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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145023 matches for " Philip K. Groom "
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Seeds as a Source of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus for Seedling Establishment in Temperate Regions: A Synthesis  [PDF]
Byron B. Lamont, Philip K. Groom
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45A005

Seeds are a source of organic (carbon, C) and mineral (nitrogen, N and phosphorus, P) nutrients for the growing seedling. There is much information on seed mass and N and P contents, and the relationship between these and seedling mass. Within the world’s temperate regions, these collectively show that N and P concentrations remain constant or rise with increase in seed mass and that seeds are larger and more nutrient-enriched in poorer soils. Seed N and P were more important than seed C in accounting for seedling mass in 85% of studies we assessed. In nutrient- and water-limited environments that are not light-limited, large seeds routinely provision the seedling with N and P that enhance C-fixation and thus general growth in the first wet season. This system is so efficient that growth response to soil nutrients may be negligible in first-year seedlings arising from seeds > 15 mg mass, N content > 5 mg and P content > 1.6 mg. The elongating taproot system absorbs nutrients and maintains water uptake as soil water retreats, enhancing the chances of survival in the first dry season. We outline an interpretative scenario for the special role of large seeds (>15 mg) in nutrient- and water-limited environments that recognizes the critical role of N and P for photosynthesis in ensuring sufficient C-supply to the rapidly descending roots for effective drought-avoidance by the young plant.

Inequality and economic marginalisation: How the structure of the economy impacts on opportunities on the margins
K Philip
Law, Democracy & Development , 2010,
Abstract: In the face of a long-standing unemployment crisis that increasingly threatens social and economic stability, employment has at last taken centre stage in South African policy, and with this, focus is shifting to the structural constraints on employment creation within the economy. The New Growth Path, approved by Cabinet in November 2010, starts to tackle these issues. Its emphasis on inclusive growth places issues of distribution more clearly on the agenda than they have been; and the Competition Commission has become poor consumers’ knight in shining armour, tackling collusion and highlighting the negative economic (and employment) consequences of South Africa’s highly centralized core economy. What does this mean, however, for what used to be called ‘the second economy’? While much scholarship has focused on critiquing the concept of the second economy – with good reason – the stark inequalities that characterize South African society and its economy mean that policy-making processes still struggle to straddle both ends of the spectrum. What is good for the developed end of the economy can seem to be far removed from concerns in more marginalised contexts. This article argues that the sharp divides in access and opportunity need to be located within the context of structural inequality. It focuses in particular on how the highly unequal structure of the economy impacts on economic opportunities at the more marginalised end of the economy, and how common sets of processes within a single economy produce and reproduce these outcomes. This locks people into poverty in ways that cannot simply be dismissed as a problem of ‘dependency’ - despite a growing tendency to do so. The article concludes by considering what this analysis means for development strategies targeting the unemployed and those eking out survivalist incomes.
Power Play and Performance in Harajuku
Amelia Groom
New Voices : A Journal for Emerging Scholars of Japanese Studies in Australia and New Zealand , 2011,
Abstract: This article analyses the structures and implications of Japan’s contemporary street fashion cultures, primarily those of Harajuku. Using Roland Barthes’ analogy of dress and dressing it situates the radical subcultural styles within traditional Japanese aesthetics and in a wider history of fashion. Examining various motifs from kawaisato uniforms, cross-dressing, masks and the politics of second-hand fashion, it deals with theories of authenticity, appearance and agency.
Are Agent Exclusion Clauses a Legitimate Application of the EU Database Directive?
Jimi Groom
SCRIPT-ed , 2004,
Abstract: This article explores the implications of the implementation of the European Database Directive in the area of autonomous agents and the use of exclusion tools in the part of database owners to stop agents accessing their works.
Flat-topped emission centred at 1 250 nm from quantum dot superluminescent diodes
D. Childs,K.M. Groom,S.K. Ray,H.Y. Liu
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v105i7/8.69
Abstract: We present a method for tailoring a broadband and flat-topped emission spectrum in quantum dot superluminescent diodes based upon modification of the dots-in-compositionally-modulated-well (DCMWELL) technique. We demonstrate flat-topped emission with 95 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM), centred at 1 250 nm, and with output power in excess of 8 mW.
Colon Targeted Drug Delivery Systems: A Review on Primary and Novel Approaches
Anil K. Philip,Betty Philip
Oman Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: The colon is a site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can take place. Local delivery allows topical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. However, treatment can be made effective if the drugs can be targeted directly into the colon, thereby reducing the systemic side effects. This review, mainly compares the primary approaches for CDDS (Colon Specific Drug Delivery) namely prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems, and microbially triggered systems, which achieved limited success and had limitations as compared with newer CDDS namely pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules, CODESTM, and osmotic controlled drug delivery which are unique in terms of achieving in vivo site specificity, and feasibility of manufacturing process.
Optimized Design of a Hybrid Biological Sewage Treatment System for Domestic Wastewater Supply  [PDF]
Benjamin K. Kogo, Elijah K. Biamah, Philip K. Langat
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.55002
Abstract: This study is aimed at evaluating alternative designs of waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) and constructed wetlands (CWs) for Kaputiei Housing Estate consisting of 2000 low cost housing units in Kenya. The entire analysis was carried out by simulating the effectiveness and purification efficiencies of WSPs and CWs in terms of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) reduction and faecal coliform (FC) removal under different scenarios of water treatment systems that included Re-sizing of the initial sewage treatment system, optimizing the design of the initial system and design of hybrid system for the estate. The graphic comparison of the simulated parameters under different scenarios showed that a hybrid design that combines both the WSPs and CWS provides an effluent BOD of 20 mg/l and 195 FC per 100 ml that meets the standard effluent discharge that is acceptable for unrestricted crop irrigation and thus will be reused in the housing estate for kitchen gardening and agroforestry.
Interaction of Iron(III)-5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (4-Sulfonatophenyl) Porphyrin with Chloroquine, Quinine and Quinidine  [PDF]
Dikima D. Bibelayi, Pitchouna I. Kilunga, Albert S. Lundemba, Matthieu K. Bokolo, Pius T. Mpiana, Philippe V. Tsalu, Juliette Pradon, Colin C. Groom, Celine W. Kadima, Luc Van Meervelt, Zephyrin G. Yav
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2017.63003
Abstract: Iron(III)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (FeTPPS) is used as non-physiological metalloporphyrin model for the natural iron (III)-protoporphyrin IX (FePPIX) resulting from hemoglobin degradation to investigate ligand binding reactions in aqueous solution. Studies were conducted on the interaction of FeTPPS with Chloroquine, Quinine, and Quinidine, which are historically the most common quinoline-based drugs used to treat malaria, an infectious disease afflicting several hundred millions every year worldwide, mainly in tropical regions. Using UV-Visible spectrophotometry, the binding reaction was studied at pH 7.40 in purely aqueous solution, and in aqueous solution containing NaNO3 at concentration of 0.1 M. Fitted titration curves obtained were in agreement with experimental data according to a formation scheme of 1:1 complex (1 FeTPPS μ-oxo-dimer: 1 Antimalarial). Values of apparent binding constant (K) obtained were between 4.3 × 103 M-1 to 7.59 × 104 M-1, demonstrating that FeTPPS and the antimalarials formed stable complexes. The stability of the complex decreased when NaNO3 was added to the solution. This ionic strength dependence was ascribed to electrostatic effects.
Evaluation of Hexadate Ligand 1, 3-bis(2,2’:6’,2’’-Terpyridyl-5-Ylmethylsulfany l)Propane in the Determination of Iron(II) in Solution by Spectrophotometric and Fluoremetric Methods of Analysis  [PDF]
Philip K. Maritim
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103715
Uv-visible and fluorescence spectra of the ligand 1,3-bis(2,2’:6’,2’’-ter- pyridyl-5-ymethylsulfanyl)propane L and it’s iron(II) complex have been investigated for analytical purposes. The two spectra of L and terpy are very similar which confirmed the ability of L to co-ordinate through the six N atoms of L with minimum distortion of the metal ion’s octahedral geometry. The ligand-based absorption band of L is shifted to the longer wavelength. It was found that L is able to displace the two terpyridine groups in the complex to give [FeL]2 . The high stability of the complex makes it good in spectrophotometry analysis of metals ions in solution. The fluorescence of L was progressively quenched with an increasing concentration of iron(II). This makes L a possible reagent for the quantitative analysis of metal by measuring fluorescence quenching.
Some poleward movement of British native vascular plants is occurring, but the fingerprint of climate change is not evident
Quentin J. Groom
PeerJ , 2013, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.77
Abstract: Recent upperward migration of plants and animals along altitudinal gradients and poleward movement of animal range boundaries have been confirmed by many studies. This phenomenon is considered to be part of the fingerprint of recent climate change on the biosphere. Here I examine whether poleward movement is occurring in the vascular plants of Great Britain. The ranges of plants were determined from detection/non-detection data in two periods, 1978 to 1994 and 1995 to 2011. From these, the centre of mass of the population was calculated and the magnitude and direction of range shifts were determined from movements of the centre of mass. A small, but significant, northward movement could be detected in plants with expanding ranges, but not among declining species. Species from warmer ranges were not more likely to be moving northward, nor was dispersal syndrome a predictor of migration success. It is concluded that simply looking at northward movement of species is not an effective way to identify the effect of climate change on plant migration and that other anthropogenic changes obscure the effect of climate.
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