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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 105 matches for " Prenit Pokhrel "
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Dentists' perspective on preference for direct restorative materials for different tooth cavities: A study from two colleges in Kathmandu, Nepal
Keshav Raj Poudel,Suman Gautam,Prenit Pokhrel,Bijendra Raj Raghubanshi,Amshuman Shrestha,Binod Raut
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/jkmc.v3i2.11230
Abstract: Background: Restoration of carious teeth is required to preserve anatomy, function and aesthetics of a tooth. Proper restoration of carious teeth is paramount for the prevention of progression of a dental caries so as to obviate the need for root canal treatment. Location, extent, type, duration and cost play the major roles for the selection of a dental filling material. Objective: This study was set to know the preference of dentists for the selection of filling materials for different tooth cavities. Methods: This was cross-sectional observational study carried out at Kantipur Dental College and KIST Medical College for a period of six months. Pre-structured questionnaires were distributed to the dentists who were in dental practice and collected questionnaires were analyzed for the results. Data were compiled, entered and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 and Epi Info 2000. Yates corrected Chi square test was used wherever applicable and level of significance was set at <0.05. Results : Out of 65 questionnaires distributed to the dental practitioners, 57 (87.7%) questionnaires were returned. Composite was the material of choice as the restorative material for all kinds of tooth cavities except for class V for which glass ionomer cement was the main choice (52.6%). After composite, dental amalgam was second most preferred material for posterior tooth restorations. Order of preference for filling materials for posterior restorations were: composite (52.6%), dental amalgam (47.4%), miracle mix (68.3%; P<0.05) and glass ionomer cement (42.1%). Majority of practitioners (78.9%,P<0.05) opined that strength and durability of restorative material is the main guiding factor for the selection of the filling material for posterior tooth restorations. Additionally, dental amalgam had higher (68%, P< 0.05) patient satisfaction with respect to cost and longevity or durability and was associated with less tiring and time consuming procedure (84%; P<0.05) on dentists’ view. Conclusion : Majority of dentists opined that composite is the more preferred filling material for both anterior and posterior tooth restorations. For posterior tooth cavities (mainly for class I, II and VI) after composite, the order preference for filling materials was amalgam, miracle mix and glass ionomer cement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jkmc.v3i2.11230 Journal of Kathmandu Medical College Vol. 3, No. 2, Issue 8, Apr.-Jun., 2014 Page: 72-77
Therapeutic Practice Preference in Dentistry: Antibiotics, Analgesics and Antiseptics
Keshab Raj Paudel, Prenit Pokhrel, Amshuman Shrestha, Bijendra R Raghubanshi, B Raut
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v4i4.8062
Abstract: Objective: Present study was aimed to find out the commonest medicines used in dentistry as preferred by dental practitioners in Nepal. Materials and Methods: Seventy pre-structured questionnaires were distributed to the dental practitioners. Questionnaire was designed to evaluate the use of the antimicrobial, analgesic and antiseptic agents. A total of three open ended questions were included in each questionnaire to know the preference of dental practitioners for different medicines used in dentistry. Yates corrected Chi square test was used wherever applicable and level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Amoxicillin (89.4%, P<0.05), metronidazole (57.8%), amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (21%) and doxycycline (26.2%) were the most frequently preferred antibiotics of first, second, third and fourth choice respectively. Similarly, among analgesics, ibuprofen (52.6%), diclofenac (31.5%), paracetamol (47.3%) and nimesulide (24.5%) had the highest predilection for first, second, third and fourth choice respectively among the dental practitioners. Chlorhexidine (77.2%, P<0.05)) was the most selected antiseptic for the first choice followed by listerine for the second (31.5%) and third (43.8%) choice. Conclusion: First choice antibiotic, analgesic and antiseptic are amoxicillin, ibuprofen and chlorhexidine respectively among the majority of dental practitioners. Asian Journal of Medical Science, Volume-4 (2013), Pages 17-23 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v4i4.8062 ?
Hydroxyapatite: Preparation, Properties and Its Biomedical Applications  [PDF]
Shanta Pokhrel
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2018.84016
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite, a naturally occurring form of calcium phosphate, is the main mineral component of bones and teeth. Natural hydroxyapatite and bone have similar physical and chemical characteristics make it biocompatible. Its porous structure resembles native bone. The biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioactivity make it extensively useful in interdisciplinary fields of sciences like chemistry, biology, and medicine. Calcium phosphate-based ceramics are of great interest as substitutes of synthetic bone graft due to their similarities in composition to bone mineral and bioactivity as well as osteoconductivity. This article gives an overview of hydroxyapatite from its preparation and properties to biomedical applications of its composites.
MicroRNA and Its Role in Cardiovascular Disease  [PDF]
Suvash Pokhrel, Yin Guotian
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2017.710032
Abstract: MicroRNAs play a key role in regulation of gene expression during cardiac development and cardiac remodeling. MicroRNAs that present in bodily fluids may?be?useful for screening, diagnosis or therapeutic implication as a treatment. MicroRNAs are relatively new approach targets for researchers and clinicians in today world.MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNA (ncRNA) having approximately 21 to 25 nucleotides in length, and they mainly act as a transcriptional regulators of gene expression in diverse biological processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenesis to death and so on. There is no doubt that lethiferous cardiac disease is one of the most common causes of deaths worldwide.MicroRNAs may regulate in several cardiovascular pathologies, not only limited to hypertrophy, heart failure, arrhythmias, hypertension, myocardial infarction, dyslipidemias and congenital heart diseases, but in circulation and bodily fluids are potential novel biomarkers for above mentioned cardiac pathologies. Knowing abnormalities in genetic level, early and accurate detection, effective treatment and prevention is the ideal management of cardiovascular diseases in today’s world.However, every detail of an individual microRNA and their system is huge and beyond the scope of this article. Therefore, in this review we try to cover the overall major aspects of the microRNAs and its role in cardiovascular system.
Legumes crop rotation can improve food and nutrition security in Nepal
S Pokhrel, S Pokhrel
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9014
Abstract: An intensive review of the literatures was made to access the importance of crop rotation for sustainable agriculture in Nepal. Result shows that an appropriate crop sequences improves soil fertility, reduces fertilizer cost, controls soil erosion, makes environment healthy, increases crop yields and develop sustainable crop production in the long run. Based on the study, identification of location specific crop sequences, their extension and evaluation of the impact on food production are recommended.
Chemical control of rice whitefly (Aleurocybotus occiduus Maria) in Chitwan, Nepal
S Pokhrel, SP Pokhrel
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7520
Abstract: Effectiveness of five common insecticides was evaluated against a newly established rice insect, Whitefly ( Aleurocybotus occiduus Maria) on main season rice (var: Sabitri) at Bharatpur-10, Chitwan (350 m) in 2005. The insecticides tested were: Noorani (Chloropyrifos 50% + Cypermethrin 5% EC) @ 2ml/litre of water, Rogar @ 1.5ml/litre of water, Phoskil (monocrotophos) @ 2ml/litre of water, Furadan @ 1kg a.i/ha and Anumida (Imidacloprid 17.8% SL) @ 1ml/4 litre of water. The plant growth parameters: plant height, number of yellow and green leaves, active and dead tillers and the grain yield were recorded. Anumida (Imidacloprid 17.8% SL) provided perfect control of Whitefly and gave the highest plant height (60 vs 50 cm), highest leaf number (46.7 vs 3.7), highest tillering (4.4 folds), highest green infertile tillers (16.3 vs6.7) with highest number of ears (3.0 vs 0.0) and grain number (26.3 vs 0.0)/hill. Anumida (Imidacloprid 17.8% SL) also provided comparatively lower leaf yellowing and drying (8.5 vs 22.5) then the control. Anumida (Imidacloprid 17.8% SL) @ 1ml/ 4 liter of water is recommended against rice Whitefly however, Rogar @ 1.5 ml/litre of water, Phoskil (monocrotophos) @ 2ml/litre of water, Noorani (Chloropyrifos 50% + Cypermethrine 5% EC) @ 2ml/liter of water and Furadan @ 1kg a.i./ha also can serve the purpose. The hills not using insecticide were completely failure to produce ears and grains. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7520 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.42-55
Scaling up health interventions in resource-poor countries: what role does research in stated-preference framework play?
Subhash Pokhrel
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-4-4
Abstract: Five major conditions – pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, measles and malnutrition- are responsible for 7 million child deaths each year globally [1]. The irony is that these deaths could have been avoided through the uptake of health interventions that are not only available but also proven to be cost-effective. It has been shown that about 63% of child deaths could be prevented if the coverage of essential health services, which include all cost-effective interventions, was increased to 95% [2]. Improving access to essential health services through "scaling-up" therefore seems to be a quick fix for bringing down mortality rates in the poorest counties. However, despite their potential to reduce mortality levels substantially [3,4], the coverage of essential health services continue to be low and millions of mothers and children continue to die [1].Recently, an influential report by the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health has reinforced the need to extend coverage of essential health services in low-income countries while emphasizing that structural change in health services is needed to overcome the substantial barriers that exist in these countries [5]. Historically, the world has responded to a need to improve coverage of health services with a supply-driven approach but the success of supply-driven health planning and policy has been limited in improving health care demand [exhibit 1]. The case shown in the exhibit clearly demonstrates that there are two facets of coverage – (a) extending health services, a supply-side intervention ensuring that the services reach the population; and (b) promoting their uptake, a demand-side intervention ensuring that the needy use available services [6,7]. Although the line between these two facets can be blur, they are not the same issues and ignoring the "uptake" side in any scaling-up effort will result in inefficiency, as reflected by lower use of services and higher unit costs involved to deliver them. The question as to
Cybersecurity: A Stochastic Predictive Model to Determine Overall Network Security Risk Using Markovian Process  [PDF]
Nawa Raj Pokhrel, Chris P. Tsokos
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2017.82007
Abstract: There are several security metrics developed to protect the computer networks. In general, common security metrics focus on qualitative and subjective aspects of networks lacking formal statistical models. In the present study, we propose a stochastic model to quantify the risk associated with the overall network using Markovian process in conjunction with Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) framework. The model we developed uses host access graph to represent the network environment. Utilizing the developed model, one can filter the large amount of information available by making a priority list of vulnerable nodes existing in the network. Once a priority list is prepared, network administrators can make software patch decisions. Gaining in depth understanding of the risk and priority level of each host helps individuals to implement decisions like deployment of security products and to design network topologies.
The Selection of an Appropriate Count Data Model for Modelling Health Insurance and Health Care Demand: Case of Indonesia
Budi Hidayat,Subhash Pokhrel
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7010009
Abstract: We apply several estimators to Indonesian household data to estimate the relationship between health insurance and the number of outpatient visits to public and private providers. Once endogeneity of insurance is taken into account, there is a 63 percent increase in the average number of public visits by the beneficiaries of mandatory insurance for civil servants. Individuals' decisions to make first contact with private providers is affected by private insurance membership. However, insurance status does not make any difference for the number of future outpatient visits.
Synthesis and Screening of Aromatase Inhibitory Activity of Substituted C19 Steroidal 17-Oxime Analogs
Muna Pokhrel,Eunsook Ma
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16129868
Abstract: The synthesis and aromatase inhibitory activity of androst-4-en-, androst-5-en-, 1β,2β-epoxy- and/or androsta-4,6-dien-, 4β,5β-epoxyandrostane-, and 4-substituted androst-4-en-17-oxime derivatives are described. Inhibition activity of synthesized compounds was assessed using aromatase enzyme and [1β-3H]androstenedione as substrate. Most of the compounds displayed similar to or more aromatase inhibitory activity than formestane (74.2%). 4-Chloro-3β-hydroxy-4-androsten-17-one oxime (14, 93.8%) showed the highest activity, while 4-azido-3β-hydroxy-4-androsten-17-one oxime (17, 32.8%) showed the lowest inhibitory activity for aromatase.
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