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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2081 matches for " Pigs Feed "
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Desempenho de suínos alimentados do desmame ao abate em comedouro de acesso único equipado ou n?o com bebedouro
Lovatto, Paulo Alberto;Vielmo, Hernan;Oliveira, Vladimir de;Hauschild, Luciano;Hauptli, Lucélia;
Ciência Rural , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782004000500035
Abstract: an experiment was carried out to evaluate two types of feeder on the performance of pigs in growing and finishing phases. ninety-nine animals were used (48 barrows and 48 gilts) with 6.27kg initial live weight distributed in four treatments (t1 - 24 barrows, single space dry feeder - coc; t2 - 24 barrows, single space wet/dry feeder - cbc; t3 - 24 gilts, coc; t4 - 24 gilts, cbc). feed intake of pigs fed in cbc (1.95kgd-1) was higher (p < 0.053) than in coc (1.84kg d-1). feed intake differences were observed in the last period of post weaning and during growth period. weight gain of pigs in cbc (0.72kgd-1) was also higher (p < 0.009) than in cbc (0.68kgd-1). however, feed conversion of pigs in coc (2.69) was similar (p > 0.05) to those in cbc (2.71). there was no interaction between sex and feeder on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion during growth and finish phases. although the feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion have been inferior in gilts in relation to barrows, there was not effect of the feeder type. feeding pigs from weaning to finishing in dry or wet single space feeders affects feed intake and weight gain, but feeder type does not affect feed conversion.
Occurrence of ochratoxin A in feed and residue in porcine liver and kidney
Mili?evi? Dragan R.,Sinovec Zlatan J.,Sai?i? Sne?ana S.,Vukovi? Dubravka ?.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn0508085m
Abstract: The effect of ochratoxin A in feed for pigs, and the incidence of its residue in liver and kidney were investigated. The samples were taken from farms and corresponding slaughterhouse in different areas of Serbia. The criteria for OTA residue examination in the mentioned tissues were macroscopic alterations in kidneys, that is a marked kidney ischemia. 14 feed samples, 12 kidney samples and 12 liver samples in total were examined. The average OTA concentration in feed was 25,24 g/kg (0,0-85 g/kg). The presence of the OTA residue was found in all of examined tissues samples. The average OTA concentration in kidneys was 2,37 g/kg (1,0-8,2 g/kg), in liver was 2,66 g/kg (1,2-5,5 g/kg). The experiment showed that the average OTA concentration in feed of farm A in contrast to farm B was significantly low (p < 0,05), in liver was significantly lower (p < 0,01), while in kidneys was not significantly low (p < 0,05). The correlation between these three findings was postulated and discussed.
Effects of broccoli extract and various essential oils on intestinal and faecal microflora and on xenobiotic enzymes and the antioxidant system of piglets  [PDF]
Kristin Mueller, Nicole M. Blum, Holger Kluge, Rolf Bauerfeind, Julia Froehlich, Anneluise Mader, Karola R. Wendler, Andreas S. Mueller
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.22012
Abstract: Objective: Since the ban of antibiotics as growth promoting feed additives in the EU in 2006 research in alternatives has gained importance. Phytogenic feed additives represent a heterogenous class of different plant derived substances that are discussed to improve the health of farm animals by direct and indirect antioxidant effects and by influencing microbial eubiosis in the gastrointestinal tract. Consequently our study aimed to investigate the influence of broccoli extract and the essential oils of tur- meric, oregano, thyme and rosemary, as selected individual additives, on intestinal and faecal microflora, on xenobiotic enzymes, and on the antioxidant system of piglets. Methods: 48 four weeks old male weaned piglets were assigned to 6 groups of 8. The piglets were housed individually in stainless steel pens with slatted floor. The control group (Con) was fed a diet without an additive for 4 weeks. The diet of group BE contained 0.15 g/kg sulforaphane in form of a broccoli extract. 535, 282, 373 and 476 mg/kg of the essential oils of turmeric (Cuo), oregano (Oo), thyme (To) and rosemary (Ro) were added to the diets of the remaining 4 groups to stan-dardise supplementation to 150 mg/kg of the oils’ key terpene compounds ar-turmerone, carvacrol, thymol and 1,8-cineole. The composition of bacterial microflora was examined by cultivating samples of jejeunal and colonic mucosa and of faeces under specific conditions. The mRNA expression of xenobiotic and antioxidant enzymes was determined by reversing transcrip- tase real time detection PCR (RT-PCR). Total antioxidant status was assayed using the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), and lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring thiobarbioturic acid reactive substances (TBA- RS). Results: Compared to Con piglets all additives positively influenced weight gain and feed conversion in week 1. Over the whole trial period no significant differences in performance parameters existed between the experimental groups. Compared to group Con performance of Ro piglets was, however, slightly impaired. Com- pared to Con piglets Cuo, Oo and To increased the ratio of Lactobacilli:E. coli attached to the jejunal mucosa, whereas BE and Ro impaired this ratio slightly. In contrast in colonic mucosa Ro improved Lactobacilli:E. coli ratio. In faecal samples an improvement of Lactobacilli:E. coli ratio could be analysed for To and Ro. Ro was the only additive that reduced the incidence rate of piglets tested positive for enterotoxic E. coli (ETEC). All additives significantly increased jejunal TEAC and
Desempenho bioecon?mico de suínos em crescimento e termina??o alimentados com ra??es contendo farelo de coco
Siebra, José Evanio da Costa;Ludke, Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques;Ludke, Jorge Vitor;Bertol, Teresinha Marisa;Dutra Júnior, Wilson Moreira;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982008001100015
Abstract: the objective was to evaluate the performance of growing- finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal. twenty crossbred large white × landrace barrows with initial 19.7 ± 2.9 kg bw and final 89.2 ± 5.8 kg bw were allotted to complete a randomized blocks design with four levels (0, 10, 20 or 30%) of coconut meal and five replications. performance traits, as average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio in grower phase (65 to 107 days old) and grower-finisher phase (65 to 149 days old) were evaluated. economic parameters evaluated were: average gross income, average feed cost, gross margin and average return. the best results of average weight daily gain and average gross income in the grower phase were obtained with the level of 22.5% of coconut meal in the diet. in grower-finisher phase, the average gross income in total period indicates that it is possible to include 22.4% of coconut meal in diets for pigs raised with residual corn meal and soybean meal.
Genome-wide association and pathway analysis of feed efficiency in pigs reveal candidate genes and pathways for residual feed intake
Duy N. Do,Sameer D. Pant,Haja N. Kadarmideen
Frontiers in Genetics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2014.00307
Abstract: Residual feed intake (RFI) is a complex trait that is economically important for livestock production; however, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown in pigs. Therefore, the study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), candidate genes and biological pathways involved in regulating RFI using Genome-wide association (GWA) and pathway analyses. A total of 596 Yorkshire boars with phenotypes for two different measures of RFI (RFI1 and 2) and 60k genotypic data was used. GWA analysis was performed using a univariate mixed model and 12 and 7 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Several genes such as xin actin-binding repeat-containing protein 2 (XIRP2),tetratricopeptide repeat domain 29 (TTC29),suppressor of glucose, autophagy associated 1 (SOGA1),MAS1,G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 5 (GRK5),prospero-homeobox protein 1 (PROX1),GPCR 155 (GPR155), and FYVE domain containing the 26 (ZFYVE26) were identified as putative candidates for RFI based on their genomic location in the vicinity of these SNPs. Genes located within 50 kbp of SNPs significantly associated with RFI and RFI2 (q-value ≤ 0.2) were subsequently used for pathway analyses. These analyses were performed by assigning genes to biological pathways and then testing the association of individual pathways with RFI using a Fisher’s exact test. Metabolic pathway was significantly associated with both RFIs. Other biological pathways regulating phagosome, tight junctions, olfactory transduction, and insulin secretion were significantly associated with both RFI traits when relaxed threshold for cut-off p-value was used (p ≤ 0.05). These results implied porcine RFI is regulated by multiple biological mechanisms, although the metabolic processes might be the most important. Olfactory transduction pathway controlling the perception of feed via smell, insulin pathway controlling food intake might be important pathways for RFI. Furthermore, our study revealed key genes and genetic variants that control feed efficiency that could potentially be useful for genetic selection of more feed efficient pigs.
Cassava By-Products as Feed for Pigs in Burkina Faso: Production Processes, Nutritive Values and Economic Costs  [PDF]
Timbilfou Kiendrébéogo, Nouhoun Zampaligré, Souleymane Ouédraoogo, Youssouf Mopaté Logténé, Chantal Yvette Kaboré-Zoungrana
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105711
Introduction: In Burkina Faso, as in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the low availability and high cost of feed is the main limiting factor for pigs’ productivity. While cassava byproducts are well known and used in many countries to overcome this constraint, very little is known on its uses as feed in Burkina Faso. Objective: The study aims to develop processes for the production of pig feeds from cassava leaves and by products (peelings and residues of sieving for gari making). Experimentations: Some cassava leaves, peelings and residues of sieving gari were collected, sun-dried and milled (peels and residues) or mortared (leaves). The dry matter contents were 88.89%, 90.83% and 91.67% respectively for food of cassava peeling (FCP), leaves (FCL), and gari sieving residues (GRSF). The crud protein (CP) contents were 28.87% for FCL, 4.22% for FCP and 1.72% for GRSF. Crude fiber (CB) and ADF were 15.98% and 30.6% for FCP, 15.79% and 23.29% for FCL and 3.27% and 4.45% for GRSF. The NDF content of FCL (45.32%) was higher than the FCP (38.36%) and GRSF (18.42%) feed respectively. Lignin levels were more important in FCP than in FCL and GRSF. The digestible energy (DE) contents were 2424 kcal for FCL, 2683 kcal for FCP and 3471 kcal DE for GRSF. The production costs of a kg of Dry Matter (DM) of FCP were 15 FCFA, FCL were 101 FCFA and 150 FCFA for GRSF. Conclusion: Pig’s feed production based on cassava by-products in Burkina Faso is a good opportunity to make feed more available at reduced cost. Further research is needed to assess pigs zootechnical performances and cost benefits of pig’s diets with these feeds.
Occurrence and assessment of veterinary antibiotics in swine manures: A case study in East China
YongShan Chen,HaiBo Zhang,YongMing Luo,Jing Song
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-011-4830-3
Abstract: We investigated the occurrence of 14 selected antibiotics including five therapeutic classes of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolides, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicols in manures collected from four swine farms of different sizes in eastern China. Tetracyclines (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline) and sulfadiazine were the most prominent contaminants in the manure samples, with maximum concentrations reaching 98.2 × 103, 354.0 × 103, 139.4 × 103, 37.2× 103, and 7.1× 103 μg/kg, respectively. The occurrence of these compounds was dependent on breeding scale, animal type, and breeding season. Manure storage and vermiculture were not able to effectively deplete the heavier contaminants (tetracyclines and sulfadiazine), resulting in high levels of these chemicals remaining in manures. Therefore, the occurrence of these antibiotics in agricultural soils (0.1–205.1 μg/kg) collected from four types of agricultural land (pear orchard, tea plantation, bamboo forest, and paddy field) near the studied farms, was a reflection of manure application. However, the extremely high concentrations of antibiotics in manures were unlikely from feed consumption, but from other direct forms of medicine application.
Green Tea Level on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs
M.S.K. Sarker,K.J. Yim,S.Y. Ko,D. Uuganbayar
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: This study was designed to determinate the effects of green tea on growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs. Ninety crossbreed "Landrace x Large White" pigs were assigned to 5 treatments a completely randomized design. The five dietary treatments were control (no green tea), antibiotic (30 ppm chlortetracycline) and 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% of green tea added. The weight gain of pigs fed diets containing 2.0% green tea supplementation was significantly lower than that of the antibiotic supplemented (p<0.05). However, the feed intake and feed conversion ratio did not differ among treatments by dietary green tea addition (p>0.05). Crude protein in the carcass of pig showed significantly highest value in 1.0% green tea than control and other green levels (p<0.05) but similar value with antibiotic. The carcass grade was significantly increased in 0.5 and 1.0% green tea treatments (p<0.05) while Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) value of pork was significantly decreased by 2.0% green tea supplementation (p<0.05).
Use of simple body measurements and allometry to predict the chemical growth and feed intake in pigs
Stefano Schiavon,Luigi Gallo,Paolo Carnier,Franco Tagliapietra
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.27
Abstract: The paper provides a practical procedure to estimate the chemical composition of pigs, their compositional growth and the expected feed intake from measurements of body weight (BW) and backfat thickness (P2) serially performed in vivo. A farm data set provided information on 920 individuals including BW, measured at 71 ± 4 (t1), 126 ± 5 (t2) and 184 ± 5 (t3) days of age, of P2 at t2 and t3, and of voluntary daily feed intake (FI), recorded over the period from t2 to t3 by automated IVOG feeders. Body lipid mass was estimated as L= (9.17 + 0.70*P2) *BW/100 and the other chemical constituents were predicted from fat free empty body mass using Gompertz growth functions and allometry. Using individual changes of body composition from age t2 to t3, energy requirements for maintenance and growth and the corresponding predicted feed intakes (PFI) were estimated. Measured FI were analysed for the effects of month, batch (within month), BWt2, P2t2, average metabolic weight, average daily gain and variation of P2 from t2 to t3. The same model was run again replacing the direct simple body measurements (BW and P2) with the estimated values of PFI as source of variation. Results. The Gompertz estimates of mature protein mass (Pm), relative growth rate parameter (B) and lipid to protein ratio at maturity were 43.5 ± 5.8 kg, 0.0116 ± 0.0011 d-1 and 1.81 ± 0.30, respectively. The current protein mass averaged 18.5 + 1.6 kg and the daily retentions of protein and lipid were 177 ± 21 and 239 ± 62 g/d, respectively. FI and PFI averaged 2.824 ± 0.448 and 2.814 ± 0.393 kg/d, respectively. In the ANOVA of the FI data, the replacement of direct body measurements by PFI did not change the proportion of variance explained (83%) and the RSD (0.199 g/d). The two sets of residual feed intake values obtained from the two ANOVA were highly correlated (RSD = 0.043 kg/d; R2= 0.961). Agreement between predicted and determined feed intakes provided a reasonable guarantee to the estimated (based on BW and P2) changes of body composition. Thus, a scheduled protocol of measurement of BW and P2 over the course of growth, coupled with the use of allometry, can be proposed to estimate in vivo the change of the chemical status of pigs kept under non limiting conditions.
Istvan Nagy,Lajos Csato,Janos Farkas,Laszlo Radnoczi
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2000,
Abstract: Genetic analysis was conducted on Hungarian pig seed stocks. The breeds, which were used in the investigation, were Hungarian Large White, Hungarian Landrace, Duroc, and Pietrain respectively. Regarding the field test (own performance test) 40391; 54523; 4318; 3501; different animals were recorded in the above mentioned breeds. Meanwhile in the station test 3911; 2457; 695; 568 records were used concerning the same breeds. Genetic parameters were estimated using the software VCE 4 developed by Groeneveld (1998). Variance components were obtained by running a joint model (field and station test). During the analysis special attention was given to the received genetic correlation coefficients in order to compare the results of the field and station tests respectively. Genetic correlation coefficients of 0.52; 0.36; 0,43; 0.80 were found between the age at the time of the test (field test) and days of fattening (station test) having the same order of the breeds as previously. The moderately high genetic correlation coefficients between these previously mentioned traits (representing the growing intensity) justify that these methods are based upon each other and make the efficient selection possible. Among the traits representing meat quality genetic correlation coefficients of –0.13; -0.41; -0.63; +0.13 were found between the average backfat depth (field test) and valuable cuts (station test) respectively. The high variability of the coefficients suggests the need for further investigation of this area and also the importance of precise measurement of the average backfat depth since a possible imprecise measurement of this trait might be the reason for the received variability.
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