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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 488964 matches for " Peter A.;Blobel "
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Adherence and experimental infection of bacteria associated with periodontal infections of young cattle in Brazil ("Cara inchada")
Grassmann, Barbara;D?bereiner, Jürgen;Dutra, Iveraldo S.;Kopp, Peter A.;Blobel, Hans;
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-736X1997000300006
Abstract: in vitro- and in vivo-assays were conducted, to study the possible role of streptomycin- and actinomycin-producing soil actinomycetes for the pathogenesis of "cara inchada" in cattle (ci). adherence of bacteroides spp. to epithelial cells of the bovine gingiva, known to be associated with the progressive lesions of ci, was significantly increased by the addition of streptomycin, actinomycin or antibiotic culture supernatants of the soil actinomycetes. applications of these mixtures together with actinomyces pyogenes to the marginal gingiva of the upper premolar teeth of about 1 month old holstein friesian calves did not lead to progressive lesions of ci. only one calf exhibited a slight diarrhea and a temporary retraction of the gingiva at the site of application.
An Unfolding Method for High Energy Physics Experiments
Volker Blobel
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Finite detector resolution and limited acceptance require to apply unfolding methods in high energy physics experiments. Information on the detector resolution is usually given by a set of Monte Carlo events. Based on the experience with a widely used unfolding program (RUN) a modified method has been developed. The first step of the method is a maximum likelihood fit of the Monte Carlo distributions to the measured distribution in one, two or three dimensions; the finite statistic of the Monte Carlo events is taken into account by the use of Barlows method with a new method of solution. A clustering method is used before to combine bins in sparsely populated areas. In the second step a regularization is applied to the solution, which introduces only a small bias. The regularization parameter is determined from the data after a diagonalization and rotation procedure.
A New Method for the High-Precision Alignment of Track Detectors
Volker Blobel,Claus Kleinwort
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Track detectors in high energy physics experiments require an accurate determination of a large number of alignment parameters. A general method has been developed, which allows the determination of up to several thousand alignment parameters in a simultaneous linear least squares fit of an arbitrary number of tracks. The sensitivity of the method is demonstrated in an example of the simultaneous alignment of a 56-plane drift chamber and a 2-plane silicon tracker. About 1400 alignment parameters are determined in a fit of about fifty thousand tracks.
Function of GATA Factors in the Adult Mouse Liver
Rena Zheng, Boris Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Yiwei Zong, Liqing Wang, Pierre Russo, Wayne Hancock, Ben Z. Stanger, Ross C. Hardison, Gerd A. Blobel
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083723
Abstract: GATA transcription factors and their Friend of Gata (FOG) cofactors control the development of diverse tissues. GATA4 and GATA6 are essential for the expansion of the embryonic liver bud, but their expression patterns and functions in the adult liver are unclear. We characterized the expression of GATA and FOG factors in whole mouse liver and purified hepatocytes. GATA4, GATA6, and FOG1 are the most prominently expressed family members in whole liver and hepatocytes. GATA4 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) identified 4409 occupied sites, associated with genes enriched in ontologies related to liver function, including lipid and glucose metabolism. However, hepatocyte-specific excision of Gata4 had little impact on gross liver architecture and function, even under conditions of regenerative stress, and, despite the large number of GATA4 occupied genes, resulted in relatively few changes in gene expression. To address possible redundancy between GATA4 and GATA6, both factors were conditionally excised. Surprisingly, combined Gata4,6 loss did not exacerbate the phenotype resulting from Gata4 loss alone. This points to the presence of an unusually robust transcriptional network in adult hepatocytes that ensures the maintenance of liver function.
Interleukin-1 Stimulates ADAM17 through a Mechanism Independent of its Cytoplasmic Domain or Phosphorylation at Threonine 735
Katherine C. Hall, Carl P. Blobel
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031600
Abstract: ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) is a membrane-anchored metalloproteinase that regulates the release of EGFR-ligands, TNFα and other membrane proteins from cells. ADAM17 can be rapidly activated by a variety of signaling pathways, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism. Several studies have demonstrated that the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM17 is not required for its rapid activation by a variety of stimuli, including phorbol esters, tyrosine kinases and some G-protein coupled receptors. However, phosphorylation of cytoplasmic residue T735 was recently reported as a crucial step for activation of ADAM17 by IL-1β and by the p38 MAP-kinase pathway. One possible mechanism to reconcile these results would be that T735 has an inhibitory role and that it must be phosphorylated as a pre-requisite for the activation of ADAM17, which would then proceed via a mechanism that is independent of its cytoplasmic domain. To test this hypothesis, we performed rescue experiments of Adam17?/? cells with wild type and mutant forms of ADAM17. However, these experiments showed that an inactivating mutation (T735A) or an activating mutation (T735D) of cytoplasmic residue T735 or the removal of the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM17 did not significantly affect the stimulation of ADAM17 by IL-1β or by activation of MAP-kinase with anisomycin. Moreover, we found that the MAP-kinase inhibitor SB203580 blocked activation of cytoplasmic tail-deficient ADAM17 and of the T735A mutant by IL-1β or by anisomycin, providing further support for a model in which the activation mechanism of ADAM17 does not rely on its cytoplasmic domain or phosphorylation of T735.
Fast alignment of a complex tracking detector using advanced track models
Volker Blobel,Claus Kleinwort,Frank Meier
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2011.03.017
Abstract: The inner silicon detector of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at CERN's LHC consists of 16588 modules. Charged-particle tracks in the detector are used to improve the accuracy to which the position and orientation of the modules is known. This contribution focuses on the Millepede-II algorithm, one of the two alignment algorithms used by CMS. Recently an advanced track model has been introduced into the CMS alignment procedure, which is based on the "Broken Lines" model and is able to take multiple Coulomb scattering in the detector material properly into account. We show the unique approach needed for solving the alignment problem in a reasonable amount of time. Emphasis is given to the mathematical treatment of the problem.
Quantification is Incapable of Directly Enhancing Life Quality through Healthcare  [PDF]
Peter A. Moskovitz
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.34A004
Abstract: Quantification, the measurement and representational modeling of objects, events and relationships, cannot enhance life quality, not directly. Illustrative is Sydenham’s model of disease (Sydenham, 1848-1850) and its spawn: the checklist quantification that is contained in the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, now in its fifth edition) and ICD (International Classification of Diseases, now in its ninth edition). The use of these diagnostic catalogs is incapable of directly enhancing health, a component of life quality; because health is not the control or absence of disease, and practitioners do not think in checklists. Healthcare practitioners have adopted the methods of the airline industry in imposing checklists that are unnatural to nonlinear cognition. At first instance and finally, the subjectivity of experience and the intersubjectivity of communication create the diagnostic and therapeutic relationship that enhances health and life quality. Health is the capacity to cope and to adapt to the experience of suffering, regardless of its cause or context, and to pursue salutary experience. Society will effectively develop, implement and “reform” healthcare only when it accepts positive, noncircular definitions of health and “Quality of Life.” The ethical obligation of the practitioner is to honor and trust the patient’s narrative of illness, the story of suffering.
The Worldwide Abalone Industry  [PDF]
Peter A. Cook
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.513110
Abstract: Global fish production continues to outpace world population growth, and aquaculture remains one of the fastest-growing food producing sectors. In 2012, global aquaculture production was 90.4 million tonnes. Although, in terms of production tonnage, abalone contributes a relatively small proportion of this aquaculture production, it is one of the most highly prized seafood delicacies and, therefore, in terms of the value of production, is very important to many countries. The total volume of worldwide abalone fisheries has declined since the 1970’s, but farm production has increased significantly over the past few years. A huge increase in farm production has occurred, beginning in the 1970s, when farm production was almost negligible, to recent years when increases have been huge. In the 8 years immediately preceding 2010, for example, farm production increased by more than 750% and by 2013, farm production had reached an estimated 103,464 mt. The overall effects of these huge increases on the world market are discussed.
Are Stock Return Dynamics Truly Explosive or Merely Conditionally Leptokurtic? A Case Study on the Impact of Distributional Assumptions in Econometric Modeling  [PDF]
Peter A. Ammermann
Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing (JDAIP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdaip.2016.41003
Abstract: This paper uses the estimation of the Self-Excited Multi Fractal (SEMF) model, which holds theoretical promise but has seen mixed results in practice, as a case study to explore the impact of distributional assumptions on the model fitting process. In the case of the SEMF model, this examination shows that incorporating reasonable distributional assumptions including a non-zero mean and the leptokurtic Student’s t distribution can have a substantial impact on the estimation results and can mean the difference between parameter estimates that imply unstable and potentially explosive volatility dynamics versus ones that describe more reasonable and realistic dynamics for the returns. While the original SEMF model specification is found to yield unrealistic results for most of the series of financial returns to which it is applied, the results obtained after incorporating the Student’s t distribution and a mean component into the model specification suggest that the SEMF model is a reasonable model, implying realistic return behavior, for most, if not all, of the series of stock and index returns to which it is applied in this study. In addition, reflecting the sensitivity of the sample mean to the types of characteristics that the SEMF model is designed to capture, the results of this study also illustrate the value of incorporating the mean component directly into the model and fitting it in conjunction with the other model parameters rather than simply centering the returns beforehand by subtracting the sample mean from them.
Some Properties of the Technology Gap between Leading and Lagging Regions  [PDF]
Amitrajeet A. Batabyal, Peter Nijkamp
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.41001

We theoretically analyze some properties of the technology gap between leading and lagging regions studied recently by Batabyal and Nijkamp [1]. New technologies are developed in the leading region. The lagging region does not conduct research and development (R & D) but uses the leading region’s technology with a temporal gap of > 0 time periods. We first use a model with a single factor of production, human capital, to study the relationship between the technology gap and the difference in the growth rates of output per human capital unit in the leading and in the lagging region. Next, we introduce a second factor of production, physical capital, and use a variant of the Solow growth model to shed light on two issues. We show that despite the existence of the technology gap, on the balanced growth path (BGP), the physical to effective human capital ratio is identical in both regions. Finally, we demonstrate that introducing a second factor of production does not alter the relationship between the technology gap and the difference in the growth rates of output per human capital unit in the two regions.

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