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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7789 matches for " Philippe Prior "
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Constraints on Genome Dynamics Revealed from Gene Distribution among the Ralstonia solanacearum Species
Pierre Lefeuvre, Gilles Cellier, Beno?t Remenant, Frédéric Chiroleu, Philippe Prior
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063155
Abstract: Because it is suspected that gene content may partly explain host adaptation and ecology of pathogenic bacteria, it is important to study factors affecting genome composition and its evolution. While recent genomic advances have revealed extremely large pan-genomes for some bacterial species, it remains difficult to predict to what extent gene pool is accessible within or transferable between populations. As genomes bear imprints of the history of the organisms, gene distribution pattern analyses should provide insights into the forces and factors at play in the shaping and maintaining of bacterial genomes. In this study, we revisited the data obtained from a previous CGH microarrays analysis in order to assess the genomic plasticity of the R. solanacearum species complex. Gene distribution analyses demonstrated the remarkably dispersed genome of R. solanacearum with more than half of the genes being accessory. From the reconstruction of the ancestral genomes compositions, we were able to infer the number of gene gain and loss events along the phylogeny. Analyses of gene movement patterns reveal that factors associated with gene function, genomic localization and ecology delineate gene flow patterns. While the chromosome displayed lower rates of movement, the megaplasmid was clearly associated with hot-spots of gene gain and loss. Gene function was also confirmed to be an essential factor in gene gain and loss dynamics with significant differences in movement patterns between different COG categories. Finally, analyses of gene distribution highlighted possible highways of horizontal gene transfer. Due to sampling and design bias, we can only speculate on factors at play in this gene movement dynamic. Further studies examining precise conditions that favor gene transfer would provide invaluable insights in the fate of bacteria, species delineation and the emergence of successful pathogens.
Citizenship and Mental Health Policy in Europe
Prior, Pauline
Social Work and Society , 2007,
Abstract: The problems confronted by people who experience mental disorders are often conceptualised in terms of health and illness. However, these problems extend far beyond the healthcare system, into all areas of human life. Having a psychiatric diagnosis may have a negative impact on every aspect of the individual’s life, leading to the deprivation or limitation of rights in relation to housing, employment, and family life. In this article, some of these problems are discussed within the theoretical framework of debates on citizenship and on human rights. As the context is Europe, reference is made to the recent policy initiatives with the EU, to national and European level consumer organisations and to cases brought before the European Court of Human Rights.
The role of local government in redressing neighbourhood disadvantage: A case study from Penrith City Council
Jason Prior
Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance , 2008, DOI: 10.5130/cjlg.v1i0.767
Abstract: The concentration of disadvantage in specific neighbourhoods is a widespread characteristic of many Australian cities. A broad range of policies and programs which utilize integrated forms of governance have been designed and implemented to redress this. Within the state of New South Wales, Australia, local governments have been identified as being amongst the most effective drivers for these integrated governance approaches. Utilizing a case study of the Penrith Neighbourhood Renewal Program, this paper explores recent attempts by Penrith City Council to develop a framework to redress neighbourhood disadvantage, firstly by establishing an integrated governance framework for the program, and secondly by transforming the council’s operational structure.
Efficient Choice, Inefficient Democracy? The Implications of Cable and Internet Access for Political Knowledge and Voter Turnout
Markus Prior
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: This paper explains why, despite a marked increase in available political information on cable television and the Internet, citizens' levels of political knowledge have, at best, remained stagnant (Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996). Since the availability of entertainment content has increased too, the effect of new media on knowledge and vote likelihood should be determined by people's relative preferences for entertainment and information. Access to new media should increase knowledge and vote likelihood among people who prefer news. At the same time, it is hypothesized to have a negative effect on knowledge and turnout for people who prefer entertainment content. Hypotheses are tested by building a measure of Relative Entertainment Preference (REP) from existing NES and Pew survey data. Results support the predicted interaction effect of media environment (cable and/or Internet access) and motivation (REP) on political knowledge and turnout. In particular, people who prefer entertainment to news and have access to cable television and the Internet are less knowledgeable and less likely to vote than any other group of people.
MODELO DE SERVICIOS MICROFINANCIEROS PROPUESTO PARA RESOLVER EL PROBLEMA DE LA FALTA DE ACCESO A LOS SERVICIOS FINANCIEROS EN LOS PAíSES EN DESARROLLO
PRIOR SANZ,FRANCESC;
Estudios Gerenciales , 2010,
Abstract: this research paper discusses how to solve the problem of the vast majority of the population in developing countries that lack access to financial services. the proposed solution takes the hypothesis that the lack of access to financial services is mainly due to a supply problem. the business models used by financial institutions operating in developing countries are inadequate and inefficient because they do not allow serving low-income segments in a profitable manner. to address this supply problem it is necessary to develop low-cost business models for the distribution of microfinance services adapted to serve segments of low-income population profitably.
On the measurement of capacity utilisation and coast efficiency: a non-parametric approach at firm level
Prior, Diego;Filimon, Nela;
Pesquisa Operacional , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-74382002000200010
Abstract: in this paper we evaluate the inefficiency generated by an inadequate structure of the fixed inputs and by the difficulty to adjust them in the short-run in a sample of romanian firms in the chemical industry over the period 1996-1997. we use data envelopment analysis (dea) and apply this methodology in an innovative setting using a cost analysis instead of the technical efficiency approach. the results show inefficiency in most of the cases due to a low degree of capacity utilisation.
On the measurement of capacity utilisation and coast efficiency: a non-parametric approach at firm level
Prior Diego,Filimon Nela
Pesquisa Operacional , 2002,
Abstract: In this paper we evaluate the inefficiency generated by an inadequate structure of the fixed inputs and by the difficulty to adjust them in the short-run in a sample of Romanian firms in the chemical industry over the period 1996-1997. We use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and apply this methodology in an innovative setting using a cost analysis instead of the technical efficiency approach. The results show inefficiency in most of the cases due to a low degree of capacity utilisation.
Start-Up Conditions and the Performance of Women – And Men – Controlled Businesses in Manufacturing Industries
Otilia Driga,Diego Prior
Revista de Contabilidad : Spanish Accounting Review , 2010,
Abstract: Recent research into the economic performance of women-controlled firms suggests that their underperformance may not be the result of differences in the managerial ability of women as compared to men, and that it may in fact be a consequence of differing levels of start-up resources. Using accounting data, we examine the effects that selected start-up conditions have had on the observed economic performance of a sample of 4450 Spanish manufacturing firms. The results, which indicate significant differences in the initial conditions and show lower levels of assets and employee numbers in women-controlled firms, have implications for the economic performance of such firms. La investigación empírica sobre el desempe o económico de las empresas dirigidas por mujeres sugiere que las diferencias entre este y el desempe o observado en empresas dirigidas por hombres no se debe necesariamente a diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en cuanto a sus habilidades como gerentes de esas empresas sino más bien pueden ser el resultado de las diferencias en las condiciones iniciales en las que se crearon dichas empresas. Usando información contable, este trabajo examina los efectos que algunas condiciones iniciales puedan tener sobre el desempe o económico observado para una muestra de 4450 empresas manufactureras Espa olas. Los resultados indican diferencias significativas entre las condiciones iniciales de las empresas dirigidas por mujeres y, respectivamente, por hombres. Para la muestra analizada las empresas dirigidas por mujeres tienen menos activos y un menor número de empleados lo que explica, al menos parcialmente, el menor desempe o en empresas gestionadas por mujeres.
Historia de la voluntad y banalidad del mal
Prior Olmos, ángel
Arbor : Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura , 2010, DOI: 10.3989/arbor.2010.742n1102
Abstract: This article discusses the connections existing in The Life of the Mind between the theory of the banality of evil and the history of the will. It interprets Eichmann in Jerusalem as a work about bureaucratic evil, but above all as research concerning both moral and juridical responsibility. From the history of the will it highlights three different aspects that can be connected with the problem of responsibility: the ontology of contingency, the idea of individuality linked to the will and the capacity of transcendence and resistance that we see in the Duns Scotus’ theory, where liberty equals indifference. Finally, it suggests a link between the banality of evil and the ontology of good as these are present in “Some questions of moral philosophy” (1965-1966), the fight against Gnosticism and the defense of a relationship between morality and evil’s intelligibility. El artículo plantea las conexiones entre la tesis de la banalidad del mal y la historia de la voluntad presente en La vida del espíritu. Interpreta Eichmann en Jerusalén como una obra sobre el mal burocrático, pero sobre todo como estudio acerca de la responsabilidad, tanto jurídica como moral. De la historia de la voluntad resalta tres aspectos que pueden ser puestos en conexión con el problema de la responsabilidad: la ontología de la contingencia, la idea de individualidad vinculada a la voluntad y la capacidad de trascendencia y resistencia subyacentes en la teoría de Duns Escoto de la libertad como indiferencia. Por último, sugiere una vinculación entre la banalidad del mal y la ontología del bien desarrolladas en “Algunas cuestiones de filosofía moral”, de 1965-1966, la lucha contra el gnosticismo y la defensa de una relación entre moralidad e inteligibilidad del mal.
MODELO DE SERVICIOS MICROFINANCIEROS PROPUESTO PARA RESOLVER EL PROBLEMA DE LA FALTA DE ACCESO A LOS SERVICIOS FINANCIEROS EN LOS PAíSES EN DESARROLLO
FRANCESC PRIOR SANZ
Estudios Gerenciales , 2010,
Abstract: Este documento analiza cómo resolver el problema de la falta de acceso a los servicios financieros que padece la amplia mayoría de la población de los países en desarrollo. La solución propuesta toma como hipótesis que la falta de acceso a los servicios financieros se explica principalmente por un problema de oferta. Los modelos de negocio usados por las entidades financieras que operan en los países en desarrollo son inadecuados e ineficientes al no permitir servir rentablemente a los segmentos de bajos ingresos. Para resolver este problema de oferta, se necesita del desarrollo de modelos de negocio de distribución de servicios microfinancieros a bajo coste adaptados para servir a segmentos de población de bajos ingresos rentablemente.
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