Abstract:
Objective: To explore the significance of the combination of factor analysis and systematic cluster analysis in classification of traditional Chinese medical syndromes in patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis, and to provide a scientific basis for the criterion of the classification. Methods: We designed a clinical questionnaire according to the clinical characteristics and the demands of traditional Chinese medical information collection for patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis. By means of clinical epidemiological research, with the four diagnosis methods for clinical information collection of traditional Chinese medicine, symptoms, physical signs, tongue conditions and pulse conditions in 310 patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis were collected, and the characteristics of traditional Chinese medical syndromes in these patients were explored with statistical methods, such as factor analysis, varimax and systematic cluster analysis. Results: Analyzed by factor analysis and systematic cluster analysis with SPSS 11.0, the traditional Chinese medical syndromes in 287 of the 310 cases (92.58%) of posthepatitic cirrhosis could be classified. The syndromes could be divided into 7 categories, which were internal accumulation of damp-heat (55 cases), insufficiency of the spleen with overabundance of dampness (74 cases), accumulation of blood stasis plus deficiency of liver-yin and kidney-yin (73 cases), accumulation of blood stasis plus deficiency of both blood and qi (40 cases), deficiency of both blood and qi (16 cases), deficiency of yin and blood heat (6 cases) and stagnation of the liver-qi and deficiency of the spleen (23 cases). The traditional Chinese medical syndromes in the other 23 cases could not be classified. Conclusions: The clinical information collected with the four diagnostic methods of traditional Chinese medicine can be classified into different categories with the factor analysis and systematic cluster analysis. The factor analysis and systematic cluster analysis can reveal the characteristics and regularity of traditional Chinese medical syndromes in patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis in a way, and have value in researching the syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine.

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the main factors influencing the quality of life and the relationship between quality of life and basic syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis.Methods: The outcomes of revised Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) Questionnaire in 108 patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis and the normal control population were assessed, and the related clinical information including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), course of disease, basic syndromes of disease and main laboratory parameters were collected. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and stepwise regression analysis.Results: The Cronbach’s α coefficient of the revised SF-36 questionnaire was 0.773, indicating good consistency within the items. The outcomes of revised SF-36 and the scores of physical function, role physical, bodily pain, mental health, and social function in the patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis were significantly lower than those in the normal control population (P<0.01). Correlation analysis showed that there was a correlation between basic TCM syndromes and scores of physical function, mental health, role emotion, vitality, and general health. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that basic TCM syndromes, aspartate aminotransferase, total billirubin, albumin, and prothrombin time played major role in the quality of life in the patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis, and the values of regression coefficient were 0.262, －0.297 8, －0.483 9, －0.483 9, －0.512 3, －0.571 9 respectively.Conclusion: The quality of life in the patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis is significantly decreased. The revised SF-36 with basic TCM syndrome items is more objective and has certain clinical practical value on measurement of quality of life in patients with posthepatitic cirrhosis.

Abstract:
Bidirectional relativistic proper motions of radio components of nearby extragalactic sources give a strong constraint on the determination of the Hubble constant $H_0$. Under the assumption that the real velocity of radio components of extragalactic sources is not less than that of Galactic sources, the value of $H_0$ can be estimated at a high level of accuracy. The assumption is reasonable due to the general belief that the activity in the core of galaxies must be more powerful than that of stars. This method is simple and with only one uncertainty --- the real velocity of components. This uncertainty is related to the value of the real velocity of componenets of Galactic sources and the latter is always well-determined (note that the determination is independent of $H_0$ and the distance of Galactic sources can be directly measured at a rather high level of accuracy). Hopefully the method will play an important role in future research to fix the value of $H_0$. With the data of the three sources available so far and the assumption that the real velocity of componenets of at least one of the sources is not less than a known velocity of componenets of a Galactic source, the constant is estimated to be within $27.08kms^{-1}Mpc^{-1} < H_0 \leq 53.15kms^{-1}Mpc^{-1}$ with this method.

Abstract:
Based on some observations, the apparent energy, associated with gravity, of vacuums is defined, with that of normal vacuums to be zero and that of the vacuums losing some energy to be negative. An important application of the energy is its contribution to Einstein's equation. A cosmological model, accounting for recent observations of the accelerated expansion of the universe, in the absence of the cosmological constant, can be well constructed. In a certain case, the expansion of the universe would be decelerated at its early epoch and accelerated at its late epoch. The curvature of the universe would depend on the ratio of matter energy to total energy. The missing mass problem does no longer exist in this model. Most negative apparent energy vacuums might be contained in voids, then the spacetime of galaxy clusters or that of the solar system would not be significantly affected by this kind of energy.

Abstract:
In this paper we show explicit and direct relations between the expected quantities and the observed quantities for the components of Galactic superluminal sources. Basic formulas for calculating the real speed and the angle to the line of sight of the components from the data of proper motions and the distance of the source are presented. We point out that the real speed and the angle to the line of sight of components can be uniquely and directly determined from the observed values of the proper motions and the distance of the source. It is not necessary to calculate an intermediate quantity first and then using the resulted value to calculate the two required quantities. The process of the calculation is simple, and in this way, some extra uncertainties are avoided.

Abstract:
By extending the exterior Schwarzschild spacetime in two opposite directions with the Kruskal method, we get an extension which has the same T-X spacetime diagram as has the conventional Kruskal extension, while allowing its regions I and IV to correspond to different directions of the original spacetime. We further extend the exterior Schwarzschild spacetime in all directions and get a 4-dimensional form of the Kruskal extension. The new form of extension includes the conventional one as a part of itself. From the point of view of the 4-dimensional form, region IV of the conventional extension does not belong to another universe but is a portion of the same exterior Schwarzschild spacetime that contains region I. The two regions are causally related: particles can move from one to the other.

Abstract:
In this paper, we employ the peak count rate{\bf \}$C_p$ and the total count $C_{total}$ of light curves to study in the corresponding aspects the relationship between different channel light curves. To make a direct comparison between count rates of different channel light curves we introduce a plot of $C(\tau)$ versus $C_H(\tau)$, where $C(\tau)$ is the count rate of a channel and $C_H(\tau)$ is the count rate of a definite cannel, channel H (see the text). According to the plot we define $\Delta C_{\max}$ as the maximum deviation of the two count rate values of $C(\tau)$ associated with a same count rate value of $% C_H(\tau)$ and define $\Delta S$ as the area confined by the close curve of $C(\tau)$ in the plot to measure the difference of the rising and decaying portions of a light curve relative to the count rate of channel H. Under the assumption that some GRBs observed are in the stage of fireballs which expand relativistically, predictions on the relationships between the four quantities{\bf (}$C_p$, $C_{total}$, $\Delta C_{\max}$, and $\Delta S$) and energy within a wide band, calculated with different rest frame radiation forms and two typical Lorentz factors ($\Gamma =20$ and 200), are made and presented, which would make the test of our model with the coming Swift data easier. Interpretations to the relationships within the mechanism of fireballs are also presented.

Abstract:
We display by numerical calculation how rest frame spectral lines appear in the observed spectrum of gamma-ray bursts due to the Doppler effect in the fireball framework. The analysis shows that: a) in the spectrum of a relativistically expanding fireball, all rest frame lines would shift to higher energy bands and would be significantly smoothed; b) rest frame weak narrow emission lines as well as narrow absorption lines and absorption line forests would be smoothed and would hardly be detectable; c) the features of rest frame broad emission lines as well as both strong and weak broad absorption lines would remain almost unchanged and therefore would be easier to detect; d) deep gaps caused by rest frame broad absorption lines would be significantly filled; e) a rest frame emission line forest would form a single broad line feature; f) the observed relative width of the rest frame very narrow line would approach $ 0.162$; g) when the Lorentz factor $\Gamma $ is large enough, the observed line frequency $\nu_{line}$ and the rest frame line frequency $\nu_{0,line} $ would be related by $\nu_{line}\approx 2\Gamma \nu_{0,line}$. We also investigate the effect of time dependence of the line intensity and the effect of variation of $\Gamma $. We find that the feature of rest frame dimming narrow emission lines would disappear when $\Gamma $ is very large. The form of emission lines would be sharp on both edges when $\Gamma $ varies with time. This phenomenon depends not only on the initial Lorentz factor but also on the observation time.

Abstract:
The spectral evolution of gamma-ray burst pulses assumed to arise from the emission of fireballs is explored. It is found that due to the curvature effect, the integrated flux is well related to peak energy by a power law in the decaying phase of pulses, where the index is about 3, which does not depend on intrinsic emission and the Lorentz factor. The spectra of pulses in the decaying phase are slightly different from each other when different intrinsic spectral evolution patterns are considered, indicating that it is dominated by the curvature effect. In the rising phase, the integrated flux keeps increasing whilst the peak energy remains unchanged when the intrinsic emission bears an unchanged spectrum. Within this phase, the flux decreases with the increase of the peak energy for a hard-to-soft intrinsic spectrum, and for a soft-to-hard-to-soft intrinsic spectrum, the flux generally increases with the increase of the peak energy. An intrinsic soft-to-hard-to-soft spectral evolution within a co-moving pulse would give rise to a pulse-like evolutionary curve for the peak energy.

Abstract:
According to recent investigations of states of quantum fields, we postulate that there exist negative energy photons in the universe. With this assumption, we find a solution of Einstein's equation without introducing the cosmological constant. A new and sizable type Ia supernovae sample is employed to perform a fit with our model and the conventional model. Both models can well account for the current type Ia supernovae observation and they are not distinguishable. With the new model, the cause of the accelerated expansion of the universe and the mechanism of the negative pressure existing in outer space can be explained in ordinary physical terms.