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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1748 matches for " Pesticide Residue "
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Health Risk Associated with Pesticide Contamination of Fish from the Densu River Basin in Ghana  [PDF]
J. R. Fianko, A. Donkor, S. T. Lowor, P. O. Yeboah, E.T. Glover, T. Adom, A. Faanu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.22013
Abstract: The Densu River Basin constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Ghana. The practice of using pesticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids and several others in agriculture and public health programs has raised concerns about potentially adverse effects on human health and the environment. In this study, a field survey was conducted to assess farmers’ knowledge of safe handling and use of pesticides. Residues of pesticides in fish samples as well as the potential health risk associated with exposure to these pesticides were also evaluated. Data obtained from the field survey indicate that a very high proportion of farmers are at high risk of pesticide poisoning from occupational exposure. More than 90% of farm workers do not practice safety precaution during pesticide formulation and application leading to considerable prevalence of pesticide related illness in this agricultural community. Pesticide residues in fish samples varied greatly; from 0.10 µgKg-1 to 30.90 µgKg-1, consumption of fish and fisheries product from the basin was no zero risk. The estimated dose for aldrin, methoxychlor, γ-chlordane, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, endrin, p'p'-DDT and δ- HCH do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in fish samples since the values were lower than toxic thresholds as well as reference dose. However, γ- HCH, heptachlor, α-endosulfan, endosulfan Sulphate, p'p'-DDE and dieldrin levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup.
The effects of ultrasonic irradiation in combination with ozone on the reduction of residual ethion of tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sai Nam Pung) fruit after harvest  [PDF]
Kanda Whangchai, Satit Phiyanalinmat, Jamnong Uthaibutra, Sarunya Pengphol, Nakao Nomura
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.45B002
Abstract:

Ethion residue removal efficiency using individual and combined effects of ultrasonication (US), ozonation (O3), ultrasonication and ozonation (US/O3) was investigated. A 1 mg·L-1 standard ethion was subjected to an ultrasonic irradiation (3W input power) device with different frequencies of 108, 400, 700, 1000 kHz, and to an ozone with a concentration of 200 mg· mL-1 with various exposure times (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). Reduction of residual ethion was determined by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD). It was found that 1000 kHz ultrasonic irradiation for 60 minutes was the most effective treatment for reducing ethion concentration. Additionally, ozone could reduce the concentration of standard ethion after 60 minutes of exposure. Ultrasonic irradiation in combination with ozone had a synergistic effect in reducing standard ethion concentration, with the highest rate occurring within the first 15 minutes. Ethion concentration was reduced to 75.43% after ultrasonic irradiation at 1000 kHz and ozone exposure for 60 minutes. The effectiveness of the combined scheme for reducing of ethion residues on tangerine was also determined by GC-FPD. The ethion residue on fresh tangerines after ultrasonic irradiation and ozone washing was reduced by 73.03% after 60 minutes. The present study demonstrates that ultrasonic irradiation and ozone exposure could be used to reduce ethion residues in treated tangerine in order to meet the Standards for Pesticide Residue Limits.

Prevalence of Organophosphorous Pesticide Residues in Pumpkin, Spinach and Sorrel Leaves Grown in Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
E. G. Ibrahim, N. Yakubu, L. Nnamonu, J. M. Yakubu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.95032
Abstract: Three green leafy vegetable samples of pumpkin leaves, spinach leaves, and sorrel leaves were collected from three different locations in a farm in Akwanga and were tested for the presence of organophosphorus (OP) compounds. The concentrations of all the pesticide residues in the vegetable samples were determined using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organophosphorus pesticides detected include carbaryl (0.052 mg/kg) in pumpkin, this is below European maximum residues limit (EU MRL) of 0.1 mg/kg, Dimethoate was found in pumpkin (0.165 mg/kg), spinach (0.103 mg/kg) and sorrel (0.250 mg/kg) all above the EU MRL of 0.05 mg/kg. Dichlofenthion was detected in pumpkin (0.308 mg/kg), pirimiphos methyl was detected in pumpkin and spinach (0.428 mg/kg and 0.149 mg/kg respectively), all these were below the EU MRL of 0.5 mg/kg. Chlorpyrifos was found in spinach (0.230 mg/kg) and sorrel (0.192 mg/kg) only spinach was above the EU MRL of 0.2 mg/kg. The pesticide residue Bromophosethyl was detected in all vegetables, pumpkin leaves (0.501 mg/kg), sorrel (1.571 mg/kg) and spinach (7.981 mg/kg) all above the EU MRL of 0.5 mg/kg. The remaining pesticides detected were all below their EU MRL value; these are Ethion found in spinach (0.167 mg/kg), Methyl Parathion in spinach (0.103 mg/kg) and sorrel (0.335 mg/kg). The levels of some of the organophosphorus pesticide residues found in vegetables were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the European Union. This calls for laws to regulate the use and circulation of such chemicals. Based on the observation made in these studies, it is proposed that more extensive monitoring investigation covering all vegetables part in Akwanga Nasarawa state be carried out to find the exact position of pesticide residues.
Industrialization Process of Pesticide Residue Grade n-Hexane  [PDF]
Can Quan, Xiongwei Yan, Ting Huang, Hong Mei Li, Junsu Jin
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2012.24B051
Abstract:

This project is funded by the China government to develop the industrialization process of pesticide residue grade n-hexane, in which the industrial n-Hexane is used as crude purified by decoloration, distillation and filtration process. The products are validated by National Research Center for Environmental Analysis and Measurement (CNEAC), National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine (CAIQ), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and other government originations for polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticide or chiral pesticides analysis and further confirmed that it’s competitive to all others imported n-Hexane currently occupied in China. This patented technique will meet pesticide residue grade n-Hexane market in China and seek for cooperation globally.

 

 

 


 

Determination of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Pumpkin, Spinach and Sorrel Leaves Grown in Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
E. G. Ibrahim, N. Yakubu, L. Nnamonu, J. M. Yakubu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.95031
Abstract: Three green leafy vegetable samples of pumpkin leaves, spinach leaves, and sorrel leaves were collected from a farm in Akwanga and were tested for the presence of residues of organochlorine pesticides. The concentrations of all the pesticide residues in the vegetable samples were determined using GC/MS. Among the organochlorine pesticide p,p’-DDT was detected in pumpkin (0.75 mg/kg), spinach (0.319 mg/kg) and sorrel (0.219 mg/kg). θ-BHC and γ-BHC were detected only in pumpkin leaves (0.359 mg/kg and 0.647 mg/kg respectively). Dieldrin was detected in spinach and sorrel (0.124 mg/kg and 0.053 mg/kg respectively). Endrin was detected in pumpkin (0.732 mg/kg) and Aldrin in sorrel (0.095 mg/kg). All these values were above the maximum residue limit (MRL) value of the pesticides. Endosulfan II was detected in sorrel (0.306 mg/kg) below the MRL. The levels of most of the pesticide residues found in vegetables were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs) that call for laws to regulate the use and circulation of such chemicals. Routine monitoring of pesticide residues in this study area is necessary for the prevention, control and reduction of environmental pollution, to minimize health risks.
FATE OF ENDOSULFAN AND DELTAMETHRIN RESIDUES DURING TOMATO PASTE PRODUCTION
CIGDEM UYSAL-PALA,ARSAN BILISLI
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2006,
Abstract: In this study, the effects of tomato paste processing steps on pesticides with active ingredient endosulfan and deltamethrin were investigated in Biga/Canakkale. Residue data were obtained by analyzing samples taken during harvesting, taken after washing and chopping, taken after pulping (pulp and pomace) and taken from the tomato paste with GC-ECD. In the process of making tomato paste, washing decreased endosulfan and deltamethrin, 30.62% and 47.58%, respectively. Pre-heating, pulping, evaporation and half-pasteurization increased deltamethrin 2.33% while decreasing endosulfan 66.5% after washing. The whole process decreased endosulfan and deltamethrin, 76.8% and 46.3%, respectively. The residues were mostly collected in pomace.
ESTIMATION OF THE BURDEN OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SLOVAK POPULATION
Zuzana Grancová Bielková,Jozef Sokol
Potravinarstvo : Scientific Journal for Food Industry , 2010, DOI: 10.5219/69
Abstract: Pesticides used in the agriculture have to be applied according to the requirements of good agricultural practice and appropriate law. Pesticides leave detectable residues in agricultural crops, raw materials and ecosystem components. Pesticides reach the human population through the food chain. Information on the type and concentration of pesticide residues in food is in Slovakia collected trough the monitoring programs. Health risks associated with pesticides contaminants in human nutrition are very important and are recently studied by several expert groups. Prerequisite programs are necessary to protect public health. Risk analysis and monitoring of the population burden by pesticide contaminants have to be performed in expert level. The general strategy for assessment of toxicity of pesticides is listed by the World health Organisation. Scientific risk assessment is the basis for taking action and making the legislation at national and European community level. doi:10.5219/69
Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat
Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.
Veterinary World , 2011,
Abstract: Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but long term exposure can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. The role of Insecticide Act and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act enforced in India for judicious pesticide use and safety of consumers of animal products is discussed. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000): 178-182]
Effectiveness of Selected Reaction Monitoring for rapid assay of Cypermethrin Residue in Perilla Leaves  [PDF]
Noriyasu Niimura
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2011.11001
Abstract: Many kinds of pesticides have been developed and used to yield a good harvest but the residues in agricul-tural products cause health problems. It is important to keep watch on these residues by using adequate methods of analysis. Pretreatment such as gel permeation chromatography (GPC) or column chromatography is often needed for the quantitative analysis of pesticide in agricultural products by conventional methods such as gas chromatography/low resolving power mass spectrometry (GC/LRMS). However, these pretreat-ments need a lot of work and take time. New methods saving the necessity of these pretreatments have been desired. We have applied selected reaction monitoring (SRM) to quantitatively determine cypermethrin residues in Perilla frutescens samples and compared the results with LRMS and HRMS in SIM mode. A background peak caused by the matrix overlapped the cypermethrin peak in the analysis using LRMS. SRM and HRMS in SIM mode provided chromatograms without matrix interference. The high selectivity of the product ion (m/z 127) produced from precursor ion (m/z 163) isolated the target peaks from the matrix peaks when using SRM. This method eliminates the pretreatment step, thus saving time and simplify ing the ana-lytical process.
Resíduos de tiametoxam, aldicarbe e de seus metabólitos em folhas de cafeeiro e efeito no controle de Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)
Diez-Rodríguez, Gabriela I.;Baptista, Gilberto C. de;Trevizan, Luiz R.P.;Haddad, Marinéia L.;Nava, Dori E.;
Neotropical Entomology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2006000200016
Abstract: the coffee leaf miner leucoptera coffeella (guérin-mèneville), one of the major pests of coffee crops in brazil, is mainly controlled with insecticides. the objective of this study was to evaluate the residues and the translocation of the insecticide thiamethoxam in coffee leaves, as well as to study its effect on the coffee leaf miner control, comparing it with aldicarb, used as standard. one experiment was set up in the county of gar?a, sp from december/2001 to august/2002. the treatments used were: aldicarb 150 g at the rates of 2.25 and 4.50 g a.i./pit, thiamethoxam 10 gr, at the rates of 0.15 and 0.30 g a.i./pit and check. twig samples were collected prior to and 30 , 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days after the application, at three coffee plant heights (lower, middle and upper third), and the percentage of mined leaves was evaluated. the determination of aldicarb residues, including their sulphoxide and sulfone metabolites and of thiamethoxam were performed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen-phosphorus and mass spectrometer detectors, respectively. the results indicated a uniform translocation of both insecticides in all three thirds of the coffee plants when applied to the soil. a higher persistence of thiamethoxam was verified with its residues being found for as far long as eight months following the application, while aldicarb residues, including the sulphoxide and sulfone metabolites, were found only until four to six months after the application. control of the coffee leaf miner was observed with both insecticides.
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