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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11565 matches for " Potential Induced Degradation "
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High Voltage Stress Impact on P Type Crystalline Silicon PV Module  [PDF]
Han-Chang Liu, Chung-Teng Huang, Wen-Kuei Lee, Mei-Hsiu Lin
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.57049

The effects of the high voltage stress and other environmental conditions on crystalline silicon photovoltaic module performance have not been included in the IEC 61215 or other qualification standards. In this work, we are to evaluate the potential induced degradation on p type crystalline silicon PV modules by three cases, one case is in room temperature, 100% relative humidity water bath, another is in room temperature, the front sheet coverage with aluminum foil and the other is in the 85°C, 85% relative humidity climate chamber. All the samples are applied with the -1000 V bias to active layers, respectively. Our current-voltage measurements and electroluminescence results showed in these modules power loss of 37.74%, 11.29% and 49.62%, respectively. These test results have shown that among high voltage effects the climate chamber is the harshest and fastest test. In this article we also showed that the ethylene vinyl acetate volume resistivity and soda-lime glass ingredients are important factors to PID failure. The high volume resistivity which is more than 1014 Ω·cm and Na less contents glass will mitigate the PID effect to ensure PID free.

Simulation Suggests Origin of Potential Induced Degradation of Solar Cell  [PDF]
Masato Ohmukai, Akira Tsuyoshi
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2017.56004
Abstract: Solar cells are well known as devices for sustainable electric energy generation. Nowadays the potential induced degradation has been brought up as an obstacle problem for practical use. In order to determine the cause of this kind of degradation, numerical simulation by a finite difference time domain method has been performed for computational electromagnetics in the case that the thunder attacks the solar modules. The results show that the dielectric breakdown in the glass covered over the solar cells triggered by the thunderstroke is critical. So it is helpful to protect the dielectric breakdown in the glass from the thunderstroke.
Effect of Parameters on Potential Induced Degradation of Solar Cell  [PDF]
Masato Ohmukai, Akira Tsuyoshi
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2017.56003
Abstract: Solar cells are widely used to generate electric energy even at homes. It surely has a great advantage of sustainability. However, the potential induced degradation has been found to be an obstacle problem for practical use. It was reported that the main cause is the dielectric breakdown in the glass covered over the solar cells triggered by the thunderstroke. In this paper, the effects of the parameters such as the position of thunderstroke, the wave form, the peak value and the front duration of the lightning current, were examined by means of numerical calculation. For the lightning current, a step-like waveform and an impulse waveform were examined. The effect of the induced voltage was found to be independent of the waveform. The peak value, the front duration of the lightning current greatly affects the induced voltage.
In-Vivo Models for Management of Pain  [PDF]
Naveed Muhammad
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.51014

Natural products are mostly considered safe, effective and with fewer side effects. For testing the natural products for their analgesic potential various in-vivo methods are used including chemical induced methods and thermal induced method. In the present review article we have discussed various in-vivo paradigms along with their merits and drawbacks. This mini review will help pharmacologist in performing various analgesic experiments.

Development and Validation of a High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Method for Quantitative Analysis of Saxagliptin  [PDF]
Salvala Srividya, Ettireddy Swetha, Ciddi Veeresham
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2015.610076
Abstract: A simple, specific, accurate and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic method (HPTLC) was developed for the quantitative analysis of Saxagliptin in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method was achieved using silica gel aluminum plate 60 F254 (10 × 10 cm) as stationary phase and Methanol:Chloroform (6:4 v/v) as mobile phase. The developed plate was scanned densitometrically using UV 222 nm wavelength. The Rf value of Saxagliptin was found to be 0.50 ± 0.02. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of Saxagliptin by this method were found as 7.96 ng/spot and 26.54 ng/spot, respectively. The method was found to be sensitive, specific, linear, accurate, precise and robust for the quantitative analysis of Saxagliptin in both APIs and marketed tablet formulation.
Development and Validation of a Method for Simultaneous Determination of Metformin and Saxagliptin in a Formulation by RP-HPLC  [PDF]
P. B. N. Prasad, K. Satyanaryana, G. Krishnamohan
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2015.611080
Abstract: A simple, specific, sensitive, precise and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of Metformin and Saxagliptin in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as well as in marketed tablet (combination) dosage forms. The method was achieved on Enable C18 G (250 × 4.6 mm; 5 μm particle size) column using 0.05 M KH2PO4 buffer (pH 4.5):Methanol:Acetonitrile (60:20:20 %v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min and by employing UV detection at 220 nm wavelength. The retention time of Metformin and Saxagliptin were found to be 4.38 min and 6.92 min, respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of Metformin were found to be 0.112 μg/mL and 0.373 μg/mL, respectively, while those of Saxagliptin were found to be 0.029 μg/mL and 0.096 μg/mL, respectively. The method was found to be rapid, sensitive, linear, specific, accurate, precise and economic for the quality control and stability assays of Metformin and Saxagliptin in marketed tablet dosage forms.
Physicochemical Characteristics, Degradation Rate and Vulnerability Potential of Obudu Cattle Ranch Soils in Southeast Nigeria  [PDF]
A. U. Akpan-Idiok, K. I. Ofem
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.42008

Obudu Cattle Ranch covers an area of 2400 hactares at an altitude of 900 - 1500 m above mean sea level and is suitable for cultivation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) because of its semitemperate climate. Physicochemical characteristics, degradation rates and vulnerability potential of the soils were studied. Eighteen composite soil samples (0 - 15 and 15 - 30 cm) were collected at interval of 500 m along North-South and East-West transects in nine locations. The soils were characterized as follows: texture of sandy loam for the surface and subsurface soils; pH(H2O) (4.7 - 5.7), organic carbon (4.9 - 74.8 gkg-1), total nitrogen (0.2 - 4.8 gkg-1), carbon-nitrogen ratio (14 - 25), available P (6.66 - 107.89 mgkg-1), effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) (5.58 - 14.62 cmol·kg-1) and base saturation (49.37% - 85.28%); the surface soils were generally higher in organic carbon, total nitrogen, available P and ECEC than the subsurface. The Soil Degradation Rate (SDR)/ Vulnerability Potential (Vp) weighted values of texture (3/3), soil pH(H2O) (4/2), organic carbon (1/5) and base saturation (2/4) showed moderate to low susceptibility of the soils to degradation or vulnerability. The soils could be managed by liming, practicing crop rotation and using soil conservative measures.

Constant-Stress Accelerated Degradation Life Test of an Organic Light-Emitting Diode Display under Violet Light  [PDF]
Fran?ois-Xavier Fortier, Sylvain G. Cloutier
Engineering (ENG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2016.82005
Abstract: The lifetime of commercial OLED display devices increases, so does the need for an accelerated lifetime testing method. The present work proposes a simple and accurate blackbox testing approach for commercial PMOLED display lifetime assessment using violet light-induced accelerated aging. Maximum likelihood estimations using lognormal distributions are performed based on datasets acquired from samples exposed to six different degrees of violet irradiance and accelerated life model is shown to accurately fit experimental data using an inverse power law. Based on these results, weighted average of the logarithmic standard deviation, the average life and median life can then be obtained for specific conditions of operation of the devices. As this method relies exclusively on violet light-induced degradation at room-temperature, this minimally-invasive testing procedure requires no significant modification to the display hardware architecture.
Pesticidas no perfil de solos em áreas de planta??o de cebolas em Ituporanga, SC
Pinheiro, Adilson;Moraes, Jo?o C. S;Silva, Marcos R. da;
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-43662011000500015
Abstract: this study aims to evaluate the pesticide concentrations in the soil profile under cultivation of onion in the municipality of ituporanga in santa catarina. samples of soil were collected, at depths of 0-20, 40-60 and 80-100 cm in three areas. in these the maize, onion, potatoes, beans, and beets are used in crop rotation. three sets of samples were collected in the period 2006 and 2007. in the first year single samples were collected and in the other year, a composite sample. for each sample, the concentrations of herbicide 2,4-d, alachlor, atrazine, diuron, of fungicides: azoxystrobin, metalaxyl, metconazole, tebuconazole and of insecticides: lambda-cyhalothrin were determined. the results show that the active ingredients were detected in three depths. the fungicides were detected more frequently in the surface layer. those, in turn, were detected more frequently in the deeper layer. the concentrations varied among the areas and depths, occurring in discontinuous form. the behavior of the distribution of concentrations was similar for all pesticides. it is supposed that the existence of preferential paths in the soil profile is the responsible factor for the irregular occurrence of high concentrations in depth.
Electrical Homo-Junction Delineation Techniques: A Comparative Study  [PDF]
Nicolas Vivet, Mélanie Diogo, Amandine Aubert, Tony Moinet, Fabien Allanic, Raphael Perdreau, Jean-Paul Rebrassé
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2016.76030
Abstract: In active semiconductor devices, the junction characteristics are critical for the electrical performance. As an alternative of the atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques which provide unique junction characterization, other methods are dedicated for the delineation of the electrical junction such as the wet chemical etching, the electrochemical plating method, the Seebeck effect imaging (SEI) method, the electron-beam induced current (EBIC) technique and the secondary electron potential contrast (SEPC) method. The aim of this paper is in the one hand to compare these five techniques in term of sample preparation, spatial application range, spatial resolution, simplicity and information displayed. In the other hand, this review aims to provide some guidelines for the appropriate delineation method(s) selection. It was confirmed that chemical based techniques are the simplest junction delineation methods but exhibit some drawbacks in term of spatial resolution and reproducibility. Despite of a limited spatial resolution, it was evidenced that EBIC can provide accurate electrical characterization of the junction. Finally, it was demonstrated that SEPC is the most promising technique providing the higher spatial resolution. The effect of the sample preparation method has been described. Even if the comparison was mainly based on homo-micro-Silicon junctions (n-p and n-p-n-p), the results were also discussed for short SiC junctions. The importance of the analysis context was considered in this paper and analysis flow was suggested for specific analysis cases.
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