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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4663 matches for " Prakash Chandra "
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Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Sacred Groves and Conservation of Biodiversity in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve of India  [PDF]
Chandra Prakash Kala
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.27111
Abstract: The sacred groves in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve (PBR) of India were studied to understand the concept of traditional ecological and biodiversity conservation systems. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the selected villages of the PBR along with the survey of sacred groves. In 10 selected villages of the PBR 7 sacred groves were managed by Mawasi and 16 sacred groves by Gond tribal communities. Different deities were worshipped in the sacred groves and each grove was named after the deity dwelling in the respective sacred grove. A total of 19 such deities were recorded during the survey worshipped by the local people. In study area, various traditional customs associated with sacred groves were in practice. The sacred groves were rich in plant genetic diversity and were composed of many ethnobotanically useful species, including wild edible fruits, medicinal plants, fodder, fuelwood and timber yielding species. Given the importance of conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem attempts should be made to maintain the sanctity of sacred groves.
Spherical Anisotropic Fluid Distribution in General Relativity  [PDF]
A. Sah, Prakash Chandra
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2016.612034
Abstract: In the present investigation of a spherically symmetric electrically neutral anisotropic static fluid, we present a new solution of the Einstein’s general relativistic field equations. The solution shows positive finite central pressures, central density and central red shift. The causality condition is obeyed at the centre. The anisotropy parameter is zero at the center and monotonically increasing toward the surface. The adiabatic index is also increasing towards the surface. All the other physical quantities such as matter-energy density, radial pressure, tangential pressure, velocity of sound and red shift are monotonically decreasing towards the surface. Further by assuming the surface density?\"\", we have constructed a model of massive neutron star with mass 2.95?\"\"?with radius 18 km with all degree of suitability.
Class of Charged Fluid Balls in General Relativity  [PDF]
A. Sah, Prakash Chandra
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2016.64038

In the present study, we have obtained a new analytical solution of combined Einstein-Maxwell field equations describing the interior field of a ball having static spherically symmetric isotropic charged fluid within it. The charge and electric field intensity are zero at the center and monotonically increasing towards the boundary of the fluid ball. Besides these, adiabatic index is also increasing towards the boundary and becomes infinite on it. All other physical quantities such as pressure, density, adiabatic speed of sound, charge density, adiabatic index are monotonically decreasing towards the surface. Causality condition is obeyed at the center of ball. In the limiting case of vanishingly small charge, the solution degenerates into Schwarzchild uniform density solution for electrically neutral fluid. The solution joins smoothly to the Reissner-Nordstrom solution over the boundary. We have constructed a neutron star model by assuming the surface density \"\". The mass of the neutron star comes \"\" with radius 14.574 km.

A Spherical Relativistic Anisotropic Compact Star Model  [PDF]
Prakash Chandra Fulara, Archana Sah
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2018.81004
Abstract: We provide solutions to Einsteins field equations for a model of a spherically symmetric anisotropic fluid distribution, relevant to the description of compact stars. The central matter-energy density, radial and tangential pressures, red shift and speed of sound are positive definite and are decreasing monotonically with increasing radial distance from the center of matter distribution of astrophysical object. The causality condition is satisfied for complete fluid distribution. The central value of anisotropy is zero and is increasing monotonically with increasing radial distance from the center of the distribution. The adiabatic index is increasing with increasing radius of spherical fluid distribution. The stability conditions in relativistic compact star are also discussed in our investigation. The solution is representing the realistic objects such as SAXJ1808.4-3658, HerX-1, 4U1538-52, LMC X-4, CenX-3, VelaX-1, PSRJ1614-2230 and PSRJ0348+0432 with suitable conditions.
Teleportation of Superposition of Coherent States Using 4-Partite States and Effect of Decoherence on Fidelity  [PDF]
H. Prakash, N. Chandra, Shivani A. Kumar, Ranjana Prakash
Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jqis.2012.24019

A scheme of teleporting a superposition of coherent states |α> and |-α> using a 4-partite state, a beam splitter and two phase shifters was proposed by N. Ba An (Phys. Rev. A, 68, 022321, 2003). The author concluded that the probability for successful teleportation is only 1/4 in the limit |α| and 1/2 in the limit |α|. In this paper it is shown that the author’s scheme can be altered slightly so as to obtain an almost perfect teleportation for an appreciable value of |α|2. We find the minimum assured fidelity i.e., the minimum fidelity for an arbitrarily chosen information state, which we write MAF in this paper, for different cases. We also discuss the effect of decoherence on teleportation fidelity. We find that if no photons are counted in both final outputs, MAF, is still nonzero except when there is no decoherence and the initial state (the state to be teleported) is even coherent state. For non-zero photon counts, MAF decreases with increase in |α|2 for low noise. For high noise, however, it increases, attains a maximum value and then decreases with |α|2. The average fidelity depends appreciably on the initial state for low values of |α|2 only.

Degradation of Lindane (γ-HCH) in a Mollisol as Effected by Different Soil Amendments  [PDF]
Gunjan Bhatia, Anjana Srivastava, Prakash Chandra Srivastava
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.29138
Abstract: Soil amendments play an important role in management of pesticide residues. In this study, incubation experiment was conducted using the surface (0 - 15 cm) sample of a mollisol supplied with different soil amendments (farmyard manure, cow-dung slurry, pyrite and gypsum) to investigate the effect of amendments on the dissipation of lindane in mollisols. Dissipation of lindane in soil was studied at eight consecutive samplings (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 30 d). The results indicated that soil amendments could promote the degradation of lindane in soil. After 30 d of incubation 79% degradation was observed in the untreated soil (without any amendment) whereas, in the case of farmyard manure and cow-dung slurry amended soils, 83% and 91% degradation was observed, respectively. The pyrite and gypsum amendments also enhanced the degradation of lindane in soils, but the effect was less pronounced as compared to the organic amendments. Enhanced degradation in soil treated with organic amendments could be attributed to stimulated microbial activity after the addition of organic amendments. These addition, under different soil management conditions, minimize the persistence of lindane and consequently the risk of leaching and seepage into aquifers.
Dynamic Promotional Resource Allocation for Segment Specific and Spectrum Effect of Promotion for a Product Line Incorporating Repeat Purchase Behavior  [PDF]
Prakash Chandra Jha, Prerna Manik, Anshu Gupta
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2013.33032
Abstract: Promotion is an essential element in the marketing mix. It is used by businesses to inform, influence and persuade customers to adopt the products and services they offer. Without promotion, business would be stagnant and lack substantial growth because the brands would have low visibility in the market. Moreover, today’s vast and assorted markets comprise of customers with different needs and varied behavior. So it is rarely possible for companies to satisfy all customers by treating them alike. Thus there arises a need to divide the market into segments having customers with similar traits/characteristics. After identifying appropriate market segments, firms can design differentiated promotional campaigns for each segment. At the same time there can be a mass market promotional campaign that reaches different segments with a fixed spectrum. Also since promotional effort resources are limited, one must use them judiciously. In this paper, we formulate mathematical programming problem under repeat purchase scenario, which optimally allocates mass promotional effort resources and differentiated promotional effort resources across the segments dynamically in order to maximize the overall sales obtained from multiple products of a product line under budgetary and minimum sales aspiration level constraint on each product under consideration in each segment. The planning horizon is divided into multi periods, the adoption pattern of each product in each segment is observed in every subinterval and accordingly promotional effort allocations are determined for the next period till we reach the end of planning period. The optimization model has been further extended to incorporate minimum aspiration level constraints on total sales for each product under consideration from all the segments taken together. The non linear programming problem so formulated is solved using differential evolution approach. A numerical example has been discussed to illustrate applicability of the model.

Biosynthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Ixora Coccinea Leaf Extract—A Green Approach  [PDF]
Snehal Yedurkar, Chandra Maurya, Prakash Mahanwar
Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications (OJSTA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojsta.2016.51001
Abstract: Green synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles using plant extract is a promising alternative to traditional method of chemical synthesis. In this paper, we report the synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide particles by biological method. Highly stable and spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles are produced by using zinc acetate and Ixora coccinea leaf extract. Formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles has been confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Dynamic light scattering analysis (DLS), zetapotential study and Scanning Electron Microscope with the Energy Dispersive X-ray studies (EDX). Dynamic light scattering analysis shows average particle size of 145.1 nm whereas high zeta potential value confirms the stability of formed zinc oxide nanoparticles. The Scanning Electron Microscope reveals spherical morphology of nanoparticles and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis confirms the formation of highly pure zinc oxide nanoparticles. The zinc oxide nanoparticles from Ixora coccinea leaves are expected to have applications in biomedical, cosmetic industries, biotechnology, sensors, medical, catalysis, optical device, coatings, drug delivery and water remediation, and also may be applied for electronic and magneto-electric devices. This new eco-friendly approach of synthesis is a novel, cheap, and convenient technique suitable for large scale commercial production.
Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India
Chandra Prakash Kala
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-1-11
Abstract: Tribal communities are mainly the forest dwellers who have accumulated a rich knowledge on the uses of various forests and forest products over the centuries. India possesses a total of 427 tribal communities, of these more than 130 major tribal communities live in North East India, which is comprised of the 8 states Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura, Sikkim, Assam, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh. The major tribal communities of the North East India have been categorized into sub-tribes and if these sub-tribes are taken into account the total number of tribal groups reaches up to 300. In general, the tribes of North East India have been categorized into two broad ethnic communities, such as the Khasi and the Jaintia tribe of Meghalaya, who belong to 'Monkhemar' culture of Austoic dialect, and the rest of the tribal groups are basically Mongoloid, who belongs to Tibeto-Burman subfamily of Tibeto-Chinese group [1-3].In the North East India, each state contains a number of tribal groups. Arunachal Pradesh is one of the states in North East India inhabited by 28 major tribes and 110 sub-tribes [4]. Arunachal Pradesh is the 12th mega biodiversity region of the world [5]. More than 545 species of orchids have been reported from the state, which is the highest number of orchid species known from any single state of India [6]. Such a rich biodiversity in the state has provided an initial advantage to its inhabitants for observing, and scrutinizing the rich flora and fauna for developing their own traditional knowledge. Most of the tribe economies have been historically engaged in subsistence agriculture or hunting and gathering. Over the years, they have developed a great deal of knowledge on the use of plants and plant products in curing various ailments.A review of the literature reveals that many tribal areas and tribal communities in the eastern Himalayan region of India are either under explored or unexplored with regard to their floral wealth used in curing disease
An Estimate of the Rate of Convergence of Fourier Series of Functions by Matrix Mean in Generalized Holder Metric
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Given a sequence n S x , the matrix transformation nk M m of n S x is given by 0 n nk k k M S x m S x (1)provided the series (1) exists for each n.The objective of the present paper is to estimate the rate of convergence of the Fourier series of Lebesgue integrable periodic function f considering its modified partial sum by use of matrix mean given by (1).
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