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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7748 matches for " Primary Metabolites "
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Influence of NPK fertilization on the yield of essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Influência da aduba o NPK no rendimento do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Ricardo Carvalho Santos,Antonio Alves de Melo Filho,Habdel Nasser Rocha da Costa,Francisco dos Santos Panero
Orbital : the Electronic Journal of Chemistry , 2011,
Abstract: Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a species of eucalyptus with potential for establishment of planted forests in the savannah area of Roraima. Little is known about the appropriate management of E. camaldulensis in the conditions of the savannah of Roraima, and for this reason, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in the production of essential oil of the species. The experiment was conducted in 43 fractional factorial design, that evaluated four doses of N (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1), P (0, 30, 60, 120 kg ha-1) and K (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1). One year after planting, the yield of essential oil was determined in fresh leaves, with extraction performed by the method of hydrodistillation in Clevenger type system. The yield of essential oil was changed mainly due to fertilization, increasing from 0.43 to 0.62% as it increased the doses of P. These values were within the range of 0.3 to 2.8% in the literature to yield essential oil in fresh leaves of E. camaldulensis. The highest oil yield was observed with a dose of 120 kg ha-1 phosphorus. O Eucalyptus camaldulensis é uma espécie de eucalipto com potencial para estabelecimento de florestas plantadas no cerrado de Roraima. Pouco se sabe a respeito do manejo adequado do E. camaldulensis nas condi es do cerrado de Roraima e, por essa raz o, foi instalado um experimento para avaliar os efeitos das doses de nitrogênio (N), fósforo (P) e potássio (K) na produ o de óleo essencial da espécie. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento fatorial fracionário 43, no qual foram avaliadas quatro doses de N (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1), P (0, 30, 60, 120 kg ha-1) e K (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1). Um ano após o plantio, o rendimento de óleo essencial foi determinado em folhas frescas, com extra o realizada por meio do método de hidrodestila o com sistema tipo Clevenger. O rendimento de óleo essencial foi alterado principalmente em fun o da aduba o fosfatada, aumentando de 0,43 a 0,62% na medida em que aumentaram as doses de P. Esses valores estiveram dentro da faixa de 0,3 a 2,8% encontrada na literatura para rendimento de óleo essencial em folhas frescas de E. camaldulensis. O maior rendimento de óleo foi observado com a dose de 120 kg ha-1 de fósforo.
BIOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES OF PHYLA NODIFLORA L. GREENE
Renu Singh* and R.A. Sharma
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: Phyla nodiflora is an evergreen perennial herb found near the water bodies. It belongs to family Verbenaceae. It is commonly known as frog fruit or turkey tangle. The present investigation is the estimation of primary metabolite content in various plant parts. The investigation revealed that maximum amount of soluble sugar was found in stem, maximum amount of starch found in stems, leaves showed the maximum amount of protein, fruits showed maximum amount of lipids, ascorbic acid was found in highest amount in leaves, fruits showed maximum amount of phenols.
BIOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES OF CASSIA NODOSA BUNCH.
Ankita Yadav et al
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Cassia nodosa Bunch. is an ornamental tree belonging to family Leguminosae, popularly known as Pink Shower is a perennial tree. Laboratory evaluations were made to asses the study of primary metabolites in different plant parts of Cassia nodosa Bunch. The highest amount of soluble sugars (10.27mg/ gdw), lipids (32.36mg/gdw), phenols (20.0mg/gdw), DNA (11.78mg/gdw) and Chlorophyll- a+b (0.94mg/gdw) was observed in pods, ascorbic acid (0.867 mg/gdw), proteins (115.0mg/gdw), RNA (4.60mg/gdw) and carotenoids (0.554mg/gdw) in leaves and starch (10.02mg/gdw) in stems. Similarly lowest amount of proteins (39.48mg/gdw), phenols (4.67mg /gdw), RNA (0.49mg/ gdw) and DNA (1.76mg/gdw) was observed in leaves, starch (3.76mg/gdw) in flowers, soluble sugars (2.45mg/gdw), lipids (3.48mg /gdw), ascorbic acid (0.089mg/gdw) in roots.
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PONGAMIA PINNATA (L) SEED OIL
SURYAKANT BIRAJDAR, KEDARNATH, VISHWANATH CHIMKOD AND PATIL CS
International Journal of Pharmaceuticals Analysis , 2011,
Abstract: Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre [family: Fabaceae] popularly known as “Karanj” or “Karanja” in Hindi, andIndian beech in English, is a medium-sized glabrous tree. The Pongamia pinnata seeds were collected in and aroundthe Bidar and Gulbarga area. The goal of research work is to biochemical characterization of primary metabolites suchas sugar, starch, protein, lipid, phenol, ascorbic acid and amino acid which are present in different plant parts ofPongamia pinnata. It is adaptable tree for tropical and sub-tropical regions which requires excellent drainage and asunny location. It grows easily from seed. Historically, this plant has long been used in India and neighboring regions asa source of traditional medicines, animal fodder, green manure, timber, fish poison and fuel. Extract of the plantpossess significant anti-diarrhoeal, anti-fungal, anti-plasmodial, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory and analgesicactivities. Its oil is a source of biodiesel. It has also alternative source of energy, which is renewable, safe and nonpollutant.This article briefly reviews the botany, distribution, ecology, uses of the plant and as a source of biodiesel.This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspect of Pongamia pinnata and its potential useas a source of biodiesel.
Detection of nanolevel drug metabolites in an organotypic culture of primary human hepatocytes and porcine hepatocytes with special reference to a two-compartment model
Acikg z A, Giri S, Bader A
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S29651
Abstract: ection of nanolevel drug metabolites in an organotypic culture of primary human hepatocytes and porcine hepatocytes with special reference to a two-compartment model Original Research (922) Total Article Views Authors: Acikg z A, Giri S, Bader A Published Date November 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 5859 - 5872 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S29651 Received: 03 January 2012 Accepted: 11 February 2012 Published: 27 November 2012 Ali Acikg z,1,2 Shibashish Giri,1 Augustinus Bader1 1Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, Universit t Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 2Klinikum St Georg, Leipzig, Germany Abstract: The quantification of drug metabolites produced during drug metabolism is a growing concern for the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, and others. As 70% of drugs are known reactive metabolites and have black box warnings, they are a major cause of drug-induced injury and lead to drug attrition in early or late clinical stages. According to a 2006 survey report of pharmaceutical companies, drug-induced liver injury was ranked first in terms of adverse events, and it remains the most common reason for restriction or withdrawal of a drug from the market by the Food and Drug Administration. Although there are many reasons underlying drug-induced liver injury, one of the most important is liver failure induced by drug metabolites. Generally, a drug produces metabolites that may bind to cellular molecules and trigger a toxicological effect, cause serious adverse drug reactions, or alter cellular functions. Experimental cellular models that attempt to qualify drug metabolites from cell cultures rely on human plasma and urine obtained from clinical trials and supernatant during early in vitro experiments. However, there is a lack of information about the quantification of drug metabolites inside human hepatocytes, where the drug is extensively metabolized. To overcome this limitation, we used the highly accepted, gold standard organotypic cellular model of primary human hepatocytes to investigate and quantify the parent drug, as well as drug metabolites inside human hepatocytes and outside human hepatocytes to evaluate the quantity of drug metabolites, which are assumed to have remained inside the primary human hepatocytes. We refer to this as a two-compartment model, where one compartment is supernatant compared with in vivo hepatic blood circulation, and the other is inside the hepatocyte cell compared with the inside of in vivo human liver. We detected the nanoconcentrations of all major metabolites (desmethyldiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) of the diazepam drug, both inside the cells (matrix) and outside the hepatocyte cells (supernatant) at different time points (primary human hepatocytes: 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours; primary porcine hepatocytes: 0, 1, 2, 5, and 24 hours) during biotransformation in an organotypic sa
Primary, Secondary Metabolites, Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the Malaysian Herb Kacip Fatimah (Labisia Pumila Benth) Exposed to Potassium Fertilization under Greenhouse Conditions
Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim,Hawa Z. E. Jaafar,Ehsan Karimi,Ali Ghasemzadeh
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms131115321
Abstract: A randomized complete block design was used to characterize the relationship between production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carbohydrate content, leaf gas exchange, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), soluble protein, invertase and antioxidant enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in Labisia pumila Benth var. alata under four levels of potassium fertilization experiments (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg K/ha) conducted for 12 weeks. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content was affected by the interaction between potassium fertilization and plant parts. As the potassium fertilization levels increased from 0 to 270 kg K/ha, the production of soluble protein and PAL activity increased steadily. At the highest potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) L. pumila exhibited signi?cantly higher net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), intercellular CO 2 (C i), apparent quantum yield (?) and lower dark respiration rates (R d), compared to the other treatments. It was found that the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid are also higher under 270 kg K/ha compared to 180, 90 and 0 kg K/ha. Furthermore, from the present study, the invertase activity was also found to be higher in 270 kg K/ha treatment. The antioxidant enzyme activities (APX, CAT and SOD) were lower under high potassium fertilization (270 kg K/ha) and have a significant negative correlation with total phenolics and flavonoid production. From this study, it was observed that the up-regulation of leaf gas exchange and downregulation of APX, CAT and SOD activities under high supplementation of potassium fertilizer enhanced the carbohydrate content that simultaneously increased the production of L. pumila secondary metabolites, thus increasing the health promoting effects of this plant.
Impact of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Primary, Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Responses of Eleais guineensis Jacq. (Oil Palm) Seedlings
Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim,Hawa Z.E. Jaafar
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17055195
Abstract: A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, TF; total phenolics, TP), phenylalanine lyase (PAL) activity (EC 4.3.1.5), protein and antioxidant activity (FRAP) of three progenies of oil palm seedlings, namely Deli AVROS, Deli Yangambi and Deli URT, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 μmol·mol?1) for 15 weeks of exposure. During the study, the treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no progenies and interaction effects were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 μmol·mol?1, the production of carbohydrate increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar. The production of total flavonoids and phenolics contents, were the highest under 1,200 and lowest at 400 μmol·mol?1. It was found that PAL activity was peaked under 1,200 μmol·mol?1 followed by 800 μmol·mol?1 and 400 μmol·mol?1. However, soluble protein was highest under 400 μmol·mol?1 and lowest under 1,200 μmol·mol?1. The sucrose/starch ratio, i.e., the indication of sucrose phosphate synthase actvity (EC 2.4.1.14) was found to be lowest as CO2 concentration increased from 400 > 800 > 1,200 μmol·mol?1. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, increased with increasing CO2 levels, and was significantly lower than vitamin C and α-tocopherol but higher than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Correlation analysis revealed that nitrogen has a significant negative correlation with carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and FRAP activity indicating up-regulation of production of carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of oil palm seedling under elevated CO2 was due to reduction in nitrogen content in oil palm seedling expose to high CO2 levels.
Overview on the Fungal Metabolites Involved in Mycopathy  [PDF]
Abdulkawi Ali Al-Fakih
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.41006
Abstract:
This review presents several types of metabolites produced by the most common fungal pathogens and their roles in fungal pathogenesis. Toxic metabolites from toxigenic fungi include compounds such as aflatoxins, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone and ergot alkaloids, which display hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity and genotoxicity. The ability of fungi to produce and elaborate hydrolytic enzymes is associated with virulence of several pathogenic fungi. The biogenesis of siderophores is investigated as it is a mechanism of iron acquisition. In particular, these metabolites act as iron chelators and storage compounds to support pathogenic fungi to survive in mammalian hosts whose iron homeostasis is strictly regulated and prevent the formation of free radicals which are formed by free iron. Melanins clearly promote infectivity in a number of species of fungal pathogens. They interfere with oxidative metabolism of phagocytosis making the fungus relatively resistant to phagocyte attack. Several metabolies such as pullulan, mannitol, β-(1,3)-glucan, hem-binding proteins, estrogen-binding proteins, farnesol, agglutinin-like sequence proteins, glucuronoxylomannan and others also have advantages in fungal pathogenicity. The identification of fungal metabolites involved in pathogenesis, and recognition of mechanisms of pathogenesis may lead to development of new efficient anti-fungal therapies.
Nutritional Status and Total Phenols of Passiflora Genotypes Related to Nitrogen Fertilization  [PDF]
Renata Vianna Lima, Almy Junior Cordeiro de Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Santos, Jalille Amim Altoé Freitas, Mírian Peixoto Soares da Silva, Silvio de Jesus Freitas, Marta Simone Mendon?a Freitas
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.65074
Abstract: This paper was developed in order to verify the influence of nitrogen fertilization and different genotypes in the nutritional aspect and in the production of total phenols in passifloraceae. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 5 × 2 × 2 factorial scheme, being five genotypes of Passiflora (three genotypes of Passiflora edulis, a genotype of Passiflora alata and a genotype of Passiflora ligularis), two levels of cow manure (with and without) and two doses of N (20 and 80 g), with four replicates. At 120 days after sowing, levels of foliar nutrient and total phenols were determined. Foliar N content varied depending on N doses, organic fertilization and the genotypes used. Foliar levels of P and K were higher when all genotypes received organic fertilization, while the levels of Fe and Mn were similar regardless of this fertilization. The levels of Ca and Mg were higher related to organic fertilization and the genotypes, in isolation. But the foliar contents of S, Zn and Cu increased only in relation to the used genotypes, and the average foliar content of total phenols found was 19.4 g·kg-1, ranging from 13.1 to 23.2 g·kg-1, being the lowest value observed in Passiflora alata without fertilization with cow manure. It is concluded that the nutritional requirement for N is greater for genotypes of the species Passiflora edulis in relation to the species Passiflora alata and Passiflora ligulares, and that the organic fertilization influences positively in the production of total phenols only for the genotype of sweet passion fruit.
Functional MRI and MR Spectroscopy Utilization in Jeddah Hospitals  [PDF]
Lamis K. Jada, Nabeel Mishah, Khalid Gh. Alsafi, Sarah Hagi, Mawya A. Khafaji, Hanan Y. Abbas, Saddig D. Jastaniah
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2015.53021
Abstract: Functional magnetic resonance imaging “fMRI” and magnetic resonance spectroscopy “MRS” are two crucial milestones that were introduced apart from one another into brain imaging and their implementation in major local cities is eventual step. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare those techniques in terms of their clinical utilization in patient care delivery among the major governmental and private hospitals within Jeddah city. The study initially included eighteen hospitals to identify whether they were utilizing fMRI and MRS in their clinical practice. Out of the 18 hospitals under study only one hospital (5.6%) had both fMRI and MRS software; 7 (38.9%) had MRS but not fMRI; 4 (22.2%) did not have fMRI or MRS; and 6 (33.3%) hospitals had no MRI machine at all. Out of the eight hospitals applying MRS with one being excluded, the starting date of application was 2002 in 4 (57.1%) hospitals, 2004 in 1 (14.3%) hospital, and 2006 in 2 (28.6%) hospitals. The frequency of doing MRS was once a week in 2 (28.6%) hospitals, 2-3 cases/week in 3 (42.9%) hospitals, 5-10 cases/week in 1 (14.3%) hospital, and once every 6 months in 1 (14.3%) hospital. On the other hand, fMRI was applied only by one hospital starting in 2000 and was soon dismissed due to its time consumption and the inability of patients to accurately follow given instructions. It was concluded that MRS was more widely utilized compared to fMRI. Later on, a follow-up survey in the year of 2014 demonstrated that MRS has started to become a standard service in most hospitals whereas fMRI was still being unrecognized.
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