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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2452 matches for " Praveen Anand "
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Sensitization of capsaicin and icilin responses in oxaliplatin treated adult rat DRG neurons
Uma Anand, William R Otto, Praveen Anand
Molecular Pain , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-6-82
Abstract: 48 hour exposure to oxaliplatin resulted in dose related reduction in neurite length, density, and number of neurons compared to vehicle treated controls, using Gap43 immunostaining. Neurons treated acutely with 20 μg/ml oxaliplatin showed significantly higher signal intensity for cyclic AMP immunofluorescence (160.5 ± 13 a.u., n = 3, P < 0.05), compared to controls (120.3 ± 4 a.u.). Calcium imaging showed significantly enhanced capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist), responses after acute 20 μg/ml oxaliplatin treatment where the second of paired capsaicin responses increased from 80.7 ± 0.6% without oxaliplatin, to 171.26 ± 29% with oxaliplatin, (n = 6 paired t test, P < 0.05); this was reduced to 81.42 ± 8.1% (P < 0.05), by pretretreatment with the cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist GW 833972. Chronic oxaliplatin treatment also resulted in dose related increases in capsaicin responses. Similarly, second responses to icilin (TRPA1/TRPM8 agonist), were enhanced after acute (143.85 ± 7%, P = 0.004, unpaired t test, n = 3), and chronic (119.7 ± 11.8%, P < 0.05, n = 3) oxaliplatin treatment, compared to control (85.3 ± 1.7%). Responses to the selective TRPM8 agonist WS-12 were not affected.Oxaliplatin treatment induces TRP sensitization mediated by increased intracellular cAMP, which may cause neuronal damage. These effects may be mitigated by co-treatment with adenylyl cyclase inhibitors, like CB2 agonists, to alleviate the neurotoxic effects of oxaliplatin.Though advances in cancer detection and therapy have significantly advanced life expectancy in cancer patients, quality of life may be severely compromised due to the development of painful neuropathy [1-4]. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common, rapidly induced effect observed soon after administration of anti-cancer agents [5-7] resulting in numbness, tingling and pain distributed in a distal stocking-and-glove pattern [8,9]. Oxaliplatin is a highly active antineoplastic agent, licensed for treating colorectal
Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome
Kiran Beneng, Tara Renton, Zehra Yilmaz, Yiangos Yiangou, Praveen Anand
BMC Neuroscience , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-11-71
Abstract: To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS), considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder.Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5) and controls (n = 12), and the other patients with BMS (n = 7) and controls (n = 10). BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS). Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group.There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls.Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.Orofacial pain conditions are common and debilitating. Few studies have investigated the role of novel key pain ion channels, such as Nav1.7, in these conditions. Such studies may lead to the development of more effective treatments.Dental pain is the most common symptom of diseased tooth pulp, often as a result of coronal caries of the tooth [1]. The mature human dental pulp is densely innervated with fibres that originate from the trigeminal ganglion [2]. The normal pulp s
Screening of Wrightia tinctoria leaves for Anti psoriatic activity
Dhanabal SP*,Baskar Anand Raj,Muruganantham N,Praveen TK
Hygeia : Journal for Drugs and Medicines , 2012,
Abstract: Plan: The hydro alcoholic extract of Wrightia tinctoria leaves was evaluated for antipsoriatic activity by mouse tail test.Methodology: Antipsoriatic activity was performed at a dose 200 mg/kg body weight in mice (25-30 g). Isoretinoic acid (0.5 mg/kg) was used as the standard. Degree of orthokeratosis, drug activity and the relative epidermal thicknesses were calculated and statistically analyzed. The extract was also evaluated for its antioxidant potential by DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assays.Outcome: The extract produced significant (p<0.01) degree of orthokeratosis compared to control and the drug activity was found to be 70.18%, which is more potent than the standard (57.43%).. The extract showed prominent antioxidant activity in all the assays. The present study concludes that the selected plant has antipsoriatic activity and can be used for psoriasis treatment.
Anaesthetic management of a child with "cor-triatriatum" and multiple ventricular septal defects - A rare congenital anomaly
Sabade Sriram,Vagrali Anand,Patil Sharan,Kalligudd Praveen
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia , 2010,
Abstract: Cor-triatriatum is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly. It accounts for 0.1% of congenital heart diseases. Its association with multiple ventricular septal defects (VSD) is even rarer. A five-month-old baby was admitted with respiratory distress and failure to thrive. Clinical examination revealed diastolic murmur over mitral area. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly. Haematological and biochemical investigations were within normal limits. Electrocardiogram showed left atrial enlargement. 2D echo showed double-chambered left atrium (cor-triatriatum), atrial septal defect (ASD) and muscular VSD with moderate pulmonary arterial hypertension. The child was treated with 100% oxygen, diuretics and digoxin and was stabilized medically. We used balanced anaesthetic technique using oxygen, air, isoflurane, fentanyl, midazolam and vecuronium. Patient was operated under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with moderate hypothermia. Through right atriotomy abnormal membrane in the left atrium was excised to make one chamber. VSD were closed with Dacron patches and ASD was closed with autologous pericardial patch. Patient tolerated the whole procedure well and was ventilated electively for 12h in the intensive care unit. He was discharged on the 10 th postoperative day.
Effectiveness of using teachers to screen eyes of school-going children in Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, India
Sudhan Anand,Pandey Arun,Pandey Suresh,Srivastava Praveen
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2009,
Abstract: Aim : To assess the effectiveness of teachers in a vision screening program for children in classes 5th to 12th attending school in two blocks of a district of north central India. Materials and Methods : Ophthalmic assistants trained school teachers to measure visual acuity and to identify obvious ocular abnormalities in children. Children with visual acuity worse than 20/30 in any eye and/or any obvious ocular abnormality were referred to an ophthalmic assistant. Ophthalmic assistants also repeated eye examinations on a random sample of children identified as normal (approximately 1%, n=543) by the teachers. Ophthalmic assistants prescribed spectacles to children needing refractive correction and referred children needing further examination to a pediatric ophthalmologist at the base hospital. Results : Five hundred and thirty teachers from 530 schools enrolled 77,778 children in the project and screened 68,833 (88.50%) of enrolled children. Teachers referred 3,822 children (4.91%) with eye defects for further examination by the ophthalmic assistant who confirmed eye defects in 1242 children (1.80% of all screened children). Myopia (n=410, 33.01%), Vitamin A deficiency (n=143, 11.51%) and strabismus (n=134, 10.79%) were the most common eye problems identified by the ophthalmic assistant. Ophthalmic assistants identified 57.97% referrals as false positives and 6.08% children as false negatives from the random sample of normal children. Spectacles were prescribed to 39.47% of children confirmed with eye defects. Conclusions : Primary vision screening by teachers has effectively reduced the workload of ophthalmic assistants. High false positive and false negative rates need to be studied further.
Pain during ice water test distinguishes clinical bladder hypersensitivity from overactivity disorders
Gaurav Mukerji, Janet Waters, Iain P Chessell, Chas Bountra, Sanjiv K Agarwal, Praveen Anand
BMC Urology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2490-6-31
Abstract: The BCR, elicited by ice water test (IWT) was performed in patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 17), idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 22), neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO, n = 4) and stress urinary incontinence (as controls, n = 21). The IWT was performed by intravesical instillation of cold saline (0 – 4°C). A positive IWT was defined as presence of uninhibited detrusor contraction evoked by cold saline, associated with urgency or with fluid expulsion. Patients were asked to report and rate any pain and cold sensation during the test.A positive IWT was observed in IDO (6/22, 27.3%) and NDO (4/4, 100%) patients, but was negative in all control and PBS patients. Thirteen (76.5%) PBS patients reported pain during the IWT, with significantly higher pain scores during ice water instillation compared to the baseline (P = 0.0002), or equivalent amount of bladder filling (100 mls) with saline at room temperature (P = 0.015). None of the control or overactive (NDO/IDO) patients reported any pain during the IWT.The BCR in DO may reflect loss of central inhibition, which appears necessary to elicit this reflex; the pain elicited in PBS suggests afferent sensitisation, hence sensory symptoms are evoked but not reflex detrusor contractions. The ice water test may be a useful and simple marker for clinical trials in PBS, particularly for novel selective TRPM8 antagonists.The bladder cooling reflex (BCR) is a segmental reflex believed to be triggered by menthol sensitive cold receptors in the bladder wall, mediated by a spinal reflex pathway [1-3]. It is thought to be a neonatal reflex that becomes suppressed by descending signals from higher centres at approximately the time when the child gains full voluntary control of voiding. Thus, it is typically absent in older children (> 4 years) and adults with stable bladders [2]. The BCR re-emerges in adults with central nervous system disorders, and was originally introduced by Bors and Blinn as a provocat
Influence of pregnancy and labor on the occurrence of nerve fibers expressing the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in human corpus and cervix uteri
Berith K Ting?ker, Gunvor Ekman-Ordeberg, Paul Facer, Lars Irestedt, Praveen Anand
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-6-8
Abstract: We have investigated human uterine corpus and cervix biopsies at term pregnancy and parturition. Biopsies were taken from the upper edge of the hysterotomy during caesarean section at term (n = 8), in labor (n = 8) and from the corresponding area in the non-pregnant uterus after hysterectomy (n = 8). Cervical biopsies were obtained transvaginally from the anterior cervical lip. Serial frozen sections were examined immunohistochemically using specific antibodies to TRPV1 and nerve markers (neurofilaments/peripherin).In cervix uteri, TRPV1-immunoreactive fibers were scattered throughout the stroma and around blood vessels, and appeared more frequent in the sub-epithelium. Counts of TRPV1-immunoreactive nerve fibers were not significantly different between the three groups. In contrast, few TRPV1-immunoreactive fibers were found in nerve fascicles in the non-pregnant corpus, and none in the pregnant corpus.In this study, TRPV1 innervation in human uterus during pregnancy and labor is shown for the first time. During pregnancy and labor there was an almost complete disappearance of TRPV1 positive nerve fibers in the corpus. However, cervical innervation remained throughout pregnancy and labor. The difference in TRPV1 innervation between the corpus and the cervix is thus very marked. Our data suggest that TRPV1 may be involved in pain mechanisms associated with cervical ripening and labor. Furthermore, these data support the concept that cervix uteri may be the major site from which labor pain emanates. Our findings also support the possibility of developing alternative approaches to treat labor pain.Giving birth is often very painful. Consequently, there is a demand for easily accessible and effective relief of labor pain. Various forms of central neuroaxial blockades (CNB) are currently the most efficient methods to alleviate labor pain and widely used in the "Developed world"[1]. However, from a global point of view, very few women have access to efficacious labor pai
Contact heat evoked potentials using simultaneous EEG and fMRI and their correlation with evoked pain
Katherine Roberts, Anastasia Papadaki, Carla Gon?alves, Mary Tighe, Duncan Atherton, Ravikiran Shenoy, Donald McRobbie, Praveen Anand
BMC Anesthesiology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2253-8-8
Abstract: In this study we have recorded evoked potentials stimulated by 51°C contact heat pulses from CHEPS using EEG, under normal conditions (baseline), and during continuous and simultaneous acquisition of fMRI images in ten healthy volunteers, during two sessions. The pain evoked by CHEPS was recorded on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).Analysis of EEG data revealed that the latencies and amplitudes of evoked potentials recorded during continuous fMRI did not differ significantly from baseline recordings. fMRI results were consistent with previous thermal pain studies, and showed Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) changes in the insula, post-central gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), middle cingulate cortex and pre-central gyrus. There was a significant positive correlation between the evoked potential amplitude (EEG) and the psychophysical perception of pain on the VAS.The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of recording contact heat evoked potentials with EEG during continuous and simultaneous fMRI. The combined use of the two methods can lead to identification of distinct patterns of brain activity indicative of pain and pro-nociceptive sensitisation in healthy subjects and chronic pain patients. Further studies are required for the technique to progress as a useful tool in clinical trials of novel analgesics.Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has developed into a tool that is extensively used in non-invasive brain imaging. It provides information about cerebro-vascular activity throughout the whole brain with excellent spatial localisation, yet it is limited by the poor temporal resolution it offers, which is in the order of seconds. On the other hand, electroencephalogram (EEG) is recorded directly from the scalp of the subject and can provide information about neurophysiological activity with a very precise temporal resolution, in the order of milliseconds. The disadvantage of EEG however, is that localisation of the source of electrical a
Increased capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in skin nerve fibres and related vanilloid receptors TRPV3 and TRPV4 in keratinocytes in human breast pain
Preethi Gopinath, Elaine Wan, Anita Holdcroft, Paul Facer, John B Davis, Graham D Smith, Chas Bountra, Praveen Anand
BMC Women's Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-5-2
Abstract: Eighteen patients (n = 12 breast reduction and n = 6 breast reconstruction) were recruited and assessed for breast pain by clinical questionnaire. Breast skin biopsies from each patient were examined using immunohistological methods with specific antibodies to the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, related vanilloid thermoreceptors TRPV3 and TRPV4, and nerve growth factor (NGF).TRPV1-positive intra-epidermal nerve fibres were significantly increased in patients with breast pain and tenderness (TRPV1 fibres / mm epidermis, median [range] – no pain group, n = 8, 0.69 [0–1.27]; pain group, n = 10, 2.15 [0.77–4.38]; p = 0.0009). Nerve Growth Factor, which up-regulates TRPV1 and induces nerve sprouting, was present basal keratinocytes: some breast pain specimens also showed NGF staining in supra-basal keratinocytes. TRPV4-immunoreactive fibres were present in sub-epidermis but not significantly changed in painful breast tissue. Both TRPV3 and TRPV4 were significantly increased in keratinocytes in breast pain tissues; TRPV3, median [range] – no pain group, n = 6, 0.75 [0–2]; pain group, n = 11, 2 [1-3], p = 0.008; TRPV4, median [range] – no pain group, n = 6, [0–1]; pain group, n = 11, 1 [0.5–2], p = 0.014).Increased TRPV1 intra-epidermal nerve fibres could represent collateral sprouts, or re-innervation following nerve stretch and damage by polymodal nociceptors. Selective TRPV1-blockers may provide new therapy in breast pain. The role of TRPV3 and TRPV4 changes in keratinocytes deserve further study.Breast pain is a common problem, which can affect up to 70% of women [1]. Breast pain or mastalgia can be cyclical or non-cyclical. The cyclical type of breast pain has been attributed to sex hormonal changes through the menstrual cycle that may increase the size of the breast tissue, which stretches the internal structures and causes pain or soreness. Numerous studies have demonstrated variation in pain perception during the menstrual cycle [2-5]. Heat sensitivity is increased in th
COX-2, CB2 and P2X7-immunoreactivities are increased in activated microglial cells/macrophages of multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord
Yiangos Yiangou, Paul Facer, Pascal Durrenberger, Iain P Chessell, Alan Naylor, Chas Bountra, Richard R Banati, Praveen Anand
BMC Neurology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-6-12
Abstract: Frozen human post mortem spinal cord specimens, controls (n = 12), ALS (n = 9) and MS (n = 19), were available for study by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting, using specific antibodies to COX-2, CB2 and P2X7, and markers of microglial cells/macrophages (CD 68, ferritin). In addition, autoradiography for peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites was performed on some spinal cord sections using [3H] (R)-PK11195, a marker of activated microglial cells/macrophages. Results of immunostaining and Western blotting were quantified by computerized image and optical density analysis respectively.In control spinal cord, few small microglial cells/macrophages-like COX-2-immunoreactive cells, mostly bipolar with short processes, were scattered throughout the tissue, whilst MS and ALS specimens had significantly greater density of such cells with longer processes in affected regions, by image analysis. Inflammatory cell marker CD68-immunoreactivity, [3H] (R)-PK11195 autoradiography, and double-staining against ferritin confirmed increased production of COX-2 by activated microglial cells/macrophages. An expected 70-kDa band was seen by Western blotting which was significantly increased in MS spinal cord. There was good correlation between the COX-2 immunostaining and optical density of the COX-2 70-kDa band in the MS group (r = 0.89, P = 0.0011, n = 10). MS and ALS specimens also had significantly greater density of P2X7 and CB2-immunoreactive microglial cells/macrophages in affected regions.It is hypothesized that the known increase of lesion-associated extracellular ATP contributes via P2X7 activation to release IL-1 beta which in turn induces COX-2 and downstream pathogenic mediators. Selective CNS-penetrant COX-2 and P2X7 inhibitors and CB2 specific agonists deserve evaluation in the progression of MS and ALS.Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system. MS patients may be affected by a relapsing-remitting form of the disea
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