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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20831 matches for " Physical Activity "
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Perceived barriers to leisure time physical activity: What Brazilians have to say?  [PDF]
Emerson Sebasti?o, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Andiara Schwingel, Lilian T. B. Gobbi, Camila B. Papini, Priscila M. Nakamura, Américo V. Netto, Eduardo Kokubun, Sebasti?o Gobbi
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.38066

Background: Physical inactivity is a major public health concern worldwide. Leisure time is an important domain of physical activity that draws the attention of researchers due to its voluntary characteristic. Understanding the barriers that prevent individuals to be engaged in leisure time physical activity should be an ongoing concern that has the potential to lead to better strategies and interventions to promote physical activity in the populations. Objectives: This study explored perceived barriers to leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in Brazilian adults living in a midsize city. Methods: A total of 1213 adults were evaluated on barriers to LTPA. LTPA was assessed using the section four of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Barriers were assessed using a list of 22 factors that prevent individuals engaging in LTPA. Results: Women, insufficiently active men and women, and low incoming individuals reported a higher number of barriers in average compared to their counterparts. Lack of time and feeling too lazy presented the strongest association with being inactive during leisure time. Conclusions: Understanding factors related to physical inactivity can help authorities in creating strategies, and developing effective health promotion programs.

Intense exercise increases HDL level in children regardless of body weight  [PDF]
Daniel Romero-Gamboa, Victoriano Pérez-Vázquez, Katya Vargas-Ortiz, Francisco J. Díaz-Cisneros, Claudia Martínez-Cordero, Maciste H. Macías-Cervantes
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512264

Childhood obesity seems to be increasing at a disturbing rate. Exercise and diet are recommended to combat this epidemic. Light and moderate physical activity is associated with health benefits, whereas intense physical activity is associated with normal BMI and low cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic response to a graded exercise test (GXT) in children with different body weight. Eight boys and nine girls underwent a GXT on a treadmill according to Blake protocol. These children were 7-9 years old. The participants were divided into three groups according to their body weight: normal-weight, overweight, and obese. After GXT, lactate and HDL levels increased significantly in all three groups (p < 0.05). In this experimental trial, we show that HDL level increased after a single session of intense exercise in children regardless of body weight.


Measurement of the Wheelchair-Operating Time Spent by Stroke Patients Using a New Triaxial Accelerometer System  [PDF]
Yoshino Terui, Takanobu Shioya, Koichi Hasegawa, Eriko Suto, Atsuyoshi Kawagoshi, Masahiro Satake, Sachie Sawamura, Shunichi Sakata
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2014.24020
Abstract: Purpose: We investigated the validity of a triaxial accelerometer system for measuring the time spent lying down, sitting, standing, walking, and operating a wheelchair by control subjects and stroke patients in a convalescence ward. Methods: Physical activities were measured using a new triaxial accelerometer system (A-MES; Activity Monitoring and Evaluation System) that consists of two sensors, a station, and analytical software used with a personal computer. In Experiment 1, the times that the healthy subjects (n = 12) spent operating a wheelchair, lying down, sitting, standing, and walking were measured both by the A-MES and by videotaping (video time). In Experiment 2, the amounts of time spent by the stroke patients not able to walk without support (n = 30) as they were lying down, sitting, standing, walking, and operating a wheelchair were measured by the A-MES. Results: The time spent operating a wheelchair measured with the A-MES was significantly correlated with the video time in the healthy subjects. The stroke patients’ average times (minutes) of total, operating a wheelchair, lying down, sitting, standing, and walking were 601.0 ± 18.1, 57.1 ± 28.8, 265.0 ± 86.3, 263.3 ± 60.6, 7.8 ± 7.0, and 7.7 ± 6.0, respectively. Conclusions: The A-MES accurately evaluated the stroke patients’ time spent operating a wheelchair. The stroke patients’ mean time spent operating a wheelchair over the course of one day was 57.1 ± 28.8 min in a Center for Rehabilitation.
Group fitness is effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy adults  [PDF]
Jinger S. Gottschall, Justin L. Jones, Jackie Mills, Bryce Hastings
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.31017
Abstract: In the past 5 years, 1 of every 3 deaths in the United Stateswas attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Regular physical activity has numerous benefits associated with the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Despite these details, 60% of Americans are not regularly physically active and 25% are not active at all. Previous studies have found significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors by combining cardiorespiratory and strength training into one exercise program. The current pilot study augments the approach by utilizing a group fitness program that mimics the Physical Activity Guidelines for Fitness. Therefore our purpose was to evaluate if a multimodal group fitness intervention could singularly produce the physiological and musculoskeletal health benefits of the established physical activity prescription. Twenty-five sedentary, but otherwise healthy, adults (15 women and 10 men) between the ages of 25 - 40 years completed the protocol of a 30-week group exercise program. It started with a 6-week familiarization period, continued with a 12-week block of 6 group fitness classes per week (3 cardiovascular, 2 strength, 1 flexibility), and concluded with a 12-week block of 7 classes per week (4 cardiovascular, 2 strength, 1 flexibility). We completed submaximal oxygen consumption treadmill tests, fasting blood draws and iDXA scans at 3 time points (baseline, midpoint, final) and compared the data using a paired t-test (p < 0.05). Compared to baseline measurements, the final measurements demonstrated that the participants had statistically significant reductions in body mass, fat body mass percentage, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides and elevations in oxygen consumption, lean body mass percentages, and HDL-C. Based upon our results, group fitness may be an ideal method to minimize attrition and maximize health benefits in a comprehensive manner to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Effects of a Two-Day Teachers’ Training Course on Activity Time in Physical Education  [PDF]
Miriam Wanner, Eva Martin-Diener, Claudia Frick, Susi Kriemler, Brian W. Martin
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.45039

Schools are a key setting for promoting physical activity in children. There is little evidence on the potential of widely implemented programs to improve the quality of physical education (PE). The aim was to assess the effects of a short training course for classroom teachers on the quality of PE, assessed as activity time during PE. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with 6 intervention (N = 86) and 13 control classes (N = 151). Schools were selected in a random procedure (26.9% participation). Participation in children was 86.2% (mean age 7.8 years, 48.9% girls). Physical activity was assessed objectively using accelerometers. Effect on time spent in sedentary, moderate, vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) activities, steps and counts/minute during PE were analysed using t-tests and mixed linear models. Physical activity time increased significantly in the intervention but not in the control group between baseline and follow-up (relative increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity of 12% in intervention group). Increases were strongest in girls and in children inactive at baseline. In the mixed linear models adjusted for clustering, the effects were significant in girls for vigorous activities, sedentary time and counts/minute, in inactive children for steps. Results indicate that a short training course for classroom teachers can have subtle positive effects on physical activity time during PE. Girls and the most inactive children at baseline profited most from the intervention.

Reliability and Validity of a Chinese Version of the Students’ Attitudes toward Physical Education Scale and Its Related Factors  [PDF]
Huanhuan Hu, Jiali Duan, Guan Wang, Takashi Arao
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2014.44022
Abstract: This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the Students’ Attitudes toward Physical Education Scale (SPEA), and to ascertain the associations between student attitudes toward physical education and gender, grade levels, school, and area. In 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in eight middle schools in Beijing, China. A sample of 1793 students was enrolled. Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were performed to evaluate the scale’s internal and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Linear mixed models were used to examine the associations of attitude scores with gender, grade, school, and area (urban and suburban). Our results showed high reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90, ICC = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92 - 0.96) of the SPEA. For the construct validity, results of confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable model fit. Overall, the mean of the attitude scores was 75.5 ± 13.4 out of 100. The attitude scores were found to be statistically different between grade levels, schools, and areas. No differences were found for gender. This study provides evidence that the SPEA is acceptable for the assessment of the attitude toward physical education in Chinese students. The school plays a more important role in the student attitudes than school locations (urban or suburban) in our study. For better understanding of students’ attitudes toward physical education, further studies that focus on the environment of physical education in schools, and use more representative samples of schools from various locations are warranted.
Participation Styles in Elementary Physical Education  [PDF]
Jan-Erik Romar, Jonas Nyg?rd, Tomas Smedman, Emyr Williams
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2015.51004
Abstract: Both observational data and direct measurement of student activity seem to indicate a large variance in student activity during physical education lessons. The aim of this study was to identify participation styles during elementary physical education lessons by using multiple data sources. A class of fifth grade students (N = 17) and a class of sixth grade students (N = 14) were taught by a physical education specialist for three lessons each. Both classes had coed physical education lessons and all students were systematically analyzed by using heart rate measurement, systematic observation and perceived exertion. Each lesson was videotaped for further analysis. Finally, six high and five low skilled students were formally interviewed after the last lesson about their experiences in physical education. The results indicated four different participation styles among the students in these physical education elementary classes. These were low skilled fighters, low skilled avoiders, high skilled fighters and high skilled avoiders. Several contextual factors are contributors to these participation styles. The main reasons for this appear to be differences in students’ fitness levels, physical activity behavior and interest in physical education. This large variation among students shows that teachers need to treat each student individually.
Using Yoga to Reduce Stress and Bullying Behaviors among Urban Youth  [PDF]
Erin E. Centeio, Laurel Whalen, Erica Thomas, Noel Kulik, Nate McCaughtry
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.93029
Abstract: Background/Purpose: Obesity and secondary conditions continue to disproportionally affect the health of children living in urban areas. Studies show that a lack of resources and physical activity-unfriendly communities discourage 60 minutes of daily activity, including strengthening exercises, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Using Social Ecological theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the multi-level influences of a yoga-based intervention on urban, inner city youth. Method: Using a mixed-methods design, ninety-three 3 - 5th grade students at five urban elementary schools participated in a ten-week yoga intervention. Analysis/Results: RM-ANOVA results revealed a significant reduction in stress and bullying behaviors among participants, and multiple regression analyses revealed that program attendance, change in stress, and change in yoga enjoyment significantly predicted change in yoga participation outside PE, when controlling for gender and age F(5, 87) = 5.36, p < 0.01, adj. R2 = 0.19, but did not have a significant impact on physical activity participation outside of school. Student interviews and non-participant observations revealed strong enjoyment of yoga which led students to report substantial increases in yoga-related activities outside of school. Students also revealed that experience in yoga improved focus, attention, and reduced stress. Conclusions: Through convergence of qualitative and quantitative methods, this study showed a positive relationship between the number of yoga sessions attended (dose), enjoyment of yoga, and participation in yoga outside PE with friends and family. Findings suggest that urban PE should include more individual, non-competitive activities such as yoga, which students find to be stress-relieving, fun, inexpensive and easy to perform at home.
International Studies of Physical Education Using SOFIT: A Review  [PDF]
Nicole J. Smith, Thomas L. McKenzie, Amber J. Hammons
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2019.91005
Abstract: Objective evaluations are essential to improving physical education (PE) policy and practice, and the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is a valid and reliable tool designed to reach this end. This review assesses peer-reviewed studies that used SOFIT to describe preK-12 PE in international schools. Methods were informed by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) and articles were located by searching nine library databases and Google Scholar. A total of 739 records were located, 567 were screened, and 29 full-text articles were scrutinized. Data extraction was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the 29 studies and to synthesize commonly reported SOFIT variables. The studies, conducted on 5 continents, included direct observations of 2703 lessons in 348 schools taught by more than 600 teachers in 10 different countries. There was substantial variability in study characteristics, how results were reported, and in study outcomes. All studies assessed physical activity (PA) and 90% (n = 26) assessed both PA and lesson context. More than two-thirds of the studies (69%; n = 20) assessed PA, lesson context, and teacher behavior. A common goal of the reviewed studies was to describe PE using SOFIT, however, researcher modifications to the established protocol and variability in how results were reported limited data syntheses and generalizations. As SOFIT is widely endorsed for assessing PE policies and practices, researchers could improve the generalizability of their study findings by adhering to the standard SOFIT protocol and by reporting results in a consistent manner.
Physical Education: Adaptations and Benefits for Deaf Students  [PDF]
Clévia Fernanda Sies Barboza, Alex Sandro Lins Ramos, Paula Alvarez Abreu, Helena Carla Castro
Creative Education (CE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2019.104053
Abstract: Human development encompasses a relationship between genetics and environment factors including affective, social, cognitive and motor development. Physical activity can reduce the risk of several diseases also stimulating health promotion, feelings expression, formation of critical awareness, autonomy development, motivation for study and others. In case of deaf students, physical education also has other benefits, including social inclusion. Many challenges need to be overcome on adapted physical education for deaf students such as the lack of bilingual teachers and also the lack of specific signs of some important words for physical education. Herein we reviewed the benefits of physical activity for deaf children, highlighting some adaptations for helping on teaching and learning and development of this public.
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