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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 220682 matches for " Peter D Gatehouse "
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Myocardial first-pass perfusion imaging with hybrid-EPI: frequency-offsets and potential artefacts
Pedro F Ferreira, Peter D Gatehouse, David N Firmin
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1532-429x-14-44
Abstract: Numerical and phantom simulations were used to illustrate the effects of frequency-offsets and non-uniform magnitude modulation with this sequence in a typical perfusion protocol. In vivo data was post-processed to analyse the h-EPI’s sensitivity to the frequency-offsets.The centric phase-order was shown to be highly sensitive to frequency-offsets due to its symmetrical phase slope. Resulting artefacts include blurring, and splitting of the image into two identical copies along the phase-encode direction. It was also shown that frequency-offsets can introduce signal loss and ghosting of the right ventricle signal into the myocardium. The in vivo results were confirmed by numerical and phantom simulations. Magnitude modulation effects were found to be small.Imaging first-pass myocardial perfusion with an hybrid centric echo-planar-imaging sequence can be corrupted with ghosting and splitting of the image due to frequency-offsets.
A multi-center inter-manufacturer study of the temporal stability of phase-contrast velocity mapping background offset errors
Gatehouse Peter D,Rolf Marijn P,Bloch Karin,Graves Martin J
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1532-429x-14-72
Abstract: Background Phase-contrast velocity images often contain a background or baseline offset error, which adds an unknown offset to the measured velocities. For accurate flow measurements, this offset must be shown negligible or corrected. Some correction techniques depend on replicating the clinical flow acquisition using a uniform stationary phantom, in order to measure the baseline offset at the region of interest and subtract it from the clinical study. Such techniques assume that the background offset is stable over the time of a patient scan, or even longer if the phantom scans are acquired later, or derived from pre-stored background correction images. There is no published evidence regarding temporal stability of the background offset. Methods This study assessed the temporal stability of the background offset on 3 different manufacturers’ scanners over 8 weeks, using a retrospectively-gated phase-contrast cine acquisition with fixed parameters and at a fixed location, repeated 5 times in rapid succession each week. A significant offset was defined as 0.6 cm/s within 50 mm of isocenter, based upon an accuracy of 10% in a typical cardiac shunt measurement. Results Over the 5 repeated cine acquisitions, temporal drift in the baseline offset was insignificant on two machines (0.3 cm/s, 0.2 cm/s), and marginally insignificant on the third machine (0.5 cm/s) due to an apparent heating effect. Over a longer timescale of 8 weeks, insignificant drift (0.4 cm/s) occurred on one, with larger drifts (0.9 cm/s, 0.6 cm/s) on the other machines. Conclusions During a typical patient study, background drift was insignificant. Extended high gradient power scanning with work requires care to avoid drift on some machines. Over the longer term of 8 weeks, significant drift is likely, preventing accurate correction by delayed phantom corrections or derivation from pre-stored background offset data.
Sequence optimization to reduce velocity offsets in cardiovascular magnetic resonance volume flow quantification - A multi-vendor study
Marijn P Rolf, Mark BM Hofman, Peter D Gatehouse, Karin Markenroth-Bloch, Martijn W Heymans, Tino Ebbers, Martin J Graves, John J Totman, Beat Werner, Albert C van Rossum, Philip J Kilner, Rob M Heethaar
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1532-429x-13-18
Abstract: Nine 1.5T scanners of three different types/vendors were studied. Measurements were performed on a large stationary phantom. Starting from a clinical breath-hold flow protocol, several protocol parameters were varied. Acquisitions were made in three clinically relevant orientations. Additionally, a time delay between the bipolar gradient and read-out, asymmetric versus symmetric velocity encoding, and gradient amplitude and slew rate were studied in adapted sequences as exploratory measurements beyond the protocol. Image analysis determined the worst-case offset for a typical great-vessel flow measurement.The results showed a great variation in offset behavior among scanners (standard deviation among samples of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.9 cm/s for the three different scanner types), even for small changes in the protocol. Considering the absolute values, none of the tested protocol settings consistently reduced the velocity offsets below the critical level of 0.6 cm/s neither for all three orientations nor for all three scanner types. Using multilevel linear model analysis, oblique aortic and pulmonary slices showed systematic higher offsets than the transverse aortic slices (oblique aortic 0.6 cm/s, and pulmonary 1.8 cm/s higher than transverse aortic). The exploratory measurements beyond the protocol yielded some new leads for further sequence development towards reduction of velocity offsets; however those protocols were not always compatible with the time-constraints of breath-hold imaging and flow-related artefacts.This study showed that with current systems there was no generic protocol which resulted into acceptable flow offset values. Protocol optimization would have to be performed on a per scanner and per protocol basis. Proper optimization might make accurate (transverse) aortic flow quantification possible for most scanners. Pulmonary flow quantification would still need further (offline) correction.Velocity offsets in Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) flow
Flow measurement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a multi-centre multi-vendor study of background phase offset errors that can compromise the accuracy of derived regurgitant or shunt flow measurements
Peter D Gatehouse, Marijn P Rolf, Martin J Graves, Mark BM Hofman, John Totman, Beat Werner, Rebecca A Quest, Yingmin Liu, Jochen von Spiczak, Matthias Dieringer, David N Firmin, Albert van Rossum, Massimo Lombardi, Juerg Schwitter, Jeanette Schulz-Menger, Philip J Kilner
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1532-429x-12-5
Abstract: In a multi-centre, multi-vendor study, breath-hold through-plane retrospectively ECG-gated phase contrast acquisitions, as are used clinically for aortic and pulmonary flow measurement, were applied to static gelatin phantoms in twelve 1.5 T CMR systems, using a velocity encoding range of 150 cm/s. No post-processing corrections of offsets were implemented. The greatest uncorrected velocity offset, taken as an average over a 'great vessel' region (30 mm diameter) located up to 70 mm in-plane distance from the magnet isocenter, ranged from 0.4 cm/s to 4.9 cm/s. It averaged 2.7 cm/s over all the planes and systems. By theoretical calculation, a velocity offset error of 0.6 cm/s (representing just 0.4% of a 150 cm/s velocity encoding range) is barely acceptable, potentially causing about 5% miscalculation of cardiac output and up to 10% error in shunt measurement.In the absence of hardware or software upgrades able to reduce phase offset errors, all the systems tested appeared to require post-acquisition correction to achieve consistently reliable breath-hold measurements of flow. The effectiveness of offset correction software will still need testing with respect to clinical flow acquisitions.Phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) [1] measurements of flow through planes transecting the great arteries are used clinically for calculations of cardiac output, shunt flow [2,3] or aortic or pulmonary regurgitation [4,5]. In combination with measurements of left ventricular volume or mitral inflow, measurement of aortic outflow may also allow the indirect calculation of mitral regurgitation [5-7]. Such measurements are non-invasive and require no contrast agent or ionising radiation. They represent a capability unique to CMR which can be of considerable value in clinical investigation and research. However, the derivation of cardiac output, regurgitant or shunt flow from velocity images calls for a very high standard of accuracy, requiring the minimisation of
Variability of myocardial perfusion dark rim Gibbs artifacts due to sub-pixel shifts
Pedro Ferreira, Peter Gatehouse, Peter Kellman, Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci, David Firmin
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1532-429x-11-17
Abstract: Sub-pixel shifting of in vivo perfusion studies was shown to change the appearance of Gibbs artifacts. This effect was visible in the original uninterpolated images, and in the post-FFT interpolated images. The same shifted data interpolated by pre-FFT zero-filling exhibited much less variability in the Gibbs artifact. The in vivo findings were confirmed by phantom imaging and numerical simulations.Unless pre-FFT zero-filling interpolation is performed, Gibbs artifacts are very dependent on the position of the subendocardial wall within the pixel. By introducing sub-pixel shifts relative to the endocardial border, some of the variability of the dark rim artifacts in different myocardial segments, in different patients and from frame to frame during first-pass perfusion due to cardiac and respiratory motion can be explained. Image interpolation by zero-filling can be used to minimize this dependency.Myocardial perfusion imaging with magnetic resonance, combined with other Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance scans such as Late Gadolinium Enhancement, is developing into an alternative to nuclear medicine [1-5]. There is however a well-known dark rim artifact (DRA) that complicates diagnosis and quantification. There have been several possible mechanisms described in literature that can explain DRAs including cardiac motion during image acquisition [6], Gibbs ringing in the subendocardial border due to a finite resolution [7], non-uniform k-space weighting resulting in point spread function distortion [1]. Recently main field distortion during first-pass was measured and shown likely to be insufficient to cause susceptibility artifacts in typical 1.5 T perfusion protocols [8].In this work we are going to focus only in the contribution that Gibbs artifact makes to DRAs in perfusion studies. Cardiac motion tends to cause artifacts more toward mid-wall in the myocardium [6], and non-uniform k-space weighting point-spread function distortion [1] was assumed negligible for the
Ultra-short echo time cardiovascular magnetic resonance of atherosclerotic carotid plaque
Cheuk F Chan, Niall G Keenan, Sonia Nielles-Vallespin, Peter Gatehouse, Mary N Sheppard, Joseph J Boyle, Dudley J Pennell, David N Firmin
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1532-429x-12-17
Abstract: 14 ex-vivo human carotid arteries were scanned using CMR and CT, prior to histological slide preparation. Two images were acquired using a double-echo 3D UTE pulse, one with a long TE and the second with an ultra-short TE, with the same TR. An UTE subtraction (ΔUTE) image containing only ultra-short T2 (and T2*) signals was obtained by post-processing subtraction of the 2 UTE images. The ΔUTE image was compared to the conventional 3D T1-weighted sequence and CT scan of the carotid arteries.In atheromatous carotid arteries, there was a 71% agreement between the high signal intensity areas on ΔUTE images and CT scan. The same areas were represented as low signal intensity on T1W and areas of void on histology, indicating focal calcification. However, in 15% of all the scans there were some incongruent regions of high intensity on ΔUTE that did not correspond with a high intensity signal on CT, and histology confirmed the absence of calcification.We have demonstrated that the UTE sequence has potential to identify calcified plaque. Further work is needed to fully understand the UTE findings.Atherosclerosis is a manifestation of advancing age. For the majority of people the ischaemic sequelae are quiescent due to outward remodelling of the vessel to compensate for deposition of plaque [1]. Individuals experience symptoms when the degree of vessel stenosis is in excess of 40%. Traditionally, the gold standard in visualising the degree of stenosis is by luminography [2]. However, it is now accepted that lumen size as demonstrated on luminography does not correlate with the degree of plaque burden [3,4] and a greater emphasis is placed on plaque characterisation in determining vulnerability [4,5].The recent concept of the 'culprit lesion' takes into account plaque composition and the risk of acute events varies according to the composition [6]. Culprit plaques have a thin fibrous cap, a large lipid core (> 40%) rich in cholesterol with areas of inflammation and neovascular
Renormalized Coordinate Stretching: A Generalization of Shoot and Fit with Application to Stellar Structure  [PDF]
Peter D. Usher
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33039

The standard shooting and fitting algorithm for non-linear two-point boundary value problems derives from conventional coordinate perturbation theory. We generalize the algorithm using the renormalized perturbation theory of strained coordinates. This allows for the introduction of an arbitrary function, which may be chosen to improve numerical convergence. An application to a problem in stellar structure exemplifies the algorithm and shows that, when used in conjunction with the standard procedure, it has superior convergence compared to the standard one alone.

Valuing European Put Options under Skewness and Increasing [Excess] Kurtosis  [PDF]
John-Peter D. Chateau
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2014.43015

To capture the impact of skewness and increase kurtosis on Black’s [1] European put values, we first substitute a Gram-Charlier (GC) distribution and next a Johnson distribution for Black’s Gaussian one. We introduce next each distribution in the option payoff and develop until the closedform expression of each put is arrived at. Finally, we estimate by simulations GC, Johnson and Black put options, choosing the latter one as benchmark. Simulation estimates encompassing both skewness and kurtosis show that, for at-the-money (ATM) or slightly in-the-money put values, 1) Black’s overvaluation with respect to Johnson puts is very significant and 2) its undervaluation with respect to GC ones remains moderate. Yet, by using the same skewness values for both GC and Johnson puts, we highlight the differences induced by increasing kurtosis between the two models. In this case, the GC overvaluation for ATM values is explained by value differences in the put time component. Yet, while both Black and GC values exhibit significant time decay close to expiry, Johnson’s ones remain stable up to maturity.

Pricing the Credit-Risk Put Embedded in Borrowers’ Extendible Credit Commitments, with Its Application to Basel-3 Micro-Prudential Regulation  [PDF]
John-Peter D. Chateau
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.65052
Abstract: This research makes two contributions: 1) use a term structure framework to price analytically the put option implicit in borrowers’ extendible credit commitments and 2) use the latter to compute in a ratings-based model the capital charge corresponding to the credit-risk exposure of such commitments. Since the term structure of interest rates is stochastic, the zero-coupon bonds in the put closed-form solution delink discounting factor from the credit and funding rates that define the credit spread appearing in the put payoff. By essence, extendible commitments straddle the term-based commitment classification of Basel-3 simplified approach. To improve this, we formulate a ratings-based model that combines extendible put values with new coefficients (forward funding proportion and exposure at funding) as well as a matrix that captures credit-ratings migration over time. Moreover, the combination is versatile enough to deal with a borrower’s credit downgrade and its attendant incremental Basel-3 capital charge.
A fusion protein containing a lepidopteran-specific toxin from the South Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) and snowdrop lectin shows oral toxicity to target insects
Nghia Trung, Elaine Fitches, John A Gatehouse
BMC Biotechnology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-6-18
Abstract: A gene encoding a toxin, ButaIT, from the red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) was synthesised and assembled into expression constructs. One construct contained ButaIT alone, whereas the other contained ButaIT fused N-terminally to a GNA polypeptide (ButaIT/GNA). Both recombinant proteins were produced using the yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression host, and purified. Recombinant ButaIT and ButaIT/GNA were acutely toxic when injected into larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea), causing slow paralysis, leading to mortality or decreased growth. ButaIT/GNA was chronically toxic when fed to L. oleracea larvae, causing decreased survival and weight gain under conditions where GNA alone was effectively non-toxic. Intact ButaIT/GNA was detected in larval haemolymph from insects fed the fusion protein orally, demonstrating transport of the linked polypeptide across the gut. Proteolysis of the fusion protein was also observed. ButaIT/GNA was significantly more toxic that GNA alone when fed to the homopteran Nilaparvata lugens (rice brown planthopper) in liquid artificial diet.The ButaIT/GNA recombinant fusion protein is toxic to lepidopteran larvae both when injected and when fed orally, showing the utility of GNA as a carrier to transport potentially toxic peptides and proteins across the insect gut. Although ButaIT has been claimed to be lepidopteran-specific, the fusion protein has more wide-ranging insecticidal activity. Fusion proteins based on plant lectins have potential applications in crop protection, both as exogenously applied treatments and as endogenous products in transgenic plants.Scorpion venoms are a rich source of polypeptides with diverse biological activities, including many neurotoxins that exert their action via target-specific modulation of ion channel function (reviewed in [1,2]). Among the well-characterised peptide toxins are those derived from the venom of scorpions belonging to the family Buthidae. These toxins are classified into two groups, b
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