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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 428976 matches for " Peter M Wayne "
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Wayne H. Pearson,Shirley Lin,Peter M. Iovine
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2008, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536807064367
Abstract: Crystals of the title compound, C23H17B3F3NO3, were obtained unintentionally by slow evaporation of a chloroform solution of the preformed boroxine–pyridine adduct. The molecule contains three fluoro-substituted benzene rings, each bonded to one of the three B atoms of a six-membered boroxine ring. A pyridyl ring is also bound to one of the B atoms through a Lewis acid–base interaction. The binding of the pyridyl substituent causes the otherwise planar boroxine ring to twist, resulting in a maximum torsion angle within the ring of 17.6 (2)°.
Reduction of Streptolysin O (SLO) Pore-Forming Activity Enhances Inflammasome Activation
Peter A. Keyel,Robyn Roth,Wayne M. Yokoyama,John E. Heuser,Russell D. Salter
Toxins , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/toxins5061105
Abstract: Pore-forming toxins are utilized by bacterial and mammalian cells to exert pathogenic effects and induce cell lysis. In addition to rapid plasma membrane repair, macrophages respond to pore-forming toxins through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis. The structural determinants of pore-forming toxins required for NLRP3 activation remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate using streptolysin O (SLO) that pore-formation controls IL-1β secretion and direct toxicity. An SLO mutant incapable of pore-formation did not promote direct killing, pyroptosis or IL-1β production. This indicated that pore formation is necessary for inflammasome activation. However, a partially active mutant (SLO N402C) that was less toxic to macrophages than wild-type SLO, even at concentrations that directly lysed an equivalent number of red blood cells, enhanced IL-1β production but did not alter pyroptosis. This suggests that direct lysis may attenuate immune responses by preventing macrophages from successfully repairing their plasma membrane and elaborating more robust cytokine production. We suggest that mutagenesis of pore-forming toxins represents a strategy to enhance adjuvant activity.
Media Hype and Its Influence on Athletic Performance  [PDF]
Cynthia M. Frisby, Wayne Wanta
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2018.61001
Abstract: A survey of university athletes examined whether uses of four media (newspapers, television, radio or the Internet) for sports information were related to self-perceptions of emotions, motivations and attitudes. The results suggest that newspaper and Internet use reduced feelings of stress among the athletes, perhaps due to athletes’ use of the two media as diversions from the pressures of competitive athletics. Television use was not related to any of the measures of athletes’ self-perceptions.
Alcohol-Related Brain Damage in Humans
Amaia M. Erdozain, Benito Morentin, Lynn Bedford, Emma King, David Tooth, Charlotte Brewer, Declan Wayne, Laura Johnson, Henry K. Gerdes, Peter Wigmore, Luis F. Callado, Wayne G. Carter
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093586
Abstract: Chronic excessive alcohol intoxications evoke cumulative damage to tissues and organs. We examined prefrontal cortex (Brodmann’s area (BA) 9) from 20 human alcoholics and 20 age, gender, and postmortem delay matched control subjects. H & E staining and light microscopy of prefrontal cortex tissue revealed a reduction in the levels of cytoskeleton surrounding the nuclei of cortical and subcortical neurons, and a disruption of subcortical neuron patterning in alcoholic subjects. BA 9 tissue homogenisation and one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) proteomics of cytosolic proteins identified dramatic reductions in the protein levels of spectrin β II, and α- and β-tubulins in alcoholics, and these were validated and quantitated by Western blotting. We detected a significant increase in α-tubulin acetylation in alcoholics, a non-significant increase in isoaspartate protein damage, but a significant increase in protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase protein levels, the enzyme that triggers isoaspartate damage repair in vivo. There was also a significant reduction in proteasome activity in alcoholics. One dimensional PAGE of membrane-enriched fractions detected a reduction in β-spectrin protein levels, and a significant increase in transmembranous α3 (catalytic) subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase in alcoholic subjects. However, control subjects retained stable oligomeric forms of α-subunit that were diminished in alcoholics. In alcoholics, significant loss of cytosolic α- and β-tubulins were also seen in caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum, but to different levels, indicative of brain regional susceptibility to alcohol-related damage. Collectively, these protein changes provide a molecular basis for some of the neuronal and behavioural abnormalities attributed to alcoholics.
Unfashionable crop species flourish in the 21st century
Wayne Powell, Peter Langridge
Genome Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2004-5-7-233
Abstract: The genomic era was founded on the study of a limited number of model organisms [1] that were chosen for their small genome size and experimental tractability. The use of model organisms can be powerful because a community of scientists can work collectively on a single organism, but it also encourages a reductionist approach. Intriguingly, the study of diversity and organism complexity is now gaining more prominence, often at the expense of research on model organisms. The mapping of a large number of wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs) [2], physical mapping of the wheat genome [3], studies of synteny between related parts of the wheat genome [4,5] and between wheat and other cereals [6], and studies of the organization of sequence polymorphism into haplotypes [7] are big steps forward. These developments in crop genomics vividly illustrate how, although model organisms provide good starting points, their significance may decline as accessibility to genome technologies improves and the social and biological relevance of crop science to the public continues to gain prominence.Before the emergence of molecular biology, crop plants such as bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were considered to be good models for cytogenetic investigations and research into polyploidy. Wheat has one of the largest and most complex genomes known: it is an allopolyploid, containing three different ancestral genomes (designated A, B and D), each of which contains seven pairs of homologous chromosomes. The number of chromosomes in the diploid genome (2n) is therefore 42; this number is also referred to as 6x, as each of the six ancestral genomes has seven chromosomes. The homologous chromosomes and genes in different ancestral genomes are referred to as 'homoeologous'. Although the ancestral genomes are very similar in gene content and gene order, chromosome pairing at meiosis is under genetic control and is restricted to homologous chromosomes. This results in disomic inheritance, as if t
Bounds on non-adiabatic evolution in single-field inflation
Peter Adshead,Wayne Hu
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.083531
Abstract: We examine the regime of validity of $N$-point spectra predictions of single field inflation models that invoke transient periods of non-adiabatic evolution. Such models generate oscillatory features in these spectra spanning frequencies up to the inverse time scale of the transient feature. To avoid strong coupling of fluctuations in these theories this scale must be at least $\sim 10^{-2}/c_s$ of the Hubble time during inflation, where $c_s$ is the inflaton sound speed. We show that, in such models, the signal-to-noise ratio of the bispectrum is bounded from above by that of the power spectrum, implying that searches for features due to non-adiabatic evolution are best focussed first on the latter.
Fast Computation of First-Order Feature-Bispectrum Corrections
Peter Adshead,Wayne Hu
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.85.103531
Abstract: Features in the inflaton potential that are traversed in much less than an e-fold of the expansion can produce observably large non-Gaussianity. In these models first order corrections to the curvature mode function evolution induce effects at second order in the slow roll parameters that are generically greater than ~ 10% and can reach order unity for order unity power spectrum features. From a complete first order expression in generalized slow-roll, we devise a computationally efficient method that is as simple to evaluate as the leading order one and implements consistency relations in a controlled fashion. This expression matches direct numerical computation for step potential models of the dominant bispectrum configurations to better than 1% when features are small and 10% when features are order unity.
Tai Chi and vestibular rehabilitation improve vestibulopathic gait via different neuromuscular mechanisms: Preliminary report
Chris A McGibbon, David E Krebs, Stephen W Parker, Donna M Scarborough, Peter M Wayne, Steven L Wolf
BMC Neurology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-5-3
Abstract: We examined the relationship between lower extremity neuromuscular function and trunk control in 36 older adults with vestibulopathy, randomized to 10 weeks of either VR or TC exercise. Time-distance measures (gait speed, step length, stance duration and step width), lower extremity sagittal plane mechanical energy expenditures (MEE), and trunk sagittal and frontal plane kinematics (peak and range of linear and angular velocity), were measured.Although gait time-distance measures were improved in both groups following treatment, no significant between-groups differences were observed for the MEE and trunk kinematic measures. Significant within groups changes, however, were observed. The TC group significantly increased ankle MEE contribution and decreased hip MEE contribution to total leg MEE, while no significant changes were found within the VR group. The TC group exhibited a positive relationship between change in leg MEE and change in trunk velocity peak and range, while the VR group exhibited a negative relationship.Gait function improved in both groups consistent with expectations of the interventions. Differences in each group's response to therapy appear to suggest that improved gait function may be due to different neuromuscular adaptations resulting from the different interventions. The TC group's improvements were associated with reorganized lower extremity neuromuscular patterns, which appear to promote a faster gait and reduced excessive hip compensation. The VR group's improvements, however, were not the result of lower extremity neuromuscular pattern changes. Lower-extremity MEE increases corresponded to attenuated forward trunk linear and angular movement in the VR group, suggesting better control of upper body motion to minimize loss of balance. These data support a growing body of evidence that Tai Chi may be a valuable complementary treatment for vestibular disorders.Vestibulopathy decreases whole body dynamic postural control and causes functiona
Corpus Callosum Size Is Highly Heritable in Humans, and May Reflect Distinct Genetic Influences on Ventral and Rostral Regions
Girma Woldehawariat, Pedro E. Martinez, Peter Hauser, David M. Hoover, Wayne W. C. Drevets, Francis J. McMahon
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099980
Abstract: Anatomical differences in the corpus callosum have been found in various psychiatric disorders, but data on the genetic contributions to these differences have been limited. The current study used morphometric MRI data to assess the heritability of corpus callosum size and the genetic correlations among anatomical sub-regions of the corpus callosum among individuals with and without mood disorders. The corpus callosum (CC) was manually segmented at the mid-sagittal plane in 42 women (healthy, n = 14; major depressive disorder, n = 15; bipolar disorder, n = 13) and their 86 child or adolescent offspring. Four anatomical sub-regions (CC-genu, CC2, CC3 and CC-splenium) and total CC were measured and analyzed. Heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance components method, with adjustment for age, sex, diagnosis, and diagnosis x age, where appropriate. Significant heritability was found for several CC sub-regions (P<0.01), with estimated values ranging from 48% (splenium) to 67% (total CC). There were strong and significant genetic correlations among most sub regions. Correlations between the genu and mid-body, between the genu and total corpus callosum, and between anterior and mid body were all >90%, but no significant genetic correlations were detected between ventral and rostral regions in this sample. Genetic factors play an important role in corpus callosum size among individuals. Distinct genetic factors seem to be involved in caudal and rostral regions, consistent with the divergent functional specialization of these brain areas.
An Application for Screening Gradual-Onset Age-Related Hearing Loss  [PDF]
Wayne M. Garrison, Joseph H. Bochner
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.94051
Objective: Less than 15% of adults in the USA over age 70 receive hearing screening; less than 20% of adults with hearing loss receive any form of treatment. Reasons vary, but affordability and accessibility are major barriers to intervention and treatment. This study provides data supporting a new adult hearing screening measure (NSRT) that is self-administered, easy to use and focused on difficulties experienced in everyday speech communication. Methods: The NSRT test materials are sentence-length utterances containing phonetic contrasts. The test requires respondents to determine whether sentences printed on a computer monitor are the same/different from sentences delivered as auditory stimuli through the computer sound card. The test is administered in quiet and +5 dB SNR background noise. Study participants were 120 adults aged 18 - 88 years. Results: Data obtained from the NSRT testing experience are used to construct a pseudo audiogram. When the predicted hearing thresholds were compared with conventional, clinical puretone measures, the sensitivity and specificity of the NSRT screening measure were 95% and 87%, respectively; diagnostic accuracy was 91%. Conclusions: The NSRT can identify individuals with hearing loss through a simple screening process grounded in standards set by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. The NSRT is suitable for administration in clinical and nonclinical settings.
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