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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8456 matches for " Plinio Barbosa;Chave "
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Estimation of biomass and carbon stocks: the case of the Atlantic Forest
Vieira, Simone Aparecida;Alves, Luciana Ferreira;Aidar, Marcos;Araújo, Luciana Spinelli;Baker, Tim;Batista, Jo?o Luís Ferreira;Campos, Mariana Cruz;Camargo, Plinio Barbosa;Chave, Jerome;Delitti, Welington Braz Carvalho;Higuchi, Niro;Honorio, Euridice;Joly, Carlos Alfredo;Keller, Michael;Martinelli, Luiz Antonio;Mattos, Eduardo Arcoverde de;Metzker, Thiago;Phillips, Oliver;Santos, Flavio Antonio Maes dos;Shimabukuro, M?nica Takako;Silveira, Marcos;Trumbore, Susan Elizabeth;
Biota Neotropica , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-06032008000200001
Abstract: the main objective of this paper is to present and discuss the best methods to estimate live above ground biomass in the atlantic forest. the methods presented and conclusions are the products of a workshop entitled "estimation of biomass and carbon stocks: the case of atlantic rain forest". aboveground biomass (agb) in tropical forests is mainly contained in trees. tree biomass is a function of wood volume, obtained from the diameter and height, architecture and wood density (dry weight per unit volume of fresh wood). it can be quantified by the direct (destructive) or indirect method where the biomass quantification is estimated using mathematical models. the allometric model can be site specific when elaborated to a particular ecosystem or general that can be used in different sites. for the atlantic forest, despite the importance of it, there are only two direct measurements of tree biomass, resulting in allometric models specific for this ecosystem. to select one or other of the available models in the literature to estimate agb it is necessary take into account what is the main question to be answered and the ease with which it is possible to measure the independent variables in the model. models that present more accurate estimates should be preferred. however, more simple models (those with one independent variable, usually dbh) can be used when the focus is monitoring the variation in carbon storage through the time. our observations in the atlantic forest suggest that pan-tropical relations proposed by chave et al. (2005) can be confidently used to estimated tree biomass across biomes as long as tree diameter (dbh), height, and wood density are accounted for in the model. in atlantic forest, we recommend the quantification of biomass of lianas, bamboo, palms, tree ferns and epiphytes, which are an important component in this ecosystem. this paper is an outcome of the workshop entitled "estimation of biomass and carbon stocks: the case of atlantic rain fore
Water Use in Sugar and Ethanol Industry in the State of São Paulo (Southeast Brazil)  [PDF]
Luiz A. Martinelli, Solange Filoso, Cecilia de Barros Aranha, Silvio F. B. Ferraz, Tatiana M. B. Andrade, Elizabethe de C. Ravagnani, Luciana Della Coletta, Plinio Barbosa de Camargo
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.32019
Abstract:

Brazil is the largest producer of ethanol from sugarcane in the world. While the ethanol industry is economically important to Brazil for several reasons, it also has a significant impact on the environment. Here we analyze the water consumptive use in the transformation of the feedstock (sugarcane) into ethanol and the impact of industrial byproduct effluents on water resources of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Our estimates indicated that in the 2007-2008 harvest, 700 million m3 was withdrawn mainly from rivers and streams by 140 mills, and of this total 440 million m3 was consumed which yielded a water use of approximately 1.53 m3 ·water·tonˉ1 sugarcane or approximately 18 L·water·L-ˉ1 ethanol. At the same time, a total of 120 million m3 of vinasse by-product was produced in the state, equivalent to an organic load of approximately 3 billion kg·BOD during the harvest season or approximately 8 million kg·BOD·dˉ1. Although the water used by sugarcane mills has decreased in recent decades, it is still possible to further decrease the amount of water used by ethanol production. This would decrease the pressure on 1st order streams of the state from which most water is withdrawn. In addition, the enormous volume of vinasse production must be reduced because it exerts constant pressure on aquatic ecosystems, soil and groundwater due to the constant increase in the potassium (K) concentration in areas where it is used as a fertilizer.

Hume y el escepticismo antiguo
Plinio Smith
Signos filosóficos , 2007,
Abstract: Resumen: Propongo una comparación entre David Hume y las formas antiguas del escepticismo. Un molde histórico adecuado para comprender el escepticismo de Hume es la filosofía escéptica académica. Un análisis histórico revela que, de hecho, se encuentran algunas semejanzas importantes entre Hume y Carneades. Sin embargo, en el punto más fuerte de aproximación entre esos filósofos, el probabilismo de uno y el probabilismo de otro, se revela una falsa pista. La aproximación entre la creencia humeana y la carneadeana también resulta sospechosa. El pirronismo provee otro molde históricamente adecuado. El probabilismo de Hume, contenido en su teoría de la causalidad, está estrechamente emparentado con la doctrina pirrónica del signo conmemorativo. Otros puntos semejantes entre Hume y Sexto Empírico son: la idea de seguir la naturaleza, la defensa de la vida común, creencias no-dogmáticas y el origen empírico de nuestros pensamientos. El escepticismo pirrónico es, tal como el escepticismo humeano, una forma de empirismo. Ante estas constataciones, no cabe sino concluir que coincide en muchos puntos al escepticismo académico. El escepticismo humeano también está muy cerca del pirronismo. Abstract: I propose a comparison between David Hume and the ancient forms of scepticism. An apropriate historical mold to understand Hume’s scepticism is Academic Sceptic Philosophy. A historical analysis shows that, in fact, there exist certain, important similarities between Hume and Carneades. Nevertheless, there is a false clue on the strongest proximity point between these two philosophers, probabilism from one of them, and probabilism from the other one. The closeness between Humean believing and Carneadean believing turns out to be suspicious also. Pyrrhonism provides another apropriate hitorical mold. Hume’s probabilism, included in his theory of causality, is closely related to the Pyrrhonic doctrine of commemorative sign. Other points of proximity between Hume and Sextus Empriricus are: the idea of following Nature; the defense of common life, non-dogmatic beliefs, and the empirical origin of our thoughts. As Humean scepticism, Pyrrhonic scepticism is a form of empiricism. In the face of this state of affairs, it only remains to conclude that the latter is quite similar in many aspects to academic scepticism. And Humean scepticism is quite close to Pyrrhonism also.
Statistical and dynamical properties of the discrete Sinai model at finite times
Jerome Chave,Emmanuel Guitter
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1088/0305-4470/32/3/003
Abstract: We study the Sinai model for the diffusion of a particle in a one dimensional quenched random energy landscape. We consider the particular case of discrete energy landscapes made of random +/- 1 jumps on the semi infinite line Z+ with a reflecting wall at the origin. We compare the statistical distribution of the successive local minima of the energy landscapes, which we derive explicitly, with the dynamical distribution of the position of the diffusing particle, which we obtain numerically. At high temperature, the two distributions match only in the large time asymptotic regime. At low temperature however, we find even at finite times a clear correspondence between the statistical and dynamical distributions, with additional interesting oscillatory behaviors.
índice bispectral e outros parametros processados do eletroencefalograma: uma atualiza??o
Nunes, Rogean Rodrigues;Chave, Itagyba Martins Miranda;Alencar, Júlio César Garcia de;Franco, Suyane Benevides;Oliveira, Yohana Gurgel Barbosa Reis de;Menezes, David Guabiraba Abitbol de;
Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-70942012000100014
Abstract: background and objectives: the processed analysis of electroencephalogram became extremely important to monitor nervous system, being used to obtain a better anesthetic adequacy. the objective was to conduct a review about each processed parameter, defining its real importance. content: a review was conducted showing mathematical, physical and clinical aspects as well as their correlations and updates, presenting new integrated parameters. conclusions: an adequate analysis of processed parameters of electroencephalogram may provide more intraoperative safety as well as result in a better outcome for the patient
Nasalance and nasality at experimental velopharyngeal openings in palatal prosthesis: a case study
Lima-Gregio, Aveliny Mantovan;Marino, Viviane Cristina de Castro;Pegoraro-Krook, Maria Inês;Barbosa, Plinio Almeida;Aferri, Homero Carneiro;Dutka, Jeniffer de Cassia Rillo;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572011000600012
Abstract: the use of prosthetic devices for correction of velopharyngeal insufficiency (vpi) is an alternative treatment for patients with conditions that preclude surgery and for those individuals with a hypofunctional velopharynx (hv) with a poor prognosis for the surgical repair of vpi. understanding the role and measuring the outcome of prosthetic treatment of velopharyngeal dysfunction requires the use of tools that allow for documenting pre- and post-treatment outcomes. experimental openings in speech bulbs have been used for simulating vpi in studies documenting changes in aerodynamic, acoustic and kinematics aspects of speech associated with the use of palatal prosthetic devices. the use of nasometry to document changes in speech associated with experimental openings in speech bulbs, however, has not been described in the literature. objective: this single-subject study investigated nasalance and nasality at the presence of experimental openings drilled through the speech bulb of a patient with hv. material and methods: nasometric recordings of the word "pato" were obtained under 4 velopharyngeal conditions: no-opening (control condition), no speech bulb, speech bulb with a 20 mm2 opening, and speech bulb with 30 mm2 opening. five speech-language pathologists performed auditory-perceptual ratings while the subject read an oral passage under all conditions. results: kruskal-wallis test showed significant difference among conditions (p=0.0002), with scheffé post hoc test indicating difference from the no-opening condition. conclusion: the changes in nasalance observed after drilling holes of known sizes in a speech bulb suggest that nasometry reflect changes in transfer of sound energy related to different sizes of velopharyngeal opening.
Diagnóstico espa?o-temporal da ocorrência de herbicidas nas águas superficiais e sedimentos do Rio Corumbataí e principais afluentes
Armas, Eduardo Dutra de;Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim;Antunes, Paula Munhoz;Santos, Maria Alice Penna Firme dos;Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de;Abakerli, Rosangela Blotta;
Química Nova , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422007000500013
Abstract: residues of herbicides from sugarcane were monitored in waters and sediments of corumbataí river and tributaries. ametryne, atrazine, simazine, hexazinone, glyphosate, and clomazone were detected in water samples, with negligible levels of ametryne and glyphosate in sediment samples. the area of recharge of the guarani aquifer presented the highest triazine and clomazone levels. the triazines were detected at higher levels, with atrazine above brazil's potability and quality standards. total herbicide levels at some sampling points were 13 times higher than the european community potability limit. there is no brazilian standard for ametryne, although the risk is larger due to ametryne's higher toxicity for the aquatic biota.
Historical land-cover/use in different slope and riparian buffer zones in watersheds of the state of S?o Paulo, Brazil
Silva, Alexandre Marco da;Nalon, Marco Aurélio;Kronka, Francisco José do Nascimento;Alvares, Clayton Alcarde;Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de;Martinelli, Luiz Antonio;
Scientia Agricola , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162007000400003
Abstract: information about the land cover of a region it is a key information for several purposes. this paper aimed to elaborate land-cover maps using digital satellite images obtained in 1997 from seven watersheds (piracicaba, moji-gua?u, alto paranapanema, turvo aguapeí, peixe, and s?o josé dos dourados) located in the state of s?o paulo, southeastern brazil. additionaly, this study evaluated the relationship between land-cover and slopes of the terrain of the seven watersheds. a third objective was to estimate the percentage of riparian vegetation currently remaining along the streams in a 30-meter width buffer zone. three research questions were posed: i) what is the dominant land-cover of these watersheds? ii) is the riparian vegetation well preserved in the 30m width buffer zone? if not, iii) what is the dominant land-cover in these areas and what would be the cost of recovering such areas? pasture was the predominant land-cover, occurring in approximately 50% of the entire study area, while sugar cane (saccharum officinarum) (14%) constituted the second most frequent land-cover. approximately 50% of the area of the seven basins is considered flat (40%) or smoothly rolling (10%). the terrain only becomes hillier in the piracicaba and alto paranapanema basins, where a little less than 50% have slopes higher than 8%. the total riparian buffer strip zone occupied an area equivalent to approximately 6,200 km2. from this total, only 25% is preserved. pasture is the main land-cover of the riparian buffer strip zone.
Height-diameter relationships of tropical Atlantic moist forest trees in southeastern Brazil
Scaranello, Marcos Augusto da Silva;Alves, Luciana Ferreira;Vieira, Simone Aparecida;Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de;Joly, Carlos Alfredo;Martinelli, Luiz Ant?nio;
Scientia Agricola , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162012000100005
Abstract: site-specific height-diameter models may be used to improve biomass estimates for forest inventories where only diameter at breast height (dbh) measurements are available. in this study, we fit height-diameter models for vegetation types of a tropical atlantic forest using field measurements of height across plots along an altitudinal gradient. to fit height-diameter models, we sampled trees by dbh class and measured tree height within 13 one-hectare permanent plots established at four altitude classes. to select the best model we tested the performance of 11 height-diameter models using the akaike information criterion (aic). the weibull and chapman-richards height-diameter models performed better than other models, and regional site-specific models performed better than the general model. in addition, there is a slight variation of height-diameter relationships across the altitudinal gradient and an extensive difference in the stature between the atlantic and amazon forests. the results showed the effect of altitude on tree height estimates and emphasize the need for altitude-specific models that produce more accurate results than a general model that encompasses all altitudes. to improve biomass estimation, the development of regional height-diameter models that estimate tree height using a subset of randomly sampled trees presents an approach to supplement surveys where only diameter has been measured.
Hipertensión arterial posterior a trasplante deórganos sólidos renal-hepático-cardíaco
Plinio,D. Casola;
Insuficiencia card?-aca , 2011,
Abstract: arterial hypertension after cardiac-hepatic-renal solid organ transplantation hypertension (ht) is a very common complication after solid organ transplantation, and one of the most important risk factors for graft and patient survival. transplant survival has improved substantially with the advent of new immunosuppressive drugs; however, they are not free of side effects, ht being one of the most important. pathophysiological differences exist depending on the transplanted organ, matter to be considered when deciding on a treatment regimen. it is expected the development of new immunosuppressive drugs with fewer side effects. for the moment, calcium channel blockers are the drugs most commonly used in treatment, perhaps to the counter the effects of calcineurin inhibitors, and their few side effects; however, ace inhibitors and arbs are being used increasingly more often, like carvedilol.
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