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Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study
Saira S Mirza, Kashif Shafique, Priya Vart, Moin I Arain
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-6-23
Abstract: This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on healthy individuals, who were users of any one of the three products (areca nut only, areca nut with tobacco additives, cigarette smokers). Participants were selected by convenience sampling of people coming to hospital to seek a free oral check up. Information was collected about the socio-demographic profile, pattern of use and symptoms of dependency using the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate association between socio-demographic profile, pattern of substance use and dependency syndrome.We carried out final analysis on 851 individuals, of which 36.8% (n = 314) were areca nut users, 28.4% (n = 242) were the chewers of areca with tobacco additives and 34.7% (n = 295) were regular cigarette smokers. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals using areca nut with tobacco additives were significantly more likely to have dependency syndrome (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.39-3.40) while cigarette smokers were eight times more likely to have dependency syndrome as compared to areca nut only users.Areca nut use with and without tobacco additives was significantly associated with dependency syndrome. In comparison to exclusive areca nut users, the smokers were eight times more likely to develop dependence while areca nut users with tobacco additives were also significantly more likely to suffer from the dependence.Areca nut is the seed of the fruit of the tropical palm tree, Areca Catechu. This tree bears fruit throughout the year and areca nut is obtained from it, which is a basic ingredient of widely used chewing products[1]. Thin slices of nuts either natural or processed are then mixed with a variety of substances including slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) and spices such as carda-mom, coconut, and saffron [2,3]. Most importantly these nuts are also mixed with some tobacco products.The areca nut is considered to be the fourth most commonly used psy
Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as a measure of systemic inflammation in prevalent chronic diseases in Asian population
Fauzia Imtiaz, Kashif Shafique, Saira Mirza, Zeenat Ayoob, Priya Vart, Saadiyah Rao
International Archives of Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1755-7682-5-2
Abstract: Present study is a cross sectional study conducted on population of Karachi, Pakistan. A detailed questionnaire about the demographic details of all subjects was filled and an informed consent obtained for blood sampling. Multinomial regression analyses were carried out to investigate the relationship between NLR and prevalent chronic conditions.1070 apparently healthy individuals participated in the study. Proportion of individuals with hypertension was higher in middle and highest tertile of NLR as compared to the lowest tertile (18.2% & 16.1% compared to 11.8%). Individuals with hypertension were 43% (RRR = 1.43, 95% CI 0.94-2.20) and 66% (RRR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.09-2.54) more likely to be in the middle and highest tertile of NLR respectively compared to the baseline group. Similarly, individuals with diabetes mellitus were 53% (RRR = 1.53, 95% CI 0.93-2.51) and 65% (RRR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.01-2.71) more likely to be in the middle or highest tertile of NLR as compared to the baseline NLR group.Systemic inflammation measured by NLR has a significant association with prevalent chronic conditions. Future research is needed to investigate this relationship with longitudinal data to establish the temporal association between these variables.Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are leading causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. The global burden of these diseases has sharply increased in last two decades and continues to augment due to the growth in aging population and health risk behaviours [1,2]. Preliminary evidence has suggested the role of inflammation in development and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases as well as cancers [3-7].Several studies have explored the relationship between systemic inflammation and cardiovascular mortality [3,5]. Elevated levels of systemic inflammatory markers have been found associated with incidence of cardiovascular diseases [3,5]. Furthermore, many epidemiological studies have highlighted that chronic low grade inflammat
Areca nut chewing and systemic inflammation: evidence of a common pathway for systemic diseases
Kashif Shafique, Saira Saeed Mirza, Priya Vart, Abdul Rauf Memon, Moin Islam Arain, Muhammad Farooq Tareen, Zia Ul Haq
Journal of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-9-22
Abstract: This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on areca nut chewers and healthy individuals in Karachi, Pakistan. Participants were selected from a region of the city by invitation request sent from door to door. Information was collected regarding the socio-demographic profile and the pattern of use, and a blood sample was obtained to measure the level of C-reactive protein (CRP). We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between socio-demographic profile, areca nut chewing and CRP levels.We carried out final analysis on 1112 individuals of which 556 were areca nut chewers and 556 were the age, gender and area matched controls. Areca nut chewers had a significantly higher proportion of men (15.1%, n?=?84) who had an elevated CRP (>10?mg/dl) as compared to controls (5.2%, n?=?29). Multivariate analyses showed that areca nut chewers had significantly higher odds of an elevated CRP (OR?=?3.23, 95% CI 2.08-5.02, p value <0.001) as compared to controls. Increase in amount of areca nut consumption had a significant dose–response relationship with systemic inflammation (p for trend <0.001). Further analysis revealed that areca nut chewers with tobacco additives were two times more likely to have an elevated CRP as compared to raw areca nut users. These associations remained unchanged after adjustments for age, BMI and years of full time education.Areca nut chewing has a significant association with systemic inflammation. Further work is required to confirm that systemic inflammation is the main pathway by which areca nut use increases the risk of systemic diseases.
Accessible Copies of Copyright Work for Visually Impaired Persons in India  [PDF]
Priya R. Pillai
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326159
Abstract: This article deals with copyright law in India and its impact on the education of millions of visually impaired persons in India. Due to lack of amendment in the copyright law print disabled in India was unable to access the published copyrighted works. The organization dealing with visually impaired can provide accessible materials to visually impaired persons without seeking copyright permission from the owners. This landmark decision of Indian government will benefit all educational institutions who are dealing with visually impaired students.
Utility of adeno-associated viruses to target members of the TGF-β superfamily in prostate cancer therapy  [PDF]
Priya Ramarao, Elspeth Gold
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.410A4002

Components of the TGF-β superfamily have been well established in their intricate and multifaceted roles in cancer progression and survival. The TGF-βs have been targeted therapeutically in an attempt to modify complex tumour networks to favour cancer cell destruction. Goals of these therapies are often to attack the “hallmarks” of cancer: characteristics acquired by cancer cells via re-wiring or manipulating existing biological pathways to their survival advantage. Of the multitude of targeted therapies currently available, viral therapies have shown much promise in their efficacy of treatment. This review highlights current viral therapies targeting members of the TGF-β superfamily, with a focus on the strengths and limitations associated with this form of targeted cancer therapy.

A New Approach to Disk Scheduling Using Fuzzy Logic  [PDF]
Priya Hooda, Supriya Raheja
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.21001

Disk scheduling is one of the main responsibilities of Operating System. OS manages hard disk to provide best access time. All major Disk scheduling algorithms incorporate seek time as the only factor for disk scheduling. The second factor rotational delay is ignored by the existing algorithms. This research paper considers both factors, Seek Time and Rotational Delay to schedule the disk. Our algorithm Fuzzy Disk Scheduling (FDS) looks at the uncertainty associated with scheduling incorporating the two factors. Keeping in view a Fuzzy inference system using If-Then rules is designed to optimize the overall performance of disk drives. Finally we compared the FDS with the other scheduling algorithms.

Studies on Optical, Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Organic Nonlinear Optical p-Toluidine p-Toluenesulfonate Single Crystal  [PDF]
Suresh Sagadevan, Priya Murugasen
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology (JCPT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2014.42013
Abstract: The optically transparent and bulk single crystal of p-Toluidine p-Toluenesulfonate (PTPT) was grown by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters and crystallinity of the grown crystal were estimated by single crystal XRD. The optical absorption of the crystal was recorded using the UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The optical bandgap and optical constants of the material were determined by using absorption spectrum. The refractive index of the grown crystal has been determined using the Brewster angle method. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were measured as a function of frequency and temperature for the grown crystal. Nonlinear optical properties were performed to confirm the SHG efficiency of the grown crystal. Hence, PTPT is an excellent NLO material with enhanced SHG efficiency required for important applications in the field of optoelectronic and photonics. This material exhibits NLO behaviour remarkably due to its better optical and dielectric properties.
Variations of Enclosing Problem Using Axis Parallel Square(s): A General Approach  [PDF]
Priya Ranjan Sinha Mahapatra
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.43016

Let P be a set of n points in two dimensional plane. For each point \"\", we locate an axis- parallel unit square having one particular side passing through p and enclosing the maximum number of points from P. Considering all points \"\", such n squares can be reported in O(nlogn) time. We show that this result can be used to (i) locate m>(2) axis-parallel unit squares which are pairwise disjoint and they together enclose the maximum number of points from P (if exists) and (ii) find the smallest axis-parallel square enclosing at least k points of P , \"\".

Lifetime Enhancement of Cluster Based Wireless Sensor Network through Energy Efficient MAC Protocol  [PDF]
B. Priya, S. Solai Manohar
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.79200
Abstract: The efficient use of energy is an important performance metric to extend the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Since major energy consumption of node is due to its transceiver, the design of MAC protocol plays a vital role in sensor network design. In cluster based sensor networks, due to the different functions of member node and cluster head node, the usage of common MAC protocol results increased energy consumption. To overcome this problem, a novel energy efficient hybrid MAC protocol (EEHMAC) for cluster based wireless sensor networks is proposed in this paper. The proposed EEHMAC protocol uses E-TDMA (Energy efficient TDMA) for intra-cluster communication and FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) for inter-cluster communication. IDS (Iterative Deepening Search) based Scheduling algorithm is used for assigning time slot and frequency slot to nodes. Nodes in EEHMAC follow the periodic duty cycle, which reduces the idle listening, and overhearing problems. Simulation results reveal that an average of 18% energy saving is achieved compared to LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustered Hierarchy) protocol and 10% energy is saved in comparison with GH-MAC (Graph theory based Hybrid MAC) protocol. It is evident that delay of EEHMAC is reduced by 17% and throughput is increased by 15% under all traffic conditions. These results demonstrate that EEHMAC performs better than existing MAC protocols in terms of energy efficiency, delay and throughput.
Management of Myofascial Pain of Upper Trapezius: A Three Group Comparison Study
Priya Kannan
Global Journal of Health Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v4n5p46
Abstract: It is important to identify the most effective therapeutic modality in the management of myofascial trigger points (MTPt). Thus we aimed to study the effect of therapeutic ultrasound, laser and ischemic compression in reducing pain and improving cervical range of motion among patients with MTPt. Experimental study comparing three groups was designed as a 5 days trial, a co-relational design was considered. Outcome measures: VAS for pain, provocative pain test using “soft tissue tenderness grading scheme” and active cervical lateral flexion using inch tape. Methods- Patients were divided into 3 groups, Gr 1 underwent treatment using therapeutic ultrasound, Gr 2 with therapeutic laserand Gr 3 with ischemic compression. Assessments were done on day 1 and day 5 of treatment respectively. Results: ANOVA revealed improvement among all 3 groups as statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the start and end of trial. Analysis using Chi square test shows a statistically significant difference in the improvement between laser and the other 2 groups. Mean difference in the change of scores between the assessments showed laser therapy to have a tendency towards progressive improvement over the treatment period and a better improvement than the other 2 groups. Weconclude that laser can be used as an effective treatment regimen in the management of myofascial trigger points thereby reducing disability caused due to musculoskeletal pathology.
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