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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 220894 matches for " Peter D Massey "
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Changes in invasive pneumococcal disease serotypes in a regional area of Australia following three years of 7vPCV introduction
Tove Fitzgerald,Peter D Massey,Fakhrul Islam
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a serious bacterial disease. Vaccination can prevent disease for many of the current serotypes. The aim of this investigation was to describe the notification rates of IPD in a regional area of Australia, explore changes in rates since the introduction of the population vaccine programmes in 2005 and to describe changes in the distribution of serotypes in relation to the available vaccines after three years.Methods: Annualized IPD notification rates were calculated for residents of a regional area in northern New South Wales. Rates were analysed according to serotypes covered by available vaccines. Changes in serotypes were compared for the periods 2002–2004 and 2008–2010.Results: The annualized notification rate of IPD in all ages for the period 2002–2004 was 13.7 per 100 000 population and 8.3 per 100 000 population for the period 2008–2010 (rate ratio [RR], 0.61, confidence interval [CI]: 0.51–0.72). The largest decline was observed in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) types across all age groups (RR, 0.17, CI: 0.12–0.24) and in the zero to four year age group (RR, 0.03, CI: 0.01–0.11). The six serotypes included in the new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, but not in the 7vPCV, accounted for 40.6% of IPD cases in the zero to four year age group during the period of 2008–2010.Discussion: The introduction of 7vPCV significantly reduced the overall notification rate of IPD caused by the serotypes contained in this vaccine. This decline in IPD rates in children can be directly attributed to the use of 7vPCV, and in adults it is most likely an indirect effect of the 7vPCV programme in children.
Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth
Peter D Massey, David N Durrheim, Nicola Stephens, Amanda Christensen
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-62
Abstract: TB notification data for the three year period 2006–2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder.During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA) in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5–19 years age group.Analysing local area TB rates and possible explanatory variables can provide useful insights into the epidemiology of TB. TB notification rates that take country of birth in local areas into account could enable health services to strategically target TB control measures.In many low incidence countries such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, higher rates of tuberculosis (TB) are reported in recent immigrants [1-4]. For example the increasing TB rate in the United Kingdom has been considered a result of increased notifications in migrants from countries with a high TB incidence [5]. In these sett
Meeting measles elimination indicators: surveillance performance in a regional area of Australia
Julie K Kohlhagen,Peter D Massey,David N Durrheim
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2011,
Abstract: The World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region has established specific measles elimination surveillance indicators. There has been concern in Australia that these indicators may be too stringent and that measles elimination can occur without all surveillance prerequisites being met, in particular the minimum fever and rash clinician-suspected measles reporting rate with subsequent laboratory exclusion of measles. A regional public health unit in northern New South Wales, Australia, prompted local general practitioners to report fever and rash presentations that met the measles case definition or that they considered to be clinical measles. These notifications from July 2006 to June 2008 were reviewed to determine whether measles indicators for monitoring progress towards measles elimination could be achieved in Australia. Results confirmed that the surveillance indicators of “>2 reported suspected measles cases per 100 000 population,” “at least 80% of suspected cases adequately investigated within 48 hours” and “greater than 80% of cases had adequate blood samples collected” could be met. Only half the cases had virology that would allow genotyping of measles virus. Special efforts to engage and convince Australian medical doctors about the public health value of reporting clinically suggestive measles cases and collecting confirmatory blood tests, resulted in the current WHO Western Pacific Region indicators for progress towards measles elimination being met in a regional area of Australia.
Field exercises are useful for improving public health emergency responses
Keith Eastwood,David Durrheim,Tony Merritt,Peter D Massey
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2010,
Abstract: Problem: Emergencies resulting from disease outbreaks and extreme environmental events present significant challenges for health services.Context: Preparing to effectively manage emergencies is a core activity in public health units. Field exercises support consolidation of biopreparedness by testing plans, identifying weaknesses, providing training opportunities and developing surge capacity.Action: An extended field exercise to test response to a novel influenza strain was conducted in New South Wales, Australia in September 2008, eight months before the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic emerged. Lasting four days and involving over 300 participants, the exercise was set in the early response phase with the staggered presentation of 41 cases to 36 emergency departments in the health area. An additional 150 contacts were written into a complex scenario to test the public health response.Outcome: The subsequent pandemic emergence in mid-2009 offered a unique opportunity to assess the field exercise format for disaster preparedness. Most roles were adequately tested with recognized benefit during the actual pandemic response. However, the exercise did not adequately challenge the public health planning team that synthesizes surveillance data and forecasts risk, nor did it identify planning issues that became evident during the subsequent pandemic. Discussion: Field exercises offer the opportunity to rigorously test public health emergency preparedness but can be expensive and labour-intensive. Our exercise provided effective and timely preparation for the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic but showed that more emphasis needs to be placed on the role and training of the public health planning team.
Invasive pneumococcal disease in New South Wales, Australia: reporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status improves epidemiology
Peter D Massey,Kerry Todd,Maggi Osbourn,Kylie Taylor
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine the feasibility of improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recording for notifiable diseases using all Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) notifications in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.In Australia people with IPD are nearly always admitted to hospital and their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status is recorded. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status was determined for IPD notifications by referring to the routine hospital admission data, in a regional area of New South Wales, Australia.There were 234 notifications in the regional area of Hunter New England during the period 2007–2009. Initially, 168 (72%) notifications had Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status recorded. After referring to the routine hospital admission data the recorded status increased to 232 (99%). Updating the surveillance data required less than five minutes per notification.Referring to routine hospital admission data proved a useful and time-efficient surveillance strategy to increase the proportion of notifications with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status. These data can then be used to better understand the current epidemiology of IPD. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–4 years have a two- to threefold higher rate of invasive pneumococcal disease than non-Aboriginal children, thus high levels of timely pneumococcal immunization coverage remain important for young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.
Pertussis vaccination in Child Care Workers: room for improvement in coverage, policy and practice
Kirsty Hope, Michelle Butler, Peter D Massey, Patrick Cashman, David N Durrheim, Jody Stephenson, April Worley
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-98
Abstract: A cross sectional survey of all child care centre directors in the Hunter New England (HNE) area of northern NSW was conducted in 2010 using a computer assisted telephone interviewing service.Ninety-eight percent (319/325) of child care centres identified within the HNE area participated in the survey. Thirty-five percent (113/319) of centres indicated that they had policies concerning respiratory illness in staff members. Sixty-three percent (202/319) of centres indicated that they kept a record of staff vaccination, however, of the 170 centre’s who indicated they updated their records, 74% (125/170) only updated records if a staff member notified them. Of centres with records, 58% indicated that fewer than half of their staff were vaccinated.Many childcare workers have not had a recent pertussis immunisation. This potentially places young children at risk at an age when they are most vulnerable to severe disease. With increasing use of child care, national accreditation and licensing requirements need to monitor the implementation of policies on child care worker vaccination. Higher levels of vaccination would assist in reducing the risk of pertussis cases and subsequent outbreaks in child care centres.The resurgence of pertussis (whooping cough) in Australia has attracted community concern, especially with recent deaths in two infants from the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) [1,2]. Although pertussis incidence declined after the widespread use of whole cell pertussis vaccines in the mid-1940’s, this disease remains an important cause of morbidity in Australia, especially in young infants [3].This bacterial infection of the respiratory tract, caused by Bordetella pertussis, usually begins with coryza (nasal conjestion), fatigue and sometimes a mild fever. A cough then develops, which is often paroxysmal, may be followed by a deep gasp (or whoop). Pertussis affects people of all ages with infants being at greatest risk of severe disease, complications, ho
Measuring the Geometry of the Universe from Weak Gravitational Lensing behind Galaxy Groups in the HST COSMOS survey
James E. Taylor,Richard J. Massey,Alexie Leauthaud,Matthew R. George,Jason Rhodes,Thomas D. Kitching,Peter Capak,Richard Ellis,Alexis Finoguenov,Olivier Ilbert,Eric Jullo,Jean-Paul Kneib,Anton M. Koekemoer,Nick Scoville,Masayuki Tanaka
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/749/2/127
Abstract: Gravitational lensing can provide pure geometric tests of the structure of space-time, for instance by determining empirically the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. This geometric test has been demonstrated several times using massive clusters which produce a large lensing signal. In this case, matter at a single redshift dominates the lensing signal, so the analysis is straightforward. It is less clear how weaker signals from multiple sources at different redshifts can be stacked to demonstrate the geometric dependence. We introduce a simple measure of relative shear which for flat cosmologies separates the effect of lens and source positions into multiplicative terms, allowing signals from many different source-lens pairs to be combined. Applying this technique to a sample of groups and low-mass clusters in the COSMOS survey, we detect a clear variation of shear with distance behind the lens. This represents the first detection of the geometric effect using weak lensing by multiple, low-mass systems. The variation of distance with redshift is measured with sufficient precision to constrain the equation of state of the universe under the assumption of flatness, equivalent to a detection of a dark energy component Omega_X at greater than 99% confidence for an equation-of-state parameter -2.5 < w < -0.1. For the case w = -1, we find a value for the cosmological constant density parameter Omega_Lambda = 0.85+0.044-0.19 (68% C.L.), and detect cosmic acceleration (q_0 < 0) at the 98% C.L.. We consider the systematic uncertainties associated with this technique and discuss the prospects for applying it in forthcoming weak-lensing surveys.
Sub-total enucleation and ocular prosthesis
Trivedi L,Massey D,Rohatgi R
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1969,
Optimal completions of a frame
P. Massey,M. Ruiz,D. Stojanoff
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: Given a finite sequence of vectors $\mathcal F_0$ in $\C^d$ we describe the spectral and geometrical structure of optimal completions of $\mathcal F_0$ obtained by adding a finite sequence of vectors with prescribed norms, where optimality is measured with respect to a general convex potential. In particular, our analysis includes the so-called Mean Square Error (MSE) and the Benedetto-Fickus' frame potential. On a first step, we reduce the problem of finding the optimal completions to the computation of the minimum of a convex function in a convex compact polytope in $\R^d$. As a second step, we show that there exists a finite set (that can be explicitly computed in terms of a finite step algorithm that depends on $\cF_0$ and the sequence of prescribed norms) such that the optimal frame completions with respect to a given convex potential can be described in terms of a distinguished element of this set. As a byproduct we characterize the cases of equality in Lindskii's inequality from matrix theory.
Clusters of Extragalactic Ultra Compact HII Regions
Kelsey E. Johnson,Chip Kobulnicky,Phil Massey,Peter Conti
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/322335
Abstract: We report on the detection of optically thick free-free radio sources in the galaxies M33, NGC 253, and NGC 6946 using data in the literature. We interpret these sources as being young, embedded star birth regions, which are likely to be clusters of ultracompact HII regions. All 35 of the sources presented in this article have positive radio spectral indices alpha>0 suggesting an optically thick thermal bremsstrahlung emission arising in the HII region surrounding hot stars. Energy requirements indicate a range of a several to >500 O7V star equivalents powering each HII region. Assuming a Salpeter IMF, this corresponds to integrated stellar masses of 0.1--60,000 Msun. For roughly half of the sources in our sample, there is no obvious optical counterpart, giving further support for their deeply embedded nature. Their luminosities and radio spectral energy distributions are consistent with HII regions having electron densities from 1500 cm^-3 to 15000 cm^-3 and radii of 1 - 7 pc. We suggest that the less luminous of these sources are extragalactic ultracompact HII region complexes, those of intermediate luminosity are similar to W49 in the Galaxy, while the brightest will be counterparts to 30 Doradus. These objects constitute the lower mass range of extragalactic ``ultradense HII regions'' which we argue are the youngest stages of massive star cluster formation yet observed. This sample is beginning to fill in the continuum of objects between small associations of ultracompact HII regions and the massive extragalactic clusters that may evolve into globular clusters.
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