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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32316 matches for " Peter Westerholm "
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Social Support and Sleep. Longitudinal Relationships from the WOLF-Study  [PDF]
Maria Nordin, Peter Westerholm, Lars Alfredsson, Torbjorn Akerstedt
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312A181
Abstract:

Aim: To investigate the relationship between two social support dimensions (network and emotional support) and sleep quality and between two social support sources (at and outside work) and sleep quality. Methods: The three-wave prospective Work Lipids and Fibrinogen (WOLF) study from Northern Sweden was used including 2420 participants who had filled out a questionnaire on working life, life style and health. Sleep quality was assessed by the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ). Structure and function of social support were measured as network support both at and outside work by Availability of Social Integration (AVSI) and emotional support both at and outside work by Availability of Attachment (AVAT). Logistic regression was used, utilizing variables created to assess development over time. Moreover, reversed causation was tested. Results: Improved network support at work decreased the risk of disturbed sleep (OR .65; 95% CI .47 - .90) as did improved emotional support outside work (OR .69; 95% CI .49 - .96). Reporting a constant poor network support at work increased the risk of disturbed sleep (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10 - 2.11) as did reporting a constant poor emotional support outside work (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.02

Codes of ethics in occupational health – are they important?
P Westerholm
Continuing Medical Education , 2009,
Abstract: This article addresses the ethical competence of occupational health professionals (OHPs). Ethical dilemmas and moral challenges are part of everyday life in occupational health (OH), increasingly requiring that OH practitioners are competent in dealing with these issues. According to Susanne Rameix of the Sorbonne University of Paris, ethics is not a science,1 nor is it an institutionalised system of regulations. It is a matter of knowing what to do. Since the days of Socrates, philosophers have engaged the difficulties of teaching ethics.
Population development and the need for housing for elderly people in Sweden
Barbro Westerholm
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2009,
Abstract:
The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas
Leslie London, David Coggon, Angelo Moretto, Peter Westerholm, Martin F Wilks, Claudio Colosio
Environmental Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-9-50
Abstract: In recent years, there has been considerable controversy about the scientific value and ethical acceptability of studies involving experimental exposure of human volunteers to low doses of pesticides [1-12]. Although such studies have been conducted for many decades, albeit on a limited scale, the controversy around their use has been prompted particularly by more recent debates on the use of data from human volunteer studies to inform regulatory risk assessment [13,14].This issue emerged in the public domain as a result of changes in the regulatory framework in the United States through the Food Quality Protection Act [15] and the subsequent submission of data from experimental volunteer studies to support the setting of toxicological reference values for certain pesticides [16-20]. The subsequent debate has led to a critical examination of the use of human data in general, and its use in pesticide regulation in both the USA and the European Union and in the deliberations of the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR).In contrast to many other chemicals, regulatory assessment of risks to human health from pesticides is typically based on a wide set of studies in vitro and in vivo in animals, sometimes supplemented by observational studies (primarily epidemiological investigations though sometimes case reports and case series may be used) in humans. Animal studies examine both kinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, ADME studies) and toxic effects. A final outcome of many toxicity studies is the identification of No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAELs) and Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Levels (LOAELs), which are used to derive various toxicological reference values. It is customary to include uncertainty factors (also known as safety or assessment factors) to account for individual variability and uncertainties in extrapolation to humans, and sometimes also to allow for limitations of experimental design. A default value of 100 i
Eukaryotic protein production in designed storage organelles
Margarita Torrent, Blanca Llompart, Sabine Lasserre-Ramassamy, Immaculada Llop-Tous, Miriam Bastida, Pau Marzabal, Ann Westerholm-Parvinen, Markku Saloheimo, Peter B Heifetz, M Dolors Ludevid
BMC Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-7-5
Abstract: Various Zera fusions with fluorescent and therapeutic proteins accumulate in induced PB-like organelles in all eukaryotic systems tested: tobacco leaves, Trichoderma reesei, several mammalian cultured cells and Sf9 insect cells. This accumulation in membranous organelles insulates both recombinant protein and host from undesirable activities of either. Recombinant protein encapsulation in these PBs facilitates stable accumulation of proteins in a protected sub-cellular compartment which results in an enhancement of protein production without affecting the viability and development of stably transformed hosts. The induced PBs also retain the high-density properties of native seed PBs which facilitate the recovery and purification of the recombinant proteins they contain.The Zera sequence provides an efficient and universal means to produce recombinant proteins by accumulation in ER-derived organelles. The remarkable cross-kingdom conservation of PB formation and their biophysical properties should have broad application in the manufacture of non-secreted recombinant proteins and suggests the existence of universal ER pathways for protein insulation.Efficient expression, accumulation and recovery of recombinant eukaryotic proteins in their native conformations are difficult to achieve at reasonable cost in cell-based biomanufacturing systems [1]. In general, such platforms are either highly capital-intensive mammalian cell cultures based on secreted proteins [2], or require complex and inefficient refolding of bacterially expressed proteins sequestered in insoluble inclusion bodies [3]. Among eukaryotes, the plant kingdom has evolved cereal seeds to facilitate massive and extremely stable intracellular accumulation of complex proteins in a dense form that enables rapid protein mobilization during germination. A key biological sequestration mechanism of plant seed storage proteins involves the formation of protein bodies (PBs) [4-6]. In maize, one type of PB formed in
Benchmarking a Transition Economy Capital Market
A. Keller,P. J. Westerholm
Australasian Accounting Business and Finance Journal , 2007,
Abstract: As the centrally planned communist nations of Central Europe lacked liquid and efficient capital markets,financial systems architecture became instrumental to their transition into market economies. Now, afteralmost 17 years of operations, it is time to take a snapshot of one of these economies and compare it to a welldeveloped capital market. This study is the first to provide a quantifiable comparison of the quality of thecapital markets of a fully developed and a transition economy; namely Euronext France [Euronext] and theWarsaw Stock Exchange [WSE]. Using intraday data for the Euronext market and the WSE it is shown thatwhile overall liquidity is certainly much greater in Euronext, range based intra-day volatility is significantlylower in the WSE. For stocks with the highest market capitalisation the WSE has lower transaction costs inthe first [largest] decile than Euronext. These results indicate that while the established market is significantlymore liquid in terms of average trade size and trade numbers it does not always offer lower transaction costsor volatility. This is a new result as most contributions to the literature argue that an emerging market within atransition economy will suffer from excess volatility.
The Scholarly Output of Universities and Academics in the Asia-Pacific Region Who Publish in Major Finance Journals: 2000-2007
Elvis Jarnecic,Reuben Segara,Lydia Segara,Joakim P. Westerholm
Australasian Accounting Business and Finance Journal , 2008,
Abstract: The study examines the scholarly output of all universities and their finance academics in theAsia-Pacific region. We evaluate the scholarly output of 1,341 research academic staff across 300leading Asia-Pacific universities in the period 2000 to 2007. A significant contribution of ourstudy is that it presents ranking league tables for finance journals with respect to journal quality.The necessity of well defined ranking tables help university executive management, governmentpolicy and funding bodies in better assessing research performance. The study also constructs anew measure called to Research Productivity Dependency (RPD) index, which acts as a riskmanagement mechanism to aid universities better assess their reliance on key individual researchproductive academics.
Job Strain and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Meta-Analysis of Individual-Participant Data from 47,000 Men and Women
Solja T. Nyberg, Eleonor I. Fransson, Katriina Heikkil?, Lars Alfredsson, Annalisa Casini, Els Clays, Dirk De Bacquer, Nico Dragano, Raimund Erbel, Jane E. Ferrie, Mark Hamer, Karl-Heinz J?ckel, France Kittel, Anders Knutsson, Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Thorsten Lunau, Michael G. Marmot, Maria Nordin, Reiner Rugulies, Johannes Siegrist, Andrew Steptoe, Peter J. M. Westerholm, Hugo Westerlund, T?res Theorell, Eric J. Brunner, Archana Singh-Manoux, G. David Batty, Mika Kivim?ki, for the IPD-Work Consortium
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067323
Abstract: Background Job strain is associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk, but few large-scale studies have examined the relationship of this psychosocial characteristic with the biological risk factors that potentially mediate the job strain – heart disease association. Methodology and Principal Findings We pooled cross-sectional, individual-level data from eight studies comprising 47,045 participants to investigate the association between job strain and the following cardiovascular disease risk factors: diabetes, blood pressure, pulse pressure, lipid fractions, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, obesity, and overall cardiovascular disease risk as indexed by the Framingham Risk Score. In age-, sex-, and socioeconomic status-adjusted analyses, compared to those without job strain, people with job strain were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11–1.51), to smoke (1.14; 1.08–1.20), to be physically inactive (1.34; 1.26–1.41), and to be obese (1.12; 1.04–1.20). The association between job strain and elevated Framingham risk score (1.13; 1.03–1.25) was attributable to the higher prevalence of diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity among those reporting job strain. Conclusions In this meta-analysis of work-related stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors, job strain was linked to adverse lifestyle and diabetes. No association was observed between job strain, clinic blood pressure or blood lipids.
In Crohn's Disease, Anti-TNF-
Veera Hölttä,Taina Sipponen,Mia Westerholm-Ormio,Harri M. Salo
ISRN Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/505432
Abstract:
Job Strain and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Individual-Participant Meta-Analysis of 95?000 Men and Women
Katriina Heikkil?, Ida E. H. Madsen, Solja T. Nyberg, Eleonor I. Fransson, Kirsi Ahola, Lars Alfredsson, Jakob B. Bjorner, Marianne Borritz, Hermann Burr, Nico Dragano, Jane E. Ferrie, Anders Knutsson, Markku Koskenvuo, Aki Koskinen, Martin L. Nielsen, Maria Nordin, Jan H. Pejtersen, Jaana Pentti, Reiner Rugulies, Tuula Oksanen, Martin J. Shipley, Sakari B. Suominen, T?res Theorell, Ari V??n?nen, Jussi Vahtera, Marianna Virtanen, Hugo Westerlund, Peter J. M. Westerholm, G. David Batty, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivim?ki, for the IPD-Work Consortium
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088711
Abstract: Background and Aims Many clinicians, patients and patient advocacy groups believe stress to have a causal role in inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, this is not corroborated by clear epidemiological research evidence. We investigated the association between work-related stress and incident Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis using individual-level data from 95?000 European adults. Methods We conducted individual-participant data meta-analyses in a set of pooled data from 11 prospective European studies. All studies are a part of the IPD-Work Consortium. Work-related psychosocial stress was operationalised as job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) and was self-reported at baseline. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were ascertained from national hospitalisation and drug reimbursement registers. The associations between job strain and inflammatory bowel disease outcomes were modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. The study-specific results were combined in random effects meta-analyses. Results Of the 95 379 participants who were free of inflammatory bowel disease at baseline, 111 men and women developed Crohn's disease and 414 developed ulcerative colitis during follow-up. Job strain at baseline was not associated with incident Crohn's disease (multivariable-adjusted random effects hazard ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.43) or ulcerative colitis (hazard ratio: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.48). There was negligible heterogeneity among the study-specific associations. Conclusions Our findings suggest that job strain, an indicator of work-related stress, is not a major risk factor for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
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