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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7411 matches for " Property Rights "
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Are the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights the Way for Development? A Precedence Investigation between Human Development Index and Index of Patent Rights  [PDF]
Christian Carvalho Ganzert, Beatriz Selan, Leonardo Augusto Amaral Terra
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.57069

The main question, which leads this analysis, interrogates the existence of a causality relation between the human development index and Index of Patent Rights. It was decided to use a database whereas all units of the cross section have the same periods of time for human development index and Index of Patent Rights. This database covers 84 countries with the two indicators between 1975 and 2005. By the use of the Granger test, it was found that Index of Patent Rights does not temporally precede human development index, which indicates the veracity and, consequently, the corroboration of the idea of Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights should represent the interests of the richer countries’ great corporations, and not the underdeveloped nations, as said in the statement of World Trade Organization.

The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights Violations on Economic Growth  [PDF]
Quan V. Le, Patrick G. McLennan
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.22015
Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between intellectual property rights (IPRs) and the growth rate of per capita GDP during the period 1996-2006 in a sample 71 countries. Using software piracy data as a proxy for IPR violations, we find that countries with increasing rates of software piracy have lower growth rates. We also find that states with strong commitments to enact policies to protect intellectual property rights are able to achieve higher growth rates.
Forest Tenure and Sustainable Forest Management  [PDF]
Jacek P. Siry, Kathleen McGinley, Frederick W. Cubbage, Pete Bettinger
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.55046
Abstract: We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands. The analyses of countries as a whole suggest that problems of forest land loss and sustainable forest management are related to the amount of public lands owned, as well as the difference between developed and developing countries. Developed countries have largely achieved a stable level of land use and resource extraction after centuries of exploitation of forests and natural resources. Many developed countries do have greater amounts of private forest land than developing countries, which have occurred as the countries transfer lands to private owners in the course of development. Public lands and management approaches require diligence, but can be developed to meet the design criteria suggested by tenure rights theorists. Private or communal ownership is often considered superior, but also must meet the criteria suggested above in order to foster sustainable forest management in poor countries.
Research on the Construction of Intellectual Property Operation Platform under the Background of “Internet +”  [PDF]
Junling Yin, Zhangzhi Ge, Wei Song
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2017.84016
Abstract: Intellectual property operation platform serves as an important bridge between promoting and realizing the value of intellectual property. And the construction and improvement of it holds the key to improve the level of intellectual property application and implement Chinese IPR strategy. Moreover, the coming of “Internet +” era creates a favorable environment for intellectual property operation platforms. The purpose of this paper is to explore how to build an intellectual property rights operation platform which has overall function under the background of “Internet +”, then to create a “one-stop” solution for intellectual property operation under demand orientation. The second step is to strengthen the external linkage between intellectual property operation platform and other platforms to integrate resources. The third step is to design the internal business module of intellectual property operation platform, emphasize the compatibility of different subjects’ interest in the platform and avoid the technical, legal and economic risks in the construction process of intellectual property operation platform.
Does the Central Government’s Anti-Corruption Campaign Have an Impact on Corporate Cost Stickiness?  [PDF]
Shimin Wang
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.810139
Abstract: This paper starts with the anti-corruption campaign of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), adopts the empirical method to study whether and how the anti-corruption campaign of the central government influences the cost stickiness of enterprises. And the paper further studies whether the anti-corruption campaign has different impacts on enterprises with different property rights. The results show that the cost stickiness of listed companies decreases significantly after the anti-corruption campaign. Compared with non-state-owned enterprises, the cost stickiness of state-owned enterprises weakened less after the anti-corruption campaign started. The research results of this paper show that anti-corruption can restrain the rent-seeking behavior of enterprises and make them apply more resources to normal production and operation activities.
Customer Concentration and Corporate Violations  [PDF]
Feng Qian
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.811144
Abstract: Customer concentration and corporate violations are two important research areas of corporate governance, but there are few studies that combine the customer concentration and corporate violations. The research in this paper finds that customer concentration has two effects on corporate violations: financial distress effects and governance effect. At the same time, through further analysis, it is found that the nature of property rights of enterprises will also have an impact on the relationship between the customer concentration and corporate violations.
Derechos de propiedad, herencia de las esposas e igualdad de género: aspectos comparativos entre Brasil e Hispanoamérica
Revista Estudos Feministas , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-026X2001000200007
Abstract: considerable gains were made in latin america over the course of the twentieth century in strengthening the property rights of married women. insufficient attention, nonetheless, has been given to the inheritance rights of wives. reviewing the legal norms for twelve countries, it is argued that widows are often in a disadvantaged position compared to the children of a couple. inheritance norms were not designed to give widows the possibility for economic autonomy, such as through control of the family farm or business. moreover, given the gender gap favoring women in the lengthening of life spans and the low coverage of social security (particularly in rural areas) in most countries, they are particularly vulnerable when they are widowed. the women's movement is urged to take on the issue of inheritance rights since strengthening these are necessary to achieve a redistribution of property and real gender equality.
Cause No Conflict
Kris Borer
Libertarian Papers , 2010,
Abstract: If property is defined as something over which an individual should have exclusive control, then the traditional notion of property must be abandoned. Specifically, the idea that a physical object is someone’s property fails to meet the definition given. This paper examines why an individual should not always have exclusive control over physical things, and, if not objects, what exactly an individual should have exclusive control over.The proposed solution is that property be delineated not by physical boundaries, but by human action. This does not include all action, for scarcity makes certain actions mutually exclusive. Therefore, property is conceived of as proper action, i.e., action consistent with the non-aggression principle. Those physical objects traditionally considered property are then simply means of proper action.The benefits of this change in perspective are then examined with regard to production, exchange, aggression and other related topics.
Why There are No Dilemmas in Widerquist’s ‘A Dilemma for Libertarians’
Lamont Rodgers
Libertarian Papers , 2009,
Abstract: Karl Widerquist has recently argued that libertarians face two dilemmas. The first dilemma arises because, contrary to what Widerquist takes libertarians to suggest, there is no conceptual link between robust property rights and the libertarian state. Private property rights can legitimately yield non-libertarian states. Libertarians must thus remain committed either to robust property rights or the libertarian state. I call this the “Conceptual Dilemma.”The second dilemma is empirical in nature. Libertarians can try to undermine state property rights by showing that the means by which all present states came to have their property was unjust. However, doing so would presumably undermine almost all the property claims of private individuals. So the dilemma is that libertarians can undermine state property rights only by undermining individual property rights, on the one hand. On the other, libertarians can vindicate private property rights of individuals only by vindicating state property rights. I call this the “Empirical Dilemma.”I attempt to diffuse both of these dilemmas here. I argue that the Conceptual Dilemma relies on a misunderstanding of the libertarian’s commitments. In particular, I show that libertarians need not think robust property rights can yield states more extensive than Nozick’s minimal state. I then argue that Widerquist ignores libertarian scholarship aimed at meeting the Empirical Dilemma. Many libertarians have attempted to demonstrate that there are legitimate private property rights which are illegitimately disregarded by current states. The upshot of this discussion is that there are no genuine dilemmas posed by Widerquist’s “A Dilemma for Libertarians.”
Intellectual property rights vs. public access rights: ethical aspects of the DeCSS decryptation program
Robert Vaagan,Wallace Koehler
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction. In 1999-2000, a Norwegian youth cracked a DVD-access code and published a decryptation program on the Internet. He was sued by the US DVD Copy Control Association (DVD-CCA) and the Norwegian Motion Picture Association (MAP), allies of the US Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), arrested by Norwegian police and charged with data crime. Two Norwegian court rulings in 2003 unanimously ruled that the program did not amount to a breach of Norwegian law, and he was fully acquitted. In the US, there have been related cases, some with other outcomes. Method. Based on a theoretical framework developed by Zwass, the paper discusses these court rulings and the wider issues of intellectual property rights versus public access rights. Analysis. The DVD-Jon case illustrates that intellectual property rights can conflict with public access rights, as the struggle between proprietary software and public domain software, as well as the SPARC and Open Archives Initiative reflect. Results. An assessment of the DVD-Jon case based on the Zwass framework does not give a clear information ethics answer. The analysis depends on whether one ascribes to consequentialist (e.g., utilitarian) or de-ontological reflection, and also on which side of the digital gap is to be accorded most weight. Conclusion. While copyright interests are being legally strengthened, there may be ethically- grounded access rights that outweigh property rights.
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