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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7689 matches for " Philippe Grandjean "
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Portrait of the journal as a young adult
Philippe Grandjean, David Ozonoff
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-30
Abstract: Environmental Health recently passed two significant milestones, the end of its first decade and the first time the journal has published more than 100 papers in a single year (109). During this span we received 1,000 manuscripts for consideration, 248 submissions alone in our tenth year. Road markers like this provide a good opportunity for stocktaking.Environmental Health is an internet-based journal, potentially allowing faster processing of manuscripts. It is our intention to put papers through the editorial process as rapidly as possible, consistent with time for constructive peer review. We do not consider peer review a gate-keeping function but a collegial one. Our Open Review process, where both the reviewers and authors are identified to each other, emphasizes this philosophy [1]. We take ‘peer review’ literally – we mean it to be the constructive and friendly review you would expect to get from a colleague you asked to read your paper and provide you with feedback. Sometimes that feedback indicates that the paper is not ready for publication because of gaps, problems or insufficient substance. Much more often, the feedback consists in requests for clarification or constructive suggestions on how to make the paper clearer, more meaningful and more persuasive in its conclusions. We consider this the greatest ‘value added’ of our publication process and we hope that you do, too.This kind of collegial consultation sometimes takes time, however, as the most competent reviewers usually are the busiest. We are extremely grateful to our reviewers, but we are also at their mercy. Producing a reliable and quality product takes time, and while we are swifter than our print counterparts, some things can’t be hurried too much and peer review is an area where we don’t cut corners. The whole process, from date of submission to publication, averages just above five months. Once a manuscript has been approved, publication is rapid. The online format means that we are not c
Environmental Health: the first five years
Philippe Grandjean, David Ozonoff
Environmental Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-6-27
Abstract: Published articles are one of the main products of research. Digital technology is revolutionizing the reproduction, distribution and control of scientific publication while providing new and important opportunities for science. It also allows wider and more rapid diffusion of knowledge with lower barriers to access, stimulating further research and applications of new information. The Internet facilitates access to journals that would otherwise require a visit to many different libraries. The majority of scientific journals are now available online, and most of the 2.5 million scientific articles published per year can be accessed away from libraries that carry the print versions.For this reason, "pigeon-holing" of research areas has become less important for the researcher to reach the intended audience. As the actual medium in which the scientific article appears becomes less crucial, the choice of one topic-related journal over another among the almost 25,000 peer-reviewed journals worldwide, now includes the criterion of accessibility.Open access is both a colloquial term for no cost access to scholarly publications and a specific set of principles governing publication and the kind of permissions needed for its further use. As part of the suite of journals published by BioMed Central Environmental Health adheres strictly to the Open Access charter[1]:1. The article is universally and freely accessible via the Internet, in an easily readable format and deposited immediately upon publication, without embargo, in an agreed format – current preference is XML [Extensible Mark-up Language] with a declared DTD [Document Type Definition] – in at least one widely and internationally recognized open access repository (such as PubMed Central).2.The author(s) or copyright owner(s) irrevocably grant(s) to any third party, in advance and in perpetuity, the right to use, reproduce or disseminate the research article in its entirety or in part, in any format or medium, provid
Lower bounds and complete problems in nondeterministic linear time and sublinear space complexity classes
Philippe Chapdelaine,Etienne Grandjean
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: Proving lower bounds remains the most difficult of tasks in computational complexity theory. In this paper, we show that whereas most natural NP-complete problems belong to NLIN (linear time on nondeterministic RAMs), some of them, typically the planar versions of many NP-complete problems are recognized by nondeterministic RAMs in linear time and sublinear space. The main results of this paper are the following: as the second author did for NLIN, we give exact logical characterizations of nondeterministic polynomial time-space complexity classes; we derive from them a class of problems, which are complete in these classes, and as a consequence of such a precise result and of some recent separation theorems using diagonalization, prove time-space lower bounds for these problems.
Milestones and Impact Factors
David M Ozonoff, Philippe Grandjean
Environmental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-9-35
Abstract: We have just passed another milestone in the history of Environmental Health, the bestowal of an official Impact Factor (IF) by Thomson ISI. The idea of a quantitative measure of a journal's "impact" was suggested in 1955 by Eugene Garfield in Science [1,2]. Garfield's original objective was to use it as a guide for selecting journals to be included in a new reference source, what later became the Science Citation Index which was launched in 1961. This explains both the origin and some of the limitations of the IF, which subsequently morphed into a perceived measure of a scientific journal's importance to science. It is calculated for a specific year as the number of times during that year that articles from the two previous years were cited divided by the total number of citable articles in these two years. The definition of citable articles does not include Editorials such as this, although if there were any citations in this Editorial to articles published in Environmental Health in 2008 and 2009 they would count for this journal's 2010 Impact Factor, thus slightly inflating it.This is not the only quirk in the calculation of IFs [3], leading some critics to question its validity [4] (to which Thomson ISI has replied [5]). Recently, there has been official recognition of the limitations of the IF for evaluating scientists for promotion or funding [6-9]. As a result, it is likely the practical significance of having an IF is less now than previously. The fact remains, however, that having an official IF is a sign that a journal has reached a mature form.With an IF of 2.48, Environmental Health ranks in the top 25% of journals (44 out of 180) listed in the 'Environmental Sciences' category. Of additional importance, an impact factor above 2 is important in some countries, where the productivity of researchers is rated annually from their publications in journals with an IF above that level. We made this mark on our first attempt.The IF we received is also more than
Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder
Miwako Dakeishi, Katsuyuki Murata, Philippe Grandjean
Environmental Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-5-31
Abstract: Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The major source of human exposure is contamination of drinking water from natural geological sources, but anthropogenic emissions from mining, smelting, or agricultural sources (pesticides or fertilizers) also contribute to local exposures [1]. Although current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic [2,3], other adverse effects, such as neurotoxicity, may also be relevant. For instance, peripheral neuropathy has been amply demonstrated in adults [4-6] and is thought to occur only at fairly high exposure levels that would already be deemed unacceptable from the viewpoint of preventing arsenic-induced cancer. In past incidents, 15 fatalities occurred among 500 patients exposed to arsenic-contaminated wine in France in 1888; 70 of 6,000 patients from arsenic-contaminated beer in England in 1900–1901; and 15 of 28 patients due to arsenic-contaminated cider in the US in 1924 [7]. These events involved adults only.Developmental processes in the nervous system are vulnerable to disruption by such chemicals at doses that may not be toxic to mature systems [8-10], and consideration of developmental neurotoxicity would therefore seem to be appropriate. An extensive data base on developmental arsenic toxicity exists from an unfortunate poisoning incident in Japan in the mid-1950s. The so-called Morinaga dried milk poisoning has received only cursory coverage in the English-language scientific literature, but detailed accounts are available in Japanese. According to official records, more than one hundred infants died from arsenic poisoning [11], thus making the fatality rate of this food poisoning incident the most serious one ever to occur in Japan. In the absence of a detailed account in English, we therefore present an overview of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning based on reports published by Japanese researchers.In the early summer 1955, physicians in the western
The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles
Philippe Grandjean, Mette L Eriksen, Ole Ellegaard, Johan A Wallin
Environmental Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-10-96
Abstract: In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention.The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates.The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.As thousands of potentially toxic chemicals are being released into the environment, there is a need to document their persistence, dissemination, biomagnification and toxic effects.In the early 1980s, the US National Research Council completed an extensive study on toxicity testing and found that 78% of the industrial chemicals most commonly produced had not even been minimally tested for toxicity [1]. A follow-up study by the Environ
Potential developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides used in Europe
Marina Bj?rling-Poulsen, Helle Andersen, Philippe Grandjean
Environmental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-7-50
Abstract: Pesticides are used widely in agriculture to maintain and increase crop yields, and they are also applied in homes and gardens. The annual application of synthetic pesticides to food crops in the EU exceeds 140,000 tonnes [1], an amount that corresponds to 280 grams per EU citizen per year. Despite European policies to reduce pesticide use, EU statistics data for 1992–2003 show that the annual pesticide consumption has not decreased [1]. A few hundred different compounds are authorised for use in all EU member states, but a similar number of pesticides is in current use in different EU countries and are being evaluated for possible authorisation in all of EU. Approximately 300 different pesticides have been reported as contaminants of food products of European origin [2]. Up to 50 percent of fruits, vegetables and cereals grown in the European Union are known to contain pesticide residues [2], but only a small fraction of pesticides in current use are included in the monitoring programmes. Nonetheless, one out of twenty food items is known to exceed a current EU legal limit for an individual pesticide [2]. Further, over 25% of fruits, vegetables, and cereals contain detectable residues of at least two pesticides [2]. Processed food and baby food are also commonly contaminated. In addition, other sources, such as contaminated drinking water, dusts and spray drift contribute to human exposures.The total level of population exposures to pesticides in Europe is unknown, but data from US population studies show that the majority of the population has detectable concentrations of methyl phosphate, ethyl phosphate, and other pesticide metabolites in the urine [3].Many pesticides target the nervous system of insect pests. Because of the similarity of neurochemical processes, these compounds are also likely to be neurotoxic to humans. This concern is of particular relevance to the developing human brain, which is inherently much more vulnerable to injury caused by toxic agen
Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit estimation and partial cost-benefit analysis of lead hazard control
Céline Pichery, Martine Bellanger, Denis Zmirou-Navier, Philippe Glorennec, Philippe Hartemann, Philippe Grandjean
Environmental Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-10-44
Abstract: Monetary benefits were assessed in terms of avoided national costs. We used results from a 2008 survey on blood-lead (B-Pb) concentrations in French children aged one to six years old. Given the absence of a threshold concentration being established, we performed a sensitivity analysis assuming different hypothetical threshold values for toxicity above 15 μg/L, 24 μg/L and 100 μg/L. Adverse health outcomes of lead exposure were translated into social burden and economic costs based on literature data from literature. Direct health benefits, social benefits and intangible avoided costs were included. Costs of pollutant exposure control were partially estimated in regard to homes lead-based paint decontamination, investments aiming at reducing industrial lead emissions and removal of all lead drinking water pipes.The following overall annual benefits for the three hypothetical thresholds values in 2008 are: €22.72 billion, €10.72 billion and €0.44 billion, respectively. Costs from abatement ranged from €0.9 billion to 2.95 billion/year. Finally, from a partial CBA of lead control in soils and dust the estimates of total net benefits were € 3.78 billion, € 1.88 billion and €0.25 billion respectively for the three hypothesized B-Pb effect values.Prevention of childhood lead exposure has a high social benefit, due to reduction of B-Pb concentrations to levels below 15 μg/L or 24 μg/L, respectively. Reducing only exposures above 100 μg/L B-Pb has little economic impact due to the small number of children who now exhibit such high exposure levels. Prudent public policies would help avoiding future medical interventions, limit the need for special education and increase future productivity, and hence lifetime income for children exposed to lead.Lead is a well known toxic metal, and current exposures in children constitute a reason for concern [1]. In France, lead has multiple anthropogenic sources and is now mainly present in its inorganic form in the environment [2,3]. The
Assessing the quality of life of children with mental disorders using a computer-based self-reported generic instrument (KidIQoL)—Quality of life of children with mental disorders  [PDF]
Melanie White-Koning, Hélène Grandjean, Martine Gayral-Taminh, Valérie Lauwers-Cancès, Jean-Philippe Raynaud
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2011.11002
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the self-reported quality of life (Qol) of children with various mental disorders and compare the scores in this population with those in children without such problems. METHODS: Self- reported Qol was assessed using KidiQoL, a generic computer-based tool with 44 items exploring four domains (Physical and psychological health, Family life, School life and Social and physical environment). The study group consisted of 139 children (111 boys and 28 girls) aged between 6 and 12 years (mean age 9.1 years) referred to an outpatient mental health unit for mental disorders, 29 of whom completed the questionnaire about 2 weeks later in order to assess test-retest reliability. The comparison group consisted of 130 children from the general population, aged 6 to 12 years (mean age 9.0 years) and attending main- stream schools in the same geographical area. RE- SULTS: The test-retest reliability of the instrument was very good with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.97 for the total score and above 0.90 in all domains. No significant differences in domain and total scores were observed according to gender or developmental age. Children with developmental disorders or schizophrenia reported significantly lower QoL in the Health domain than children with other types of mental disorders. In all domains and for the total score, the children with mental disorders re- ported significantly lower QoL than the children from the general population; CONCLUSION: KidIQoL has been found suitable and psychometrically valid in children with mental disorders. Its use could help the assessment and adaptation of psychiatric care.
Reduced Antibody Responses to Vaccinations in Children Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Carsten Heilmann,Philippe Grandjean ,Pál Weihe,Flemming Nielsen,Esben Budtz-J?rgensen
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030311
Abstract: Background Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been implicated as a possible cause of deficient immune function in children. This study was designed to assess whether prenatal and postnatal exposure to PCBs impacts on antibody response to childhood immunizations. Methods and Findings Two birth cohorts were formed in the Faroe Islands, where exposures vary widely, because traditional diets may include whale blubber contaminated with PCBs. Prenatal exposure was determined from maternal concentrations of PCBs in pregnancy serum and milk. Following routine childhood vaccinations against tetanus and diphtheria, 119 children were examined at 18 mo and 129 children at 7 y of age, and their serum samples were analyzed for tetanus and diphtheria toxoid antibodies and for PCBs. The antibody response to diphtheria toxoid decreased at age 18 mo by 24.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63–41.9; p = 0.04) for each doubling of the cumulative PCB exposure at the time of examination. The diphtheria response was lower at age 7 y and was not associated with the exposure. However, the tetanus toxoid antibody response was affected mainly at age 7 y, decreasing by 16.5% (95% CI, 1.51–29.3; p = 0.03) for each doubling of the prenatal exposure. Structural equation analysis showed that the early postnatal exposure was the most important predictor of a decreased vaccination response. Conclusions Increased perinatal exposure to PCBs may adversely impact on immune responses to childhood vaccinations. The clinical implications of insufficient antibody production emphasize the need for prevention of immunotoxicant exposures.
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