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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 32860 matches for " Peter Buckley "
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Threat Status of Commercially Exploited Trees in the Nigerian Rainforest  [PDF]
Francis E. Bisong, Peter Buckley
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.45058
Abstract: Unregulated commercial-scale exploitation of trees is an indication of the extent of threat to various tree species. The study examined the threat status of commercially exploited trees in the forest estates of South eastern Nigeria. Specifically, it identified tree species under threat, and categorized them into threat classes, as well as determined the rate at which exploited trees were slipping into extinction. The study utilized the IUCN’s threat categorization criteria, in determining the threat status of commercially exploited trees. This study combined both secondary and primary data sources generated through Forest Inventory records, Tree Felled Analysis records and Participatory Survey. Data such as population size and density of species, level of exploitation and threat sensitive social and ecological parameters were obtained and applied against the IUCN criteria. Twenty-eight (28) trees species representing Thirty-two percent (32%) of eighty-six (86) commercially exploited trees were identified as threatened, ranging from the Vulnerable to the Critically Endangered categories. The theory of small and declining population paradigms were found to be of relevance in explaining the processes. Nine tree species such as Triplochiton spp., Baillonella toxisperma, Pogaoleosa, Anopyxis spp. among others were considered to require urgent conservation attention. Recommendations are proposed to halt the process of decline in the biodiversity of exploited trees.
Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids May Be Beneficial for Reducing Obesity—A Review
Jonathan D. Buckley,Peter R. C. Howe
Nutrients , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/nu2121212
Abstract: Current recommendations for counteracting obesity advocate the consumption of a healthy diet and participation in regular physical activity, but many individuals have difficulty complying with these recommendations. Studies in rodents and humans have indicated that long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) potentially elicit a number of effects which might be useful for reducing obesity, including suppression of appetite, improvements in circulation which might facilitate nutrient delivery to skeletal muscle and changes in gene expression which shift metabolism toward increased accretion of lean tissue, enhanced fat oxidation and energy expenditure and reduced fat deposition. While LC n-3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to reduce obesity in rodents, evidence in humans is limited. Epidemiological associations between LC n-3 PUFA intakes and obesity are inconclusive but small cross-sectional studies have demonstrated inverse relationships between markers of LC n-3 PUFA status and markers of obesity. Human intervention trials indicate potential benefits of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation, especially when combined with energy-restricted diets or exercise, but more well-controlled and long-term trials are needed to confirm these effects and identify mechanisms of action.
Academic leadership searches: evolving best practices
Peter F Buckley, Donna Dauphinais, D Douglas Miller, et al
Journal of Healthcare Leadership , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JHL.S7848
Abstract: cademic leadership searches: evolving best practices (4453) Total Article Views Authors: Peter F Buckley, Donna Dauphinais, D Douglas Miller, et al Published Date July 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 61 - 67 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JHL.S7848 Peter F Buckley1,2, Donna Dauphinais1, D Douglas Miller1, James V Rawson3, Geoffrey Young1,2, Nikia D Curd1 1School of Medicine, Dean’s Administrative Staff, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia;2Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia;3Department of Radiology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, USA Abstract: Conducting searches for new leadership at academic institutions is an important, often underappreciated, ongoing institutional commitment. Search committee recruitment strategies and processes have evolved to attain a higher level of consistency and equity in the recruitment of leadership. This trajectory toward ‘Best Practices’ is described herein. Institutional leaders are now exploring alternate models, including variants of centralization of the search process, to address the challenges found in the traditional academic search model. Also described is a unique approach – The Core Operations Administrative Team for Searches (C.O.A.T.S.) – which incorporates ‘Best Practices’ in academic searches, as well as building institutional ‘search capacity’.
Massive Pneumoperitoneum
Hull, Aicha M,Buckley, Peter,Wills, Brandon K
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2010,
Simultaneous optical polarimetry and X-ray observations of the magnetic CV CP Tuc (AX J2315--592)
Gavin Ramsay,Stephen Potter,David Buckley,Peter Wheatley
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02569.x
Abstract: CP Tuc (AX J2315--592) shows a dip in X-rays which lasts for approximately half the binary orbit and is deeper in soft X-rays compared with hard X-rays. It has been proposed that this dip is due to the accretion stream obscuring the accretion region from view. If CP Tuc was a polar, as has been suggested, then the length of such a dip would make it unique amongst polars since in those polars in which a dip is seen in hard X-rays the dip lasts for only 0.1 of the orbit. We present optical polarimetry and RXTE observations of CP Tuc which show circular polarisation levels of ~10 per cent and find evidence for only one photometric period. These data confirm CP Tuc as a polar. Our modelling of the polarisation data imply that the X-ray dip is due to the bulk of the primary accretion region being self-eclipsed by the white dwarf. The energy dependence of the dip is due to a combination of this self-eclipse and also the presence of an X-ray temperature gradient over the primary accretion region.
Relationships between Obesity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Cardiovascular Function
Kade Davison,Stefan Bircher,Alison Hill,Alison M. Coates,Peter R. C. Howe,Jonathan D. Buckley
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/191253
Abstract: Background. Obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have been shown to independently increase the risk of CVD mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CRF, body fatness and markers of arterial function. Method and Results. Obese (9 male, 18 female; BMI 35.3 ± 0.9 kg·m-2) and lean (8 male, 18 female; BMI 22.5 ± 0.3 kg·m-2) volunteers were assessed for body composition (DXA), cardiorespiratory fitness (predicted ?VO2max), blood pressure (BP), endothelial vasodilatator function (FMD), and arterial compliance (AC) (via radial artery tonometry). The obese group had more whole body fat and abdominal fat (43.5 ± 1.2% versus 27.2 ± 1.6%; <.001 and 48.6 ± 0.9% versus 28.9 ± 1.8%; <.001, resp.), and lower FMD (3.2 ± 0.4% versus 5.7 ± 0.7%; <.01) than the lean subjects, but there was no difference in AC. AC in large arteries was positively associated with CRF (R=0.5; <.01) but not with fatness. Conclusion. These results indicate distinct influences of obesity and CRF on blood vessel health. FMD was impaired with obesity, which may contribute to arterial and metabolic dysfunction. Low CRF was associated with reduced elasticity in large arteries, which could result in augmentation of aortic afterload.
Visual Advantage in Deaf Adults Linked to Retinal Changes
Charlotte Codina, Olivier Pascalis, Chris Mody, Peter Toomey, Jill Rose, Laura Gummer, David Buckley
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020417
Abstract: The altered sensory experience of profound early onset deafness provokes sometimes large scale neural reorganisations. In particular, auditory-visual cross-modal plasticity occurs, wherein redundant auditory cortex becomes recruited to vision. However, the effect of human deafness on neural structures involved in visual processing prior to the visual cortex has never been investigated, either in humans or animals. We investigated neural changes at the retina and optic nerve head in profoundly deaf (N = 14) and hearing (N = 15) adults using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), an in-vivo light interference method of quantifying retinal micro-structure. We compared retinal changes with behavioural results from the same deaf and hearing adults, measuring sensitivity in the peripheral visual field using Goldmann perimetry. Deaf adults had significantly larger neural rim areas, within the optic nerve head in comparison to hearing controls suggesting greater retinal ganglion cell number. Deaf adults also demonstrated significantly larger visual field areas (indicating greater peripheral sensitivity) than controls. Furthermore, neural rim area was significantly correlated with visual field area in both deaf and hearing adults. Deaf adults also showed a significantly different pattern of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) distribution compared to controls. Significant correlations between the depth of the RNFL at the inferior-nasal peripapillary retina and the corresponding far temporal and superior temporal visual field areas (sensitivity) were found. Our results show that cross-modal plasticity after early onset deafness may not be limited to the sensory cortices, noting specific retinal adaptations in early onset deaf adults which are significantly correlated with peripheral vision sensitivity.
Effects of Eating Fresh Lean Pork on Cardiometabolic Health Parameters
Karen J. Murphy,Rebecca L. Thomson,Alison M. Coates,Jonathan D. Buckley,Peter R. C. Howe
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4070711
Abstract: High protein meat-based diets are commonly promoted for weight loss, supposedly by increasing satiety and energy expenditure. Pork is a good source of protein however little information on the metabolic effects of pork consumption exists. This pilot study aimed to examine whether regular consumption of fresh lean pork could improve body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in a 6 month parallel intervention trial. 164 overweight adults (mean BMI 32) were randomly assigned to incorporate up to 1 kg pork/week by substituting for other foods or maintain their habitual diet (control). Plasma levels of lipids, glucose and insulin, BMI, waist/hip circumference, blood pressure, heart rate and arterial compliance were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 144 volunteers completed and volunteers in the pork group increased their intake 10 fold by substituting pork for mainly beef and chicken. After 3 months, there were significant ( p ≤ 0.01) reductions in weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fat mass and abdominal fat in the pork group relative to controls, which persisted for 6 months. There was no change in lean mass, indicating that the reduction in weight was due to loss of fat mass. There were no significant effects on other metabolic parameters. Regular consumption of lean fresh pork may improve body composition.
Dairy consumption and cardiometabolic health: outcomes of a 12-month crossover trial
Georgina E Crichton, Peter R C Howe, Jonathan D Buckley, Alison M Coates, Karen J Murphy
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-9-19
Abstract: An intervention trial was undertaken in 61 overweight or obese adults who were randomly assigned to a high dairy diet (HD, 4 serves of reduced fat dairy/day) or a low dairy control diet (LD, ≤1 serve/day) for 6 months then crossed over to the alternate diet for a further 6 months. A range of anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters including body composition, metabolic rate, blood lipids, blood pressure and arterial compliance were assessed at the end of each diet phase.Total energy intake was 1120 kJ/day higher during the HD phase, resulting in slight weight gain during this period. However, there were no significant differences between HD and LD in absolute measures of waist circumference, body weight, fat mass or any other cardiometabolic parameter.Recommended intakes of reduced fat dairy products may be incorporated into the diet of overweight adults without adversely affecting markers of cardiometabolic health.The trial was registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12608000538347) on 24th October, 2008.Obesity has become a worldwide health epidemic [1]. With obesity related health costs exceeding billions of dollars in both Australia [2] and the United States [3], easily implemented interventions to slow or prevent obesity via weight loss has become a health priority.Dairy products provide over half of the dietary intake of calcium in most parts of the Western world [4]. In addition to calcium, dairy is an important dietary source of protein, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. Clinical trials show that increasing dietary calcium and dairy intake can enhance weight and fat loss and preserve lean muscle mass during energy restriction, with dairy products exerting greater effects on attenuating adiposity than calcium supplementation alone [5-7]. However, other studies have failed to find any effect of a high intake of dairy food on body weight in an energy-restricted diet [8-10]. Without energy restriction, ther
Long-term dietary intervention trials: critical issues and challenges
Crichton Georgina E,Howe Peter RC,Buckley Jonathan D,Coates Alison M
Trials , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-13-111
Abstract: Background There are many challenges involved in running randomised controlled dietary intervention trials that investigate health outcomes. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the recruitment process, retention of participants and challenges faced in our dairy intervention trial, and to provide strategies to combat the difficulties of running long-term dietary intervention trials. Methods A 12-month, randomised, two-way crossover study was conducted in overweight adults with habitually low dairy food consumption to assess the effects of a high dairy intake (4 servings of reduced-fat dairy per day) compared with a low dairy intake (1 serving of reduced-fat dairy per day) on measures of cardiometabolic and cognitive health. On completion of the high dairy intake phase, each participant was interviewed about their experience in the trial and responses were used to evaluate the key issues for study participants. Results Although the recruitment target was achieved, high rates of attrition (49.3%) and difficulties maintaining participant compliance (reported by 37.8% of participants) were major threats to the viability of the study. Factors that contributed to the high attrition included inability to comply with the dietary requirements of the study protocol (27.0%), health problems or medication changes (24.3%) and time commitment (10.8%). Conclusion Attrition and adherence to study requirements present challenges to trials requiring longer-term dietary change. Including a run-in period to further assess the motivation, commitment and availability of participants, maintaining regular contact with participants during control phases, minimising time commitment, providing flexibility with dietary requirements, facilitating positive experiences, and stringent monitoring of diet are some key recommendations for future dietary intervention trials. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12608000538347)
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