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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32235 matches for " Peter Wasswa "
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Infraspecific Delimitation of Acacia senegal (Fabaceae) in Uganda  [PDF]
John Wasswa Mulumba, Esezah Kakudidi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.23039
Abstract: The wide variation in Acacia senegal has presented taxonomic uncertainties and unresolved contradictions in previous studies. In this study numerical taxonomic principles and multivariate analysis (UPGMA PCoA and PCA) were used basing on 69 characters derived from growth form, branchlets, leaves, flowers, pods and seed. Three taxa, namely; variety senegal, leiorhachis and kerensis have been discerned and described significantly improving the delimitations of previous studies. The wide variation within var. senegal has been split into three recognizable variants and that of var. leiorhachis into two. The most important characters for differentiating the taxa include leaf breadth and length, pinna length and its ratio to pinna breadth, number of leaflet pairs, petiolar gland shape, petiolar and rachis gland size, stem and branch bark texture, stem and branchlet colour, under-bark colour for stem and branches, pod apical shape, growth form, crown shape, and prickly state of leaves. An identification key has been constructed which, for the first time, can be used to assign herbarium specimens to their respective taxa.
Predictors and outcome of surgical repair of obstetric fistula at a regional referral hospital, Mbarara, western Uganda
Musa Kayondo, Ssalongo Wasswa, Jerome Kabakyenga, Nozmo Mukiibi, Jude Senkungu, Amy Stenson, Peter Mukasa
BMC Urology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2490-11-23
Abstract: This was a prospective observational study where all women who attended Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in western Uganda with obstetric fistula during the study period were assessed pre-operatively for social demographics, fistula characteristics, classification and outcomes after surgery. Assessment for fistula closure and stress incontinence after surgery was done using a dye test before dischargeOf the 77 women who were recruited in this study, 60 (77.9%) had successful closure of their fistulae. Unsuccessful fistula closure was significantly associated with large fistula size (Odds Ratio 6 95% Confidential interval 1.46-24.63), circumferential fistulae (Odds ratio 9.33 95% Confidential interval 2.23-39.12) and moderate to severe vaginal scarring (Odds ratio 12.24 95% Confidential interval 1.52-98.30). Vaginal scarring was the only factor independently associated with unsuccessful fistula repair (Odds ratio 10 95% confidential interval 1.12-100.57). Residual stress incontinence after successful fistula closure was associated with type IIb fistulae (Odds ratio 5.56 95% Confidential interval 1.34-23.02), circumferential fistulae (Odds ratio 10.5 95% Confidential interval 1.39-79.13) and previous unsuccessful fistula repair (Odds ratio 4.8 95% Confidential interval 1.27-18.11). Independent predictors for residual stress incontinence after successful fistula closure were urethral involvement (Odds Ratio 4.024 95% Confidential interval 2.77-5.83) and previous unsuccessful fistula repair (Odds ratio 38.69 95% Confidential interval 2.13-703.88).This study demonstrated that large fistula size, circumferential fistulae and marked vaginal scarring are predictors for unsuccessful fistula repair while predictors for residual stress incontinence after successful fistula closure were urethral involvement, circumferential fistulae and previous unsuccessful fistula repair.Each year pregnancy related complications claim the lives of over 500,000 women worldwide with about 99%
Paradigm shift: contribution of field epidemiology training in advancing the “One Health” approach to strengthen disease surveillance and outbreak investigations in Africa
Sheba Nakacubo Gitta, Peter Wasswa, Olivia Namusisi, Aloysius Bingi, Monica Musenero, David Mukanga
Pan African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The occurrence of major zoonotic disease outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa has had a significant impact on the already constrained public health systems. This has, as a result, justified the need to identify creative strategies to address threats from emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases at the human-animal-environmental interface, and implement robust multi-disease public health surveillance systems that will enhance early detection and response. Additionally, enhanced reporting and timely investigation of all suspected notifiable infectious disease threats within the health system is vital. Field epidemiology and laboratory training programs (FELTPs) have made significant contributions to public health systems for more than 10 years by producing highly skilled field epidemiologists. These epidemiologists have not only improved disease surveillance and response to outbreaks, but also improved management of health systems. Furthermore, the FETPs/FELTPs have laid an excellent foundation that brings clinicians, veterinarians, and environmental health professionals drawn from different governmental sectors, to work with a common purpose of disease control and prevention. The emergence of the One Health approach in the last decade has coincided with the present, paradigm, shift that calls for multi-sectoral and cross-sectoral collaboration towards disease surveillance, detection, reporting and timely response. The positive impact from the integration of FETP/FELTP and the One Health approach by selected programs in Africa has demonstrated the importance of multi-sectoral collaboration in addressing threats from infectious and non- infectious causes to man, animals and the environment. Pan African Medical Journal 2011; 10(Supp1):13
The Ethiopian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: strengthening public health systems and building human resource capacity
Daddi Jima, Getnet Mitike, Zegeye Hailemariam, Alemayehu Bekele, Adamu Addissie, Richard Luce, Peter Wasswa, Olivia Namusisi, Sheba Nakacubo Gitta, Monica Musenero, David Mukanga
Pan African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The Ethiopian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (EFELTP) is a comprehensive two-year competency-based training and service program designed to build sustainable public health expertise and capacity. Established in 2009, the program is a partnership between the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health, the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa University School of Public Health, the Ethiopian Public Health Association and the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Residents of the program spend about 25% of their time undergoing didactic training and the 75% in the field working at program field bases established with the MOH and Regional Health Bureaus investigating disease outbreaks, improving disease surveillance, responding to public health emergencies, using health data to make recommendations and undertaking other field Epidemiology related activities on setting health policy. Residents from the first 2 cohorts of the program have conducted more than 42 outbreaks investigations, 27analyses of surveillance data, evaluations of 11 surveillance systems, had28oral and poster presentation abstracts accepted at 10 scientific conferences and submitted 8 manuscripts of which 2are already published. The EFELTP has provided valuable opportunities to improve epidemiology and laboratory capacity building in Ethiopia. While the program is relatively young, positive and significant impacts are assisting the country better detect and respond to epidemics and address diseases of major public health significance. Pan African Medical Journal 2011; 10 (Supp 1):5
Optimisation of in vitro techniques for cassava brown streak virus elimination from infected cassava clones
P Wasswa, AB Alicai, SB Mukasa
African Crop Science Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD), caused by Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), is an economically important disease of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in East Africa. The objective of this study was to optimise in vitro techniques for CBSV elimination from infected Ugandan cassava cultivars. Using semi-solid halfstrength Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium, hormone concentration and heat treatment regimes were optimised for micropropagation of farmer’s preferred cassava cultivars and CBSV elimination. Single nodes from young cassava stems were cultured for four weeks on MS medium supplemented with 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D). The BAP and 2,4-D concentration (mg l-1) combinations used were 0.0 and 0.0, 0.5 and 0.1, 1.0 and 0.2, 1.5 and 0.3, and 2.0 and 0.4, respectively. The optimum medium was used for in vitro thermotherapy using four temperature regimes, namely 30-34, 34-38, 36-40 and 38-42 oC for 8 hours darkness and 16 hours light, respectively, for four weeks. The best plantlet growth in terms of height was observed on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 BAP and 0.1 mg l-1 2,4-D. Highest CBSV elimination efficiency of 40%, with 49% plantlet survival was observed at 36 oC for 8 hours darkness and 40 oC for 16 hours light. These results indicate that in vitro techniques can greatly enhance CBSV elimination and, thus, provide a means of CBSD management through dissemination and conservation of popular but CBSD susceptible cultivars.
Equilibrium and kinetic studies of the stannate(IV)-polyol reaction
Jolocam Mbabazi, John Wasswa, Muhammad Ntale
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2010,
Abstract: The stability constants of 1:1 stannate(IV)-polyol complexes in aqueous media have been determined using a conductimetric technique. The constants are fairly large, and lie in the range 5.3-123.0 for the ten ligands investigated. These values were subsequently used in conjunction with kinetic data to postulate a mechanism involving the species Sn(OH)5- as intermediate in the formation of the chelates. The stannate(IV)-polyol reaction, though taking place at higher pH values, is acid-catalysed and follows first-order kinetics in the oxyanion, but at large ligand-oxyanion mole ratios the reaction exhibits zero-order rate dependence on the polyol. These features taken together are consistent with a unimolecular nucleophilic substitution on the oxyanion. KEY WORDS: Hexahydroxystannate(IV), Polyol, Stability constants, Conductimetric method, Mechanism Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2010, 24(3), 447-456.
Equilibrium and kinetic studies of the stannate(IV)-polyol reaction
Jolocam Mbabazi,John Wasswa,Muhammad Ntale
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia , 2010,
Abstract: The stability constants of 1:1 stannate(IV)-polyol complexes in aqueous media have been determined using a conductimetric technique. The constants are fairly large, and lie in the range 5.3-123.0 for the ten ligands investigated. These values were subsequently used in conjunction with kinetic data to postulate a mechanism involving the species Sn(OH)5- as intermediate in the formation of the chelates. The stannate(IV)-polyol reaction, though taking place at higher pH values, is acid-catalysed and follows first-order kinetics in the oxyanion, but at large ligand-oxyanion mole ratios the reaction exhibits zero-order rate dependence on the polyol. These features taken together are consistent with a unimolecular nucleophilic substitution on the oxyanion.
Assessment of Seasonal Variation in Water Quality in River Rwizi Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques, Mbarara Municipality, Uganda  [PDF]
Walter Ojok, John Wasswa, Emmanuel Ntambi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.91007
Abstract: Assessment of seasonal variations in surface water quality characteristics is an essential aspect for evaluating water pollution due to both natural and anthropogenic influences on water resources. In this study, temporal variations of water quality in river Rwizi section within Mbarara municipality, Uganda, were assessed using multivariate statistical methods. This river section is a major source of water for the inhabitants of Mbarara municipality. Water samples from five sites were analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, turbidity, temperature, TSS, TDS, alkalinity, salinity, colour, NH3-N, \"\", total hardness, BOD, COD, DO, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn. About 50% of sites recorded colour above 800 Pt Co, 60% of sites recorded turbidity above maximum permissible limit of 100 mg/l, attributable to erosion and mineral matter. pH for dry season ranged between 6.5 and 8.5 whereas for rainy season was below 6.0. All study sites recorded total Fe above 0.3 mg/l and Mn below 0.5 mg/l, attributable to chemical weathering of host rock materials as well as from industrial effluent. About 60% of sites recorded COD above 100 mg/l, 40% and 80% of study sites showed BOD above 50 mg/l in dry and rainy seasons respectively. Hardness ranged between 50 and 100 mg/l indicating that the water is moderately soft. Colour, turbidity, alkalinity, TSS, TDS, salinity, pH, hardness, Fe, Mn, NH3-N, BOD, COD, and DO were higher in rainy season, as a result of erosion, discharge of domestic and industrial waste. Mg, Ca, and \"\"were higher during dry season due to high evaporation of water from the river. PCA/FA determined that 81.2% of the total variance was explained by the first factor for the dry season and 69.2% for rain season. These results revealed that water pollution resulted primarily from domestic waste water, agricultural runoff and industrial effluents.
Heavy Metal Accumulation in Maize (Zea mays L.) Grown on Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) Contaminated Soil Amended with Treated Composted Sewage Biosolid  [PDF]
C. K. Nakiguli, B. Namakula, J. Odda, J. Wasswa, E. Ntambi
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.911075
Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the heavy metal accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) plant grown in chromated copper arsenate (CCA) soil amended with treated composted sewage biosolid. The initial concentrations of chromium, copper, arsenate in the CCA soil and sewage biosolid were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. These were found to be, in CCA soil: 365.8 ± 6.18, 109.22 ± 14.04, 28.22 ± 3.8 and in sewage biosolid: 35 ± 1.06, 1.0 ± 0.02, 0 mg·kg-1 respectively. The concentration of Cr, Cu and As determined in both the roots and shoots generally decreased with increase in percentage amendment concentration and number of days (20 and 40 days after planting). At 20 days, the total metal concentration ranges in roots were As (5.54 ± 0.03 - 6.69 ± 1.14), Cr (9.59 ± 0.02 - 13.22 ± 0.03), Cu (2.28 ± 0.06 - 4.53 ± 0.37) mg·kg-1 while at 40 days the values were As (5.60 ± 0.19 - 6.08 ± 0.01), Cr (9.47 ± 0.04 - 10.95 ± 0.09), Cu (3.94 ± 0.19 - 4.64 ± 0.07) mg·kg-1. For the shoot system, the concentrations of the metals at 20 days were As (5.28 ± 0.03 - 5.90 ± 0.13), Cr (9.30 ± 0.05 - 10.07 ± 0.06), Cu (3.64 ± 0.12 - 4.72 ± 0.15) mg/kg while at 40 days the values obtained were As (5.28 ± 0.03 - 5.9 ± 0.13), Cr (9.69 ± 0.14 - 10.07 ± 0.03), Cu (2.94 ± 0.72 - 4.53 ± 0.03) mg·kg-1. The roots accumulated the three heavy metals more than the shoot system at all treatments used. Concentration of arsenic, chromium and copper in the plants decreased with increasing percentage amendments. The results suggest relatively low bioavailability of the three metals in CCA soil treated with high percentages of sewage biosolid as an amendment.
Desalting Fish Skin Protein Hydrolysates Using Macroporous Adsorption Resin
Joseph Wasswa,Jian Tang,Xiao-Hong Gu
American Journal of Food Technology , 2007,
Abstract: Macroporous Adsorption Resin (MAR) DA 201-C was used to desalt different Fish Skin Protein Hydrolysates (FSPHs). The FSPHs were obtained by hydrolysis of fish skin using Alcalase in a batch reactor a 60°C and pH 8.25. The ash was removed by adsorbing FSPHs onto MAR. Desorption was achieved by washing with alcohol at different concentrations. Ash content of the FSPHs was reduced from 4.69-5.57 to 1.07-2.48% range. The protein content was enriched from 89.07-90.82 to 94.89-96.38% range. MAR has good hydrolysate recoveries. The use of MAR showed promising results in decolourization and fishy flavour reduction. Nile tilapia and Nile perch skin protein hydrolysates were moderately bitter compared to Grass carp skin protein hydrolysates. The bitter taste in FSPHs was reduced to slightly detectable levels by our sensor panel. The hydrolysates had relatively low molecular weight. The process of applying MAR to desalt and debitter FSPHs is feasible.
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