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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4672 matches for " Pollution "
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Assessment of Organic Compounds as Vehicular Emission Tracers in the Aburrá Valley Region of Colombia  [PDF]
Enrique Posada, Miryam Gómez, Viviana Monsalve
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.711129
The Aburrá Valley region in Colombia, with Medellín as its main city, is an urban centre with about three million people. An investigation was carried out to deter-mine a set of baseline concentrations for VOC compounds associated with diesel fuel and gasoline, as vehicular emission tracers in the region. The VOC measurement campaigns, based on TENAX tube sampling and analysis according to TO-17 EPA method, were done in areas of low and high vehicular flow as well as on-board measurements covering major Medellín road networks during 24 hours. The results showed that there was a relation between VOCs concentrations and vehicular activi-ty. The diesel fuel sulfur content was also found as an important factor on VOC hy-drocarbon formation.
Are children safe indoor from outdoor air pollution? A short review  [PDF]
Giovanni Ghirga, Mara Pipere
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.22016
Abstract: Background: Air pollution is a serious threat to children health. Given that children spend over 80% of their time indoors, understanding transport of pollutants from outdoor to indoor environments is important for assessing the impact of exposure to outdoor pollution on children health. The most common advice given during a smoke pollution episode is to stay indoors. How well this works depends on how clean the indoor air is and how pollutants from outdoor air contribute to pollutants load in indoor air. Objective: To assess the amount of outdoor air pollution coming indoors threatening children health. Methods: A Medline/EMBASE search of scientific articles was performed to evaluate the indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) concentration ratios of two main pollutants: ultrafine particles (UFP) and ozone (O3). Result: Under infiltration condition, the highest I/O ratios (0.6 - 0.9) were usually observed for larger UFP (70 - 100 nm), while the lowest I/O ratios (0.1 - 0.4) occurred typically around 10 - 20 nm. O3 I/O ratios vary according to air exchange and may be 0.6 - 0.8 for interiors having a large volume exchange with outdoor air (i.e. open windows) and 0.3 - 0.4 with conventional air conditioning systems. Conclusions: In the absence of indoor sources or activities, indoor UFP particles originate from outdoors. O3 concentration indoors may reach concentration similar to outdoors. Environmental and energy policies must also explicitly account for all the impacts of fossil fuel combustion on child health and development.
California’s Agriculture-Related Local Air Pollution Policy  [PDF]
C.-Y. Cynthia Lin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.48A1004

Air pollution is a critical environmental issue for California, which has some of the nation’s most polluted air basins and also the nation’s most stringent set of state and local air quality standards. This paper reviews my previous work in Lin (2011), in which I examine the effects of agriculture-related local regulations in California on air quality, as measured by the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards, by exploiting the natural variation in policy among the different air districts in California. Agricultural burning policies and penalty fees reduce the pollution from CO. Other policies such as the prohibition on visible emission, fugitive dust, particulate matter, nitrogen and the reduction of animal matter are correlated with higher levels of CO. Regulations on orchard and citrus heaters have no significant effect on the number of exceedances of the CO and NO2 standards.

Simulation of Nitrate Contamination in Groundwater Caused by Livestock Industry (Case Study: Rey)  [PDF]
Majid Ehteshami, Armin Sefidkar Langeroudi, Salman Tavassoli
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.47A011

With the economic development of many communities and the growing human population more food is needed. The livestock industry is one of the fastest growing industries in developing countries. The development of the livestock industry and the increase of livestock waste happens as a result of the growth in food production. The wastes are stored in a way that contamination of groundwater and surface water pollution in the environment has a significant impact on environment. This study analyses the environmental impact of livestock facilities and nitrate leaching in groundwater. After site sampling and libratory analysis, calibration of a simulation model with observed data was done to show nitrate contamination in “Rey” groundwater. The movement of nitrate into soil and groundwater was simulated by LEACHN. By defining various scenarios and performing sensitivity analysis, we examined precisely the factors affecting ground water contaminations. Along together with the analysis of different scenarios and comparing them with the measured values, seasonal rainfall conditions have greatest impact on the rate of recharge of nitrate to groundwater. Therefore soil with low rainfall shows 44% reduction of nitrate leakage at a depth of 30 cm of soil conditions. Finally, the modeling results and graphs from different scenarios for purpose of nitrate reduction in groundwater were presented. The good match between model results and observed data showed that the model is calibrated to this area and can be used for prediction purposes and further studies.

The Effect of the Industrial Activities on Air Pollution at Baiji and Its Surrounding Areas, Iraq  [PDF]
Salwan S. Al-Hasnawi, Hussain M. Hussain, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Sven K nutsson
Engineering (ENG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2016.81004
Abstract: The polluters of total suspended particles (TSP) and some heavy metals (Cd, Co, and Ni) concentrations were studied in the areas of Al-Fatha, Al-Alam and Baiji, Iraq. These concentrations were measured for selected 22 sample locations for two periods, January and July 2013. The analyzed values of (TSP) and (Cd) exceeded the limits of Iraqi National and the World Health Organization (WHO) for the two periods. Also, (Ni) values exceeded the limits for July only, while (Co) values were under the limits for the two periods. The difference between the two periods reflects the effect of the wind speed and direction, rainfall, and the intensity of the dust storms during the two months, respectively. GIS technique makes optimal predictions possible by examining the relationships between all the sample points and producing a continuous surface of polluter’s concentration. Therefore, GIS was used to produce predictions and probabilities maps for the critical polluter values in the study area.
Mercury Pollution from Dental Amalgam Waste in Trinidad and Tobago  [PDF]
Amit Paryag, Amrita S. Paryag, Reisha N. Rafeek, Angelus Pilgrim
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.28089
Abstract: Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of dental practitioners regarding the disposal of amalgam waste from dental practices and to assess the level of mercury released via dental amalgam waste into the environment in Trinidad and Tobago. Method: A questionnaire on dental wastewater discharge and amalgam waste disposal was administered to dental practitioners in Trinidad and Tobago. Levels of mercury in samples of wastewater and solid deposits obtained during removal of 160 amalgam fillings, were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The numbers of amalgam fillings placed and removed over a monthly period from a random sample of dental practices in Trinidad and Tobago were also obtained via the questionnaires. The amount of mercury entering the environment from dental practices was estimated from these data. Results: Twenty per cent responded to the questionnaire. Thirty per cent of respondents used elemental mercury (from a dispenser), while 74.4% used pre-capsulated mercury for preparing amalgam fillings. Seventy nine per cent used chair-side traps and filters but none had amalgam separators in their surgery. Methods used to dispose of amalgam waste included disposal in the trash (48.8%), washing down the sink (39.5%); and as hazardous waste (37.2%). A mean concentration of 0.0759 ppm (or mg/L) mercury was found in filtrate from the wastewater samples. A total concentration of 3.4 g mercury per dentist per day was found to be released into the environment via dental amalgam waste in Trinidad and Tobago. Conclusion: Best management practices for disposal of dental amalgam waste are not generally followed. At 3.4 gms per day per dentist, the level of mercury released via dental amalgam waste into the environment in Trinidad and Tobago may be too high. Dental practitioners require education on the management of dental amalgam waste and national legislation to protect the environment from this source of mercury may be required.
Impact of the Transboundary Transport of Air Pollutants on Air Quality in Spain  [PDF]
Marta G. Vivanco, Inmaculada Palomino, Juan Luis Garrido, Ma ángeles González, Gonzalo Alonso, Fernando Martín
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.329135
Abstract: Although compliance with the European limit values for air pollutants has been achieved over large parts in Spain, some challenges remain for O3 on the maximum daily 8-hour mean and information limit values, for particulate matter on the PM10 annual and daily limit values and for NO2 on annual and hourly limit values. Transboundary transport of air pollutants has started to be recognized as a mechanism affecting air quality. Nevertheless, as a consequence of the complexity of atmospheric chemistry it is not easy to determine the importance of this effect. Photochemical models constitute an adequate tool to address this challenge, allowing the identification of pollutant pathways and the quantifi- cation of the influence of long-range transport of air pollutants. In this paper we evaluate the influence of out-of-Spain emissions on this non-compliance picture by using the CHIMERE photochemical model. For this purpose the model was run at a 0.2?-horizontal resolution for a European domain. Although at this resolution not all the local effects can be captured, transboundary transport of air pollutants can be examined. Several simulations were performed considering different emission scenarios. To see all out-of-Spain emissions influence, all the emissions were set to zero, excepting those in Spain. This includes examining European and ships effects on air quality in Spain. A second simulation was performed setting to zero just European-countries emissions, to see the effect of Europe. The third and fourth simulations were carried out by setting to zero France and Portugal emissions respectively. Ozone has been found to be the pollutant more affected by this transboundary transport, in particular in the summer period. The model indicates that the incoming air masses contributed in 2009 to the non-compliance with the European normative regulating the maximum daily 8-hour mean.
Sustainable Ecotourism Established on Local Communities and Its Assessment System in Costa Rica  [PDF]
Jing Li
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.41006

This dissertation chiefly examines the difficulties and principles of establishing sustainable ecotourism based on local communities. Furthermore, mainly address management techniques of sustainability in Costa Rica, a country with a growing reputation as an ecotourist destination; meanwhile, throw light upon that effective management and setting up Green Certification Program could improve efficiency. It have been noted that the importance of establishing ecotourism in promoting sustainable maintenances, cultural preservation, and biodiversity conservation within indigenous communities. However, widely management methods to identify the potential and gauge the progress of ecotourism sites have yet to emerge, which is due to there have been few practical assessments of the status of ecotourism at specific locations. In addition, putting ecotourism theory into practice would be much more complicated than originally thought. As far as I am concerned, practical principles combining the most integrated approach would considerably bring mutual benefits between ecotourism and local communities, as appropriate management could help to achieve a balance between conservation and development. With regard to the overall research approach, a case study in Costa Rica will gain prominence in the establishment of sustainable ecotourism since previous research and experience would be highlighted and explored in depth. To some extent, it could be predicted that some gaps between theory and practice of ecotourism would be improved by promoting its sustainability based on communities, resources and economics. As a whole, establishment of benchmark for assessing sustainable ecotourism would be explored as a broader conservation strategy and offers suggestions for further improving the potential of ecotourism.

Elements Content in Otolith as Pollution Indicator for Cultured Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer) of Malaysia  [PDF]
Afiza Suriani Sarimin, Che Abd R. Mohamed
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.312184

Otoliths of cultured sea bass and ambient waters were sampled from 24 fish cages and ponds in Malaysia to investigate the contents of Sr, Mg, Ba, Cd and Zn. The following elements content in otolith and water were analysed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and/or Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) to determine the anthropogenic impacts based on the grouping characterisation of the sampling locations. Three groups i.e. A, B and C were characterised according to the least, intermediate and high anthropogenic impact to otolith elemental content. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Metal Pollution Index (MPI) were calculated to determine the pollution source and level. The content of Ba in otolith was found positively related with the salinity variation and Ba content in water. Elevated content of Zn in otolith and water was found in group A suggesting that oil leaking from tourist boating activities effects exceed the urbanisation and industrialisation impact. EFznsupport the enrichment of Zn in waters which exceed the recommended level. MPI showed that group A > C > B and support that tourism activities affect the pollution level and indicate otolith functioned as pollution indicator. Highest EFcdsuggested Cd incorporation onto otolith despite of the low content of Cd in water. The sequence of the elements content in otolith and water are Sr > Mg > Zn > Ba > Cd and Sr > Mg > Ba > Zn > Cd respectively.

The Legal Regime of Noise Pollution in Nigeria  [PDF]
Hakeem Ijaiya
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.51001

Man is born with noise and dies with that, thus noise is part of human life and a natural product of human environment. Noise like smog, is a slow agent of death. Noise may not appear as a threat to global environment on the same level as deforestation, hazardous wastes or emission of poisonous gases into the atmosphere but if it continued the next 30 years as it has for the last 30 years, it could become lethal. Against this background, this paper examines noise as a factor harmful to the environment with focus on Nigeria. The paper looks at noise pollution in Nigeria and the legal regime relating to the problem. The paper examines how environmental law and other relevant sources of law endeavoured to tackle noise pollution in the country.

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