. Neither phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors nor shRNA against Beclin 1 could abolish the formation of acidic vacuoles and the processing of LC3 induced by proteasome inhibitors. Moreover, Beclin 1 overexpression enhanced anti-proliferative effects of proteasome inhibitors in ovarian cancer cells. Conclusions For the first time, the current study demonstrated that proteasome inhibitors induced PI3K and Beclin 1-independent autophagy in ovarian cancer cells. In addition, this study revealed autophagy-independent tumor suppressive effects of Beclin 1 in ovarian cancer cells.
Epigenetics of proteasome inhibition in the liver of rats fed ethanol chronically
Joan Oliva, Jennifer Dedes, Jun Li, Samuel W French, Fawzia Bardag-Gorce
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: AIM: To examine the effects of ethanol-induced proteasome inhibition, and the effects of proteasome inhibition in the regulation of epigenetic mechanisms.METHODS: Rats were fed ethanol for 1 mo using the Tsukamoto-French model and were compared to rats given the proteasome inhibitor PS-341 (Bortezomib, Velcade ) by intraperitoneal injection. Microarray analysis and real time PCR were performed and proteasome activity assays and Western blot analysis were performed using isolated nuclei.RESULTS: Chronic ethanol feeding caused a significant inhibition of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway in the nucleus, which led to changes in the turnover of transcriptional factors, histone-modifying enzymes, and, therefore, affected epigenetic mechanisms. Chronic ethanol feeding was related to an increase in histone acetylation, and it is hypothesized that the proteasome proteolytic activity regulated histone modifications by controlling the stability of histone modifying enzymes, and, therefore, regulated the chromatin structure, allowing easy access to chromatin by RNA polymerase, and, thus, proper gene expression. Proteasome inhibition by PS-341 increased histone acetylation similar to chronic ethanol feeding. In addition, proteasome inhibition caused dramatic changes in hepatic remethylation reactions as there was a significant decrease in the enzymes responsible for the regeneration of S-adenosylmethionine, and, in particular, a significant decrease in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase enzyme. This suggested that hypomethylation was associated with proteasome inhibition, as indicated by the decrease in histone methylation.CONCLUSION: The role of proteasome inhibition in regulating epigenetic mechanisms, and its link to liver injury in alcoholic liver disease, is thus a promising approach to study liver injury due to chronic ethanol consumption.
The Differential Effect of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on the Stability of BCL2-Family Members Involves Multiple Activities
Anthony Peter Sinai
Frontiers in Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00001
Abstract: The regulation of mitochondrial permeability, a key event in the initiation of apoptosis is governed by the opposing actions of the pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the BCL2-family of proteins. The BCL2-family can be classified further based on the number of BCL-homology (BH) domains they encode. Pathogen mediated modulation of BCL2-family members play a significant role in their ability to affect the apoptotic pathways in the infected host cell. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii establishes a profound blockade of apoptosis noted by a requirement for host NFκB activity and correlating with the selective degradation of pro-apoptotic BCL2-family members. In this study, we explore the potential activities associated with the inherent stability of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 as well as the selective degradation of the pro-apoptotic proteins BAX, BAD, and BID. We find that multiple activities govern the relative stability of BCL2-family members suggesting a complex and balanced network of stability-enhancing and–destabilizing activities are perturbed by parasite infection. The data leave open the possibility for both parasite induced host activities as well as the direct consequence of parasite effectors in governing the relative levels of BCL2-proteins in the course of infection.
Hsp90 and ECM29 Are Important to Maintain the Integrity of Mammalian 26S Proteasome  [PDF]
Jean-Rene Q. Acquah, Kousuke Haratake, Randeep Rakwal, Heiichiro Udono, Tomoki Chiba
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2015.57022
Abstract: The proteasome is a protease complex composed of a core particle (CP) and regulatory particles (RPs) that bind to both ends of the CP. ECM29 is a protein that associates with the proteasome and is involved in the maintenance and regulation of the proteasome assembly. However, ECM29 deficient mice can form functional proteasome. In this paper we sought to identify the mechanisms and/or proteins that help and allow the maintenance of the proteasome activity in the absence of ECM29. We analyzed the proteasome components of ECM29-deficient mice and identified Hsp90 as a protein associated with the proteasome. Furthermore, the inhibition of Hsp90 led to a partial disassembly of the proteasome only in ECM29-deficient cells. Those findings attest to the importance of Hsp90 for the maintenance of the proteasome integrity in the absence of ECM29.
The HB22.7 Anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody enhances bortezomib-mediated lymphomacidal activity in a sequence dependent manner
Shiloh M Martin, Eric Churchill, Hayes McKnight, Christopher M Mahaffey, Yunpeng Ma, Robert T O'Donnell, Joseph M Tuscano
Journal of Hematology & Oncology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-8722-4-49
Abstract: We previously validated CD22 as a potential target in treating NHL and have shown that the anti-CD22 ligand blocking antibody, HB22.7, has significant independent lymphomacidal properties in NHL xenograft models. We sought to determine whether or not these agents would work synergistically to enhance cytotoxicity. Our results indicate that treatment of NHL cell lines with HB22.7 six hours prior to bortezomib significantly diminished cell viability. These effects were not seen when the agents were administered alone or when bortezomib was administered prior to HB22.7. Additionally, HB22.7 treatment prior to bortezomib increased apoptosis in part through enhanced ROS generation. Finally, in a mouse xenograft model, administration of HB22.7 followed 24 hours later by bortezomib resulted in 23% smaller tumor volumes and 20% enhanced survival compared to treatment with the reverse sequence. Despite the increased efficacy of HB22.7 treatment followed by bortezomib, there was no corresponding decrease in peripheral blood cell counts, indicating no increase in toxicity. Our results suggest that pre-treatment with HB22.7 increases bortezomib cytotoxicity, in part through increased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis, and that this sequential treatment combination has robust efficacy in vivo.Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies; the majority are of B-cell origin [1]. Incidence rates have almost doubled in the last 40 years and NHL is now the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death in the US [2]. Initial therapy for NHL includes chemotherapy, biologic therapy, and radiotherapy, but relapse is common and the efficacy of chemotherapy is limited by toxicity [1]. Therefore, novel, less toxic therapeutic combinations are needed to improve patient survival.Bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341) is a reversible inhibitor of the 26S proteasome [3] and is approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and relapsed mantle cell lymphoma. The me
Administration of grape seed extract alleviates age-associated decline in ubiquitin-proteasome system and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rats  [PDF]
Arun Kumar Vijayakumar, Vasanthan Kuppuswamy, Panneerselvam Chinnakkannu
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2013.32029

Effective clearance of oxidized, damaged, and/or misfolded proteins in the cell by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is critical for cell homeostasis, survival and function. We hypothesized that in the aging heart, generation of free radicals could impair UPS where the associated build-up of polyubiquitinated proteins could trigger programmed cell death. To test this, we used young (4 months old) and aged (24 months old) rats to analyze polyubiquitinated proteins, proteasome activity and programmed cell death in the ventricular tissue samples. Our studies reveal excessive deposition of polyubiquitinated proteins in the ventricular tissue extracts of old rats when compared to younger rats. The increased ubiquitination was accompanied by a significant decrease in 20S proteasome activity. Since the loss of proteasome-mediated clearance of ubiquitinated proteins is linked to programmed cell death, we measured TUNEL activity in aged rat heart and compared with younger animals. Aged animal hearts showed a substantial increase in programmed cell death as evidenced by TUNEL positive nuclei and DNA fragmentation. Analyses of cell death/survival pathways support our findings in terms of age-associated increase in the nuclear localization of p53, Bax/Bcl2 ratio and cleaved (active) caspase-3 and decreased expression of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP1). Administration of grape seed extract (GSE) as a source of antioxidants significantly reduced these age-associated deleterious changes suggesting that free radicals primarily contribute to impaired UPS function and increased programmed cell death and that administration of antioxidants during aging could protect cardiac muscle cells and preserve ventricular

Polyubiquitination and Proteasome Signals in Tubulobulbar Complexes of Rat Late Spermatids  [PDF]
Manaka Akashi, Sadaki Yokota, Hideaki Fujita
CellBio (CellBio) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cellbio.2013.24019

To illustrate the involvement of tubulobulbar complexes (TBC) in ubiquitin-proteasome degradation of unnecessary proteins in the head cytoplasm of late spermatids, the localization of polyubiquitin and proteasome was studied by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Polyubiquitin localized to TBC and proteasome subunit α to dense materials surrounding the TBC in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cell enwrapping sickle-shaped spermatid heads. The results suggest that the TBC is a structural device for ubiquin-proteasome degradation of unnecessary proteins in the cytoplasm of spermatid head during rapid reduction of the head cytoplasm and nuclear compaction of late spermatids.

Effects of ethanol on the proteasome interacting proteins
Fawzia Bardag-Gorce
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Proteasome dysfunction has been repeatedly reported in alcoholic liver disease. Ethanol metabolism end-products affect the structure of the proteasome, and, therefore, change the proteasome interaction with its regulatory complexes 19S and PA28, as well as its interacting proteins. Chronic ethanol feeding alters the ubiquitin-proteasome activity by altering the interaction between the 19S and the 20S proteasome interaction. The degradation of oxidized and damaged proteins is thus decreased and leads to accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates, such as Mallory-Denk bodies. Ethanol also affects the immunoproteasome formation. PA28a/b interactions with the 20S proteasome are decreased in the proteasome fraction isolated from the liver of rats fed ethanol chronically, thus affecting the cellular antigen presentation and defense against pathogenic agents. Recently, it has been shown that ethanol also affects the proteasome interacting proteins (PIPs). Interaction of the proteasome with Ecm29 and with deubiquitinating enzymes Rpn11, UCH37, and Usp14 has been found to decrease. However, the two UBL-ubiquitin-associated domain (UBA) PIPs p62 and valosin-containing protein are upregulated when the proteasome is inhibited. The increase of these UBL-UBA proteins, as well as the increase in Hsp70 and Hsp25 levels, compensated for the proteasome failure and helped in the unfolding/docking of misfolded proteins. Chronic alcohol feeding to rats causes a significant inhibition of the proteasome pathway and this inhibition results from a decreases of the interaction between the 20S proteasome and the regulatory complexes, PIPs, and the ubiquitin system components.
The effects of proteasome inhibitor lactacystin on mouse oocyte meiosis and first cleavage
Xin Tan,An Peng,Yongchao Wang,Zuoqing Tang
Science China Life Sciences , 2005, DOI: 10.1007/BF03183623
Abstract: In order to study the effects of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) on mouse oocyte meiosis and cleavage, oocytes undergoing maturation and parthenogenetic activation and 1-cell embryos were treated with lactacystin, a specific inhibitor of proteasome. The results indicated that the rate of GVBD was not influenced by the treatment, but polar body extrusion, parthenogenesis and first cleavage were inhibited. Immunofluorescent staining using anti β-tubulin antibody indicated that the continuous treatment of lactacystin from GV stage disorganized microtubules and spindle assembly. When metaphase stage oocytes were treated with the drug, the already formed spindle structure was not affected, but the oocytes were arrested at metaphases. The 1-cell embryos were arrested at interphase or metaphase of first mitosis when they were incubated in the drug. Proteasome regulatory subunit PA700 was located in the spindle region, as indicated by immunofluorescence. These results suggest that UPP has effects on the process of oocyte meiosis and early cleavage in many aspects, including normal organization of spindle at prophase and segregation of chromosomes at anaphase for normal meiosis.
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