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Development of an Appropriate Rice-Based Biomass Gasifier as Source of Power for Farm Use  [PDF]
Alexis T. Belonio, Manuel Jose C. Regalado, Phoebe R. Castillo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105054
Abstract:
An appropriate rice-based (ARB) biomass gasifier was designed and de-veloped for farmers’ use. The gasification properties of rice-based biomass were determined before doing the design. The gasifier was built using salvage petrol drums, metal bars and concrete as primary construction materials. It has a 30 cm-diameter reactor insulated with refractory cement. A 10 cm-o cross flow scrubber with 30 cm-thick packed-bed filter is used for conditioning the gas. The gas is converted to mechanical power with the use of a four-stroke-cycle, spark ignition engine commonly used by farmers. The gasifier was tested and underwent series of modifications and improvements. Performance test and evaluation showed that the gasifier performs satisfactorily as per design. Raw rice husk was found to have greater advantage as fuel for the gasifier than rice straw. It can drive sta-tionary agricultural machines such as a 4-in. pump, a 30-cm biomass chip-per, and a 20-cm rubber creeping mill. It can also power a 3-kWe AC gen-erator for lighting and a 60-Amp DC alternator for charging batteries. The entire system can be built at a cost of P90,000.00 (USD1 = PHP50) using local materials and skills. Analysis showed that the operating cost of the gasifier is only P94.15 per day. A savings o P244.94 per day can be derived against the use of purely gasoline fuel for the engine. Payback period is 1.22 years.
FCJ-119 Subjectivity in the Ecologies of P2P Production
Phoebe Moore
Fibreculture Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Free (Libre)/Open Source Software (FLOSS) is an open, evolutionary arena in which hundreds and sometimes thousands of users voluntarily explore and design code, spot bugs in code, make contributions to the code, release software, create artwork, and develop licenses in a fashion that is becoming increasingly prevalent in the otherwise hugely monopolised software market. This ‘computerisation movement’ emerged as a challenge to the monopolisation of the software market by such mammoth firms as Microsoft and IBM, and is portrayed as being revolutionary (Elliot and Scacchi, 2004; DiBona, Ockman, and Stone, 1999; Kling and Iacono, 1988). Its ‘ultimate goal’ is ‘to provide free software to do all of the jobs computer users want to do and thus make proprietary software obsolete’ (Free Software Foundation, 2005).However, if it is to succeed in bringing about a new social order (Kling and Lacono, 1988), this movement must be re-evaluated from a critical standpoint through a look into the practices of knowledge production based on radical licenses for property sharing and development such as the General Public Licence (GPL) and the emerging subjectivities of participants. Free Software may be viewed as a social movement while Open Source is perhaps a development methodology, but it is not always necessary to isolate analysis to one or the other, firstly due to the extensive overlap in software communities, and secondly because their rhizomatic roots emerge from a shared intellectual and moral response to the exploitation of markets by powerful firms (see Elliot and Scacchi, 2004). Here, I query whether the activities of collaborative software producers as well as hardware production communities such as those found in FabLabs, which release playbots and other blueprints for machine replications as well as agricultural and construction initiatives, can indeed be perceived as revolutionary due to their subversive work and production methods. The recursive communities (Kelty 2006; Powell 2008) that develop around these practices are linked, with shared practices, goals and self-perceptions. People’s emerging subjectivities are the most important dimension of such radical production ecologies, because they reflect both the immaterial and material dimensions of the inherently political projects involved.
Attraction of Anopheles gambiae to odour baits augmented with heat and moisture
Evelyn A Olanga, Michael N Okal, Phoebe A Mbadi, Elizabeth D Kokwaro, Wolfgang R Mukabana
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-6
Abstract: A dual-port olfactometer was used to assess behavioural responses of female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes towards synthetic versus natural (whole human emanations and worn socks) attractants. The synthetic attractants included a standard blend consisting of ammonia, carbon dioxide and water; and Ifakara blend 1 (IB1) consisting of various aliphatic carboxylic acids. Natural attractants were obtained from two males known to be less and highly attractive (LA and HA, respectively) to the mosquitoes. Mosquito responses to the volunteers' worn socks were also investigated. The effect of heat (25-27°C) and moisture (75-85%) on the mosquito behavioural responses was determined.A significantly higher proportion of mosquitoes was attracted to each volunteer when compared to the standard blend. Whereas the proportion of mosquitoes attracted to person LA versus IB1 (49% versus 51%, respectively; P = 0.417) or his worn socks did not differ (61% versus 39%, respectively; P = 0.163), far more mosquitoes were attracted to person HA relative to IB1 (96% versus 4%; P = 0.001) or his worn socks (91% versus 9%; P = 0.001). Person HA attracted a significantly higher proportion of mosquitoes than his worn socks, the standard blend and IB1 when these were augmented with heat, moisture or both (P = 0.001). Similar results were obtained with person LA except that the proportion of mosquitoes attracted to him versus his worn sock augmented with heat (P = 0.65) or IB1 augmented with heat and moisture (P = 0.416) did not differ significantly.These findings indicate that olfactory cues are key mediators of the mosquito host-seeking process and that heat and moisture play a minor role. The need for a standard, highly stringent positive control for screening synthetic attractants is strongly highlighted.Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, i.e. the principal vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa [1-4], locates its blood meal hosts largely based on olfactory cues [5]. Physical cues, encompassing hea
An Intrinsically Disordered Region of the Adenovirus Capsid Is Implicated in Neutralization by Human Alpha Defensin 5
Justin W. Flatt, Robert Kim, Jason G. Smith, Glen R. Nemerow, Phoebe L. Stewart
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061571
Abstract: Human α-defensins are proteins of the innate immune system that suppress viral and bacterial infections by multiple mechanisms including membrane disruption. For viruses that lack envelopes, such as human adenovirus (HAdV), other, less well defined, mechanisms must be involved. A previous structural study on the interaction of an α-defensin, human α-defensin 5 (HD5), with HAdV led to a proposed mechanism in which HD5 stabilizes the vertex region of the capsid and blocks uncoating steps required for infectivity. Studies with virus chimeras comprised of capsid proteins from sensitive and resistant serotypes supported this model. To further characterize the critical binding site, we determined subnanometer resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) structures of HD5 complexed with both neutralization-sensitive and -resistant HAdV chimeras. Models were built for the vertex regions of these chimeras with monomeric and dimeric forms of HD5 in various initial orientations. CryoEM guided molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) was used to restrain the majority of the vertex model in well-defined cryoEM density. The RGD-containing penton base loops of both the sensitive and resistant virus chimeras are predicted to be intrinsically disordered, and little cryoEM density is observed for them. In simulations these loops from the sensitive virus chimera, interact with HD5, bridge the penton base and fiber proteins, and provides significant stabilization with a three-fold increase in the intermolecular nonbonded interactions of the vertex complex. In the case of the resistant virus chimera, simulations revealed fewer bridging interactions and reduced stabilization by HD5. This study implicates a key dynamic region in mediating a stabilizing interaction between a viral capsid and a protein of the innate immune system with potent anti-viral activity.
Age-Related Differences in Bitter Taste and Efficacy of Bitter Blockers
Julie A. Mennella, Danielle R. Reed, Kristi M. Roberts, Phoebe S. Mathew, Corrine J. Mansfield
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103107
Abstract: Background Bitter taste is the primary culprit for rejection of pediatric liquid medications. We probed the underlying biology of bitter sensing and the efficacy of two known bitter blockers in children and adults. Methods A racially diverse group of 154 children (3-10 years old) and their mothers (N = 118) evaluated the effectiveness of two bitter blockers, sodium gluconate (NaG) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), for five food-grade bitter compounds (quinine, denatonium benzoate, caffeine, propylthiouracil (PROP), urea) using a forced-choice method of paired comparisons. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01407939). Results The blockers reduced bitterness in 7 of 10 bitter-blocker combinations for adults but only 3 of 10 for children, suggesting that efficacy depends on age and is also specific to each bitter-blocker combination. Only the bitterness of urea was reduced by both blockers in both age groups, whereas the bitterness of PROP was not reduced by either blocker in either age group regardless of TAS2R38 genotype. Children liked the salty taste of the blocker NaG more than did adults, but both groups liked the savory taste of MSG equally. Conclusions and Relevance Bitter blocking was less effective in children, and the efficacy of blocking was both age and compound specific. This knowledge will pave the way for evidence-based strategies to help develop better-tasting medicines and highlights the conclusion that adult panelists and genotyping alone may not always be appropriate in evaluating the taste of a drug geared for children.
An overview of adakite petrogenesis
Paterno R Castillo,
Paterno
,R.,Castillo

科学通报(英文版) , 2006,
Abstract: The term adakite was originally pro- posed to define silica-rich, high Sr/Y and La/Yb vol- canic and plutonic rocks derived from melting of the basaltic portion of oceanic crust subducted beneath volcanic arcs. It was also initially believed that ada- kite only occurs in convergent margins where young and thus still hot oceanic slabs are being subducted, but later studies have proposed that it also occurs in other arc settings where unusual tectonic conditions can lower the solidus of older slabs. Currently, ada- kite covers a range of arc rocks ranging from pristine slab melt, to adakite-peridotite hybrid melt, to melt derived from peridotite metasomatized by slab melt. Adakite studies have generated some confusions because (1) the definition of adakite combines com- positional criteria with a genetic interpretation (melt- ing of subducted basalt), (2) the definition is fairly broad and relies on chemistry as its distinguishing characteristic, (3) the use of high pressure melting experiment results on wet basalts as unequivocal proofs of slab melting and (4) the existence of ada- kitic rocks with chemical characteristics similar to adakites but are clearly unrelated to slab melting. Other studies have shown that adakitic rocks and a number of the previously reported adakites are pro- duced through melting of the mafic lower crust or ponded basaltic magma, high-pressure crystal frac- tionation of basaltic magma and low-pressure crystal fractionation of basaltic magma plus magma mixing processes in both arc or non-arc tectonic environ- ments. Despite the confusing interpretations on the petrogenesis of adakite and adakitic rocks, their in- vestigations have enriched our understanding of material recycling at subduction zones, crustal evolu- tionary processes and economic mineralization.
¿LEGISLACIóN FARMACéUTICA O DERECHO FARMACéUTICO? ANáLISIS
del CASTILLO R,Carlos;
Vitae , 2011,
Abstract: after legal enaltment in the pharmaceutical profession appear two intimately related concepts: the pharmaceutical law and the pharmaceutical legislation that we should define and analyze. on the one hand, the pharmaceutical law is a heterogeneous group of dispositions regulating directly or indirectly the pharmaceutical activity. it cannot be considered an independent branch of the law, but it is possible for practical effects to order systematically the legal regulations. such is the source of a new branch inside the sanitary law, the pharmaceutical legislation, that every pharmacies most know in applied to his scientificprofessional activity which evolution is vertiginous. this paper will study this concept. from the beginning this study requires the most appropriate methodological tools. the most important one for investigation must be the desire to mark out the treated topics guided by the necessary documentation. the use methodology is the usually followed in the works of pharmaceutical legislation where the primary source is found in the diverse official bulletins publishing the legal disposition and the critical literature of the topics.
An overview of adakite petrogenesis
Paterno R. Castillo
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2006, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-006-0257-7
Abstract: The term adakite was originally proposed to define silica-rich, high Sr/Y and La/Yb volcanic and plutonic rocks derived from melting of the basaltic portion of oceanic crust subducted beneath volcanic arcs. It was also initially believed that adakite only occurs in convergent margins where young and thus still hot oceanic slabs are being subducted, but later studies have proposed that it also occurs in other arc settings where unusual tectonic conditions can lower the solidus of older slabs. Currently, adakite covers a range of arc rocks ranging from pristine slab melt, to adakite-peridotite hybrid melt, to melt derived from peridotite metasomatized by slab melt. Adakite studies have generated some confusions because (1) the definition of adakite combines compositional criteria with a genetic interpretation (melting of subducted basalt), (2) the definition is fairly broad and relies on chemistry as its distinguishing characteristic, (3) the use of high pressure melting experiment results on wet basalts as unequivocal proofs of slab melting and (4) the existence of adakitic rocks with chemical characteristics similar to adakites but are clearly unrelated to slab melting. Other studies have shown that adakitic rocks and a number of the previously reported a dakites are produced through melting of the mafic lower crust or ponded basaltic magma, high-pressure crystal fractionation of basaltic magma and low-pressure crystal fractionation of basaltic magma plus magma mixing processes in both arc or non-arc tectonic environments. Despite the confusing interpretations on the petrogenesis of adakite and adakitic rocks, their investigations have enriched our understanding of material recycling at subduction zones, crustal evolutionary processes and economic mineralization.
埃达克岩成因回顾
Paterno,R.,Castillo
科学通报 , 2006,
Abstract: 埃达克岩最初是用来定义那些富硅、高Sr/Y和La/Yb的源于俯冲带玄武质洋壳部分熔融形成的火山岩和侵入岩.最初,人们认为埃达克岩仅形成在年青且尚未冷却的大洋板块俯冲会聚带,但随后的研究表明埃达克岩也可以形成于岛弧的一些特殊环境,在这里某些异常构造条件可降低古老板片的熔融温度,目前认为,埃达克岩涵盖了一系列的岛弧火山岩,包括原生俯冲洋壳熔体,埃达克岩-橄榄岩混合熔体以及源于板块熔体交代后地幔楔橄榄岩的熔融产物.近年来埃达克岩的研究产生了一些让人困惑的地方,其原因包括:(1)埃达克岩定义相当宽泛,并依化学特征与其他岩石相区别;(2)将含水体系下玄武岩的高压熔融实验结果作为板块熔融存在的确凿证据;而且(3)存在有与板块熔融无关的埃达克质岩.近期研究表明,埃达克质岩和许多曾被认为是埃达克岩的岩石在岛弧和非岛弧环境下均可形成,主要通过以下几种机制:镁铁质下地壳的分熔或直接是幔源低侵岩浆;高压下玄武质岩浆的结晶分异;低压下玄武岩浆的结晶分异加上相关的岩浆混合过程.这些机制在岛弧环境或非岛弧环境都有可能.尽管对埃达克岩和埃达克质岩的成因解释比较混乱,但对这些岩石的研究丰富了我们对俯冲带环境中物质循环、地壳演化和成矿作用的理解.
Editor invitado
Víctor R Castillo
Revista Colombiana de Cardiología , 2006,
Abstract:
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