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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 81 matches for " Pirjo Nuutila "
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Imaging of Insulitis in NOD Mice with IL-2-Gd-DTPA and 1.5 T MRI  [PDF]
Teemu Kalliokoski, Erkki Svedstr?m, Jani Saunavaara, Anne Roivainen, Mikko Kankaanp??, Heikki Oivanen, Pirjo Nuutila, Olli Simell
Advances in Molecular Imaging (AMI) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ami.2011.13006
Abstract: To explore the possibility to use 1.5 T MRI in imaging of accumulating gadolinium (Gd) into inflamed en- docrine pancreas (insulitis), we compared intravenously delivered IL-2-Gd-DTPA and Gd-DTPA (Magne- vist®) in phenotypically healthy 12 weeks old female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. At 1 to 48 h after the injection mice were sacrificed and the pancreas-to-background ratio was determined using MRI. In addition Gd concentration of the pancreas and plasma were measured. The pancreas-to-plasma ratio of Gd was 25-fold 24 h after the i.v. injection of IL-2-Gd-DTPA. At the same time the pancreas-to-background ratio measured with 1.5T MRI was 1.5-times higher in the NOD mice receiving IL-2-Gd-DTPA than Magnevist® (271 ± 37 vs. 183 ± 0,1, P = 0.04) indicating that sufficient differences may exist between IL-2-Gd-DTPA accumulating in the pancreas and in the surrounding tissues to support the use of MRI for imaging of pan- creatic insulitis.
Dorsal Striatum and Its Limbic Connectivity Mediate Abnormal Anticipatory Reward Processing in Obesity
Lauri Nummenmaa, Jussi Hirvonen, Jarna C. Hannukainen, Heidi Immonen, Markus M. Lindroos, Paulina Salminen, Pirjo Nuutila
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031089
Abstract: Obesity is characterized by an imbalance in the brain circuits promoting reward seeking and those governing cognitive control. Here we show that the dorsal caudate nucleus and its connections with amygdala, insula and prefrontal cortex contribute to abnormal reward processing in obesity. We measured regional brain glucose uptake in morbidly obese (n = 19) and normal weighted (n = 16) subjects with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while anticipatory food reward was induced by repeated presentations of appetizing and bland food pictures. First, we found that glucose uptake rate in the dorsal caudate nucleus was higher in obese than in normal-weight subjects. Second, obese subjects showed increased hemodynamic responses in the caudate nucleus while viewing appetizing versus bland foods in fMRI. The caudate also showed elevated task-related functional connectivity with amygdala and insula in the obese versus normal-weight subjects. Finally, obese subjects had smaller responses to appetizing versus bland foods in the dorsolateral and orbitofrontal cortices than did normal-weight subjects, and failure to activate the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was correlated with high glucose metabolism in the dorsal caudate nucleus. These findings suggest that enhanced sensitivity to external food cues in obesity may involve abnormal stimulus-response learning and incentive motivation subserved by the dorsal caudate nucleus, which in turn may be due to abnormally high input from the amygdala and insula and dysfunctional inhibitory control by the frontal cortical regions. These functional changes in the responsiveness and interconnectivity of the reward circuit could be a critical mechanism to explain overeating in obesity.
Premises for Minority School Leadership in Sweden, Finland and Spain  [PDF]
Pirjo Lahdenper?
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2014.33007
Abstract: This article focuses on the role of principals in minority schools. It attempts, through a case study conducted in three different countries, to determine the conditions that constitute the framework of principal’s mission and work. Furthermore it aims to explore what characterizes being a leader of a bicultural and multilingual school. The study is based on interviews with leaders in seven different schools: two in Finland, two in Spain and three in Sweden. One of the main findings indicates that the principal role was directed towards being a “champion”, fighting and arguing for the schools uncertain existence. The headmaster had to prioritize promoting the school to various stakeholders as well as establishing it as an institution in the surrounding society. The second finding concerns principals’ leadership. Working in a multicultural and multilingual school provides conditions for development of intercultural leadership skills. The principals of these schools have much to contribute to the development of knowledge on management in diversity. Another feature that emerges in the interviews is the principal’s high commitment and ability to interact with parents and other stakeholders.
Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Mass
Tina Landsvig Berentzen, Lars ?ngquist, Anna Kotronen, Ronald Borra, Hannele Yki-J?rvinen, Patricia Iozzo, Riitta Parkkola, Pirjo Nuutila, Robert Ross, David B. Allison, Steven B. Heymsfield, Kim Overvad, Thorkild I. A. S?rensen, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032213
Abstract: Background The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM) than WC alone. We studied the prediction of abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (ASFM) and IAFM by WC alone and by addition of BMI as an explanatory factor. Methodology/Principal Findings WC, BMI and magnetic resonance imaging data from 742 men and women who participated in clinical studies in Canada and Finland were pooled. Total adjusted squared multiple correlation coefficients (R2) of ASFM and IAFM were calculated from multiple linear regression models with WC and BMI as explanatory variables. Mean BMI and WC of the participants in the pooled sample were 30 kg/m2 and 102 cm, respectively. WC explained 29% of the variance in ASFM and 51% of the variance in IAFM. Addition of BMI to WC added 28% to the variance explained in ASFM, but only 1% to the variance explained in IAFM. Results in subgroups stratified by study center, sex, age, obesity level and type 2 diabetes status were not systematically different. Conclusion/Significance The prediction of IAFM by WC is not improved by addition of BMI.
Exercise training with dietary counselling increases mitochondrial chaperone expression in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance
Mika Venoj?rvi, Sirkka Aunola, Raivo Puhke, Jukka Marniemi, Helena H?m?l?inen, Jukka-Pekka Halonen, Jaana Lindstr?m, Merja Rastas, Kirsti H?llsten, Pirjo Nuutila, Osmo H?nninen, Mustafa Atalay
BMC Endocrine Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6823-8-3
Abstract: Exercise training, combined with dietary counselling, increased the expression of mitochondrial chaperones HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) in the vastus lateralis muscle in the IGTslow group and that of HSP60 in the IGTfast group. In cytoplasmic chaperones HSP72 or HSP90 no changes took place. In the IGTslow group, a significant positive correlation between the increased muscle content of HSP60 and the oxygen radical absorbing capacity values and, in the IGTfast group, between the improved VO2max value and the increased protein expression of GRP75 were found. Serum uric acid concentrations decreased in both sub-groups and serum protein carbonyl concentrations decreased in the IGTfast group.The 2-year intervention up-regulated mitochondrial HSP expressions in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. These improvements, however, were not correlated directly with enhanced glucose tolerance.Diabetes and its complications are increasing as major causes of mortality and morbidity in the developed countries [1]. Insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with increased oxidative stresmpaired cellular defence systems [2-4]. We have recently shown in rats that streptozotocin-induced diabetes (SID) increase oxidative stress and resulted in impaired heat shock protein (HSP) responses in liver and skeletal muscle tissue [2]. HSPs are a family of proteins that promote cell survival after a wide variety of environmental stresses. The most widely studied HSP family is the 70-kDA family, which contains the constitutive HSP73 and inducible HSP72 forms. HSP72 plays a central role in protein synthesis, translocation, folding and assembly/disassembly of multimetric protein complexes as molecular chaperones [5]. In type 2 diabetic subjects, insulin resistance correlates with decreased expression of HSP72 in skeletal muscle [6]. HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) are located in the mitochondria, where they are involved in the trafficking and pr
Fr n monokulturell till interkulturell pedagogisk forskning
Pirjo Lahdenper?
Utbildning & Demokrati : Tidsskrift f?r Didaktik och Utbildningspolitik , 1999,
Abstract:
Kentt ty n l hteill – katsaus kvalitatiivisen tutkimuksen perusteisiin
Pirjo Rautiainen
J@rgonia , 2007,
Abstract: Artikkelissa tarkastellaan tutkimuskirjallisuuteen nojautuen kentt ty n kehityslinjoja 1800-luvun lopulta nykyp iv n. Tekstiss hahmotetaan kvalitatiivisen ja kvantitatiivisen tutkimuksen eroja, antropologisen ja yhteiskuntatieteellisen kentt ty perinteen synty sek suomalaisen kentt ty n historiaa. Lis ksi kuvataan kentt ty n murrosta 1960-luvun lopulta l htien, jolloin subjektiivisuuden ja objektiivisuuden v list suhdetta alettiin problematisoida voimakkaasti. Lopuksi huomautetaan, ett ihmistieteiss n ytt olevan vahva suuntaus pohtia tutkimusmenetelmi , tarve hahmottaa tieteenalan peruskysymyksi ja ymm rt omaa identiteetti . Siksi my s kentt ty n arviointi on keskeisell sijalla. Metodologian analysointi muodostaa t rke n osan tieteen diskurssia.
Symmetries and Observables for BF-theories in Superspace
Pirjo Pasanen
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1088/0305-4470/29/24/033
Abstract: The supersymmetric version of a topological quantum field theory describing flat connections, the super BF-theory, is studied in the superspace formalism. A set of observables related to topological invariants is derived from the curvature of the superspace. Analogously to the non-supersymmetric versions, the theory exhibits a vector-like supersymmetry. The role of the vector supersymmetry and an additional new symmetry of the action in the construction of observables is explained.
Pollination dynamics, grain weight and grain cell number within the inflorescence and spikelet in oat and wheat  [PDF]
Ari Rajala, Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.23037
Abstract: Oat (Avena sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) vary in the structure of their inflores-cences and also in how pollination proceeds within the inflorescence. In both species the grain position in the spikelet determines grain weight potential. Primary grains in oat and proximal grains in wheat weigh more than secondary and distal grains. This variation in grain weight can potentially result from differences in post-pollination cell division in the grain. In this study pollination duration and dynamics were analyzed from head samples collected at two-day intervals, starting from the pollination of the most advanced floret. The number of grain cells was determined for individual grains throughout the inflorescence, starting from the pollination event. When mature, grain position in the spikelet and spike was noted and grain weight assessed. Pollination advance in oat proceeded from the uppermost primary floret towards the basal spikelets in ten to eleven days. Within the spikelet, the primary floret was pollinated on average one day earlier than the secondary floret. In wheat, pollination duration was four to five days, starting from the proximal florets in the mid-section of the inflorescence progressing towards the apical and basal spikelets. Proximal florets were pollinated one to two days earlier than distal florets. Maximum cell number in primary grains exceeded that of secondary grains in two oat cultivars. Similarly, primary grains were heavier than secondary grains. Cell number and single grain weight were correlated in terms of grain position in the spikelet (primary – secondary) and cultivar. Oat cultivar Belinda had a higher single grain weight than Fiia, which was also expressed as larger grain cell number. In wheat, proximal grains had higher maximum cell numbers and were also heavier than distal grains. This grain weight gradient was apparent throughout the inflorescence. Consequently, grain cell number is one of the possible regulators of grain-filling capacity in both cereal crops.
Simulation of Structural Characteristics and Depth Filtration Elements in Interconnected Nanofibrous Membrane Based on Adaptive Image Analysis  [PDF]
Mohammad Kazemi Pilehrood, Pirjo Heikkil?, Ali Harlin
World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering (WJNSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjnse.2013.31002
Abstract:

Due to their unique structural features, electrospun membranes have gained considerable attention for use in applications where quality of depth filtration is a dominant performance factor. To elucidate the depth filtration phenomena it is important to quantify the intrinsic structural properties independent from the dynamics of transport media. Several methods have been proposed for structural characterization of such membranes. However, these methods do not meet the requirement for the quantification of intrinsic structural properties in depth filtration. This may be due to the complex influence of transport media dynamics and structural elements in the depth filtration process. In addition, the different morphological architectures of electrospun membranes present obstacles to precise quantification. This paper seeks to quantify the structural characteristics of electrospun membranes by introducing a robust image analysis technique and exploiting it to evaluate the permeation-filtration mechanism. To this end, a nanostructured fibrous network was simulated as an ideal membrane using adaptive local criteria in the image analysis. The reliability of the proposed approach was validated with measurements and comparison of structural characteristics in different morphological conditions. The results were found to be well compatible with empirical observations of perfect membrane structures. This approach, based on optimization of electrospinning parameters, may pave the way for producing optimal membrane structures for boosting the performance of electrospun membranes in end-use applications.

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