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In the present study
an effort has been made to evaluate the residues of insecticides, fungicides
and herbicides in fruit fromPolandand their health risks assessed. Accredited multiresidue methods based on gas
and liquid chromatography, and spectroscopic technique were used to determine
the concentrations above 160 pesticides. A total of 392 samples of 15 different
fruit were collected during the May 2010 to October 2012. In 48.2% of samples
no residues were found, 45.9% of samples contained pesticide residues at or
below the EU MRL, and 5.9% of samples contained pesticide residues above MRL.
Sour cherries (66%) and apples (63%) were the commodities in which pesticide
residues the most frequently occurred. Thirty one different pesticides were
detected in total. Dithiocarbamate, captan, cyprodinil and boscalid were the
pesticide most frequently found. Multiple pesticides ( > 1 pesticide) were
detected in about 30.1% samples. The dietary intake of residues of some
pesticides can pose acute hazards. Data obtained were used for estimating the
potential health risks associated with the exposures to these pesticides. The
highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) for children were: 22% for dimethoate
and 112% for diazinone of the ADI. The most critical commodity was apple,
contributing 1.30 to the acute Hazard Index for flusilazole. The results show
that despite a high occurrence of pesticide residues in fruit it could not be
considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into
continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in fruit is recommended.
The present situation in Poland and Europe, regarding electric power generation by source, is discussed in the paper. The results of the implementation of EU competitive-low-carbon economy policy in some most developed countries in the continent, have given already good experimental data for evaluation of this strategy. Analysis of the reports provided by official sources for Germany, Denmark and Finland is a base for EU energy policy evaluation. The combustion technologies will be a main energy sources for many years from now. Therefore effects of fossil fuels and biomass combustion on the environment are presented briefly. Finally, the developments regarding Polish Nuclear Energy Programme are overviewed.