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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3562 matches for " Per-Ola Attman "
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Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Renal Patients and Healthy Subjects
Diana M. Lee, Kenneth W. Jackson, Nicholas Knowlton, Joshua Wages, Petar Alaupovic, Ola Samuelsson, Aso Saeed, Michael Centola, Per-Ola Attman
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022360
Abstract: The first goal of this study was to measure the oxidative stress (OS) and relate it to lipoprotein variables in 35 renal patients before dialysis (CKD), 37 on hemodialysis (HD) and 63 healthy subjects. The method for OS was based on the ratio of cholesteryl esters (CE) containing C18/C16 fatty acids (R2) measured by gas chromatography (GC) which is a simple, direct, rapid and reliable procedure. The second goal was to investigate and identify a triacylglycerol peak on GC, referred to as TG48 (48 represents the sum of the three fatty acids carbon chain lengths) which was markedly increased in renal patients compared to healthy controls. We measured TG48 in patients and controls. Mass spectrometry (MS) and MS twice in tandem were used to analyze the fatty acid composition of TG48. MS showed that TG48 was abundant in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) that were known for their pro-inflammatory property. TG48 was significantly and inversely correlated with OS. Renal patients were characterized by higher OS and inflammation than healthy subjects. Inflammation correlated strongly with TG, VLDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) C-III and apoC-III bound to apoB-containing lipoproteins, but not with either total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol. In conclusion, we have discovered a new inflammatory factor, TG48. It is characterized with TG rich in saturated fatty acids. Renal patients have increased TG48 than healthy controls.
A Note on the Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: A Time Series Approach
MANESCHI?LD,PER-OLA;
Cuadernos de economía , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-68212008000200006
Abstract: the export-led growth hypothesis is analysed for argentina, brazil, and mexico using cointegration and causality techniques. cointegration isfound for argentina and mexico in both a pre-break and post-break period, where the break is related to the introduction ofthe nafta. furthermore, the causal relationship is either bi-directional or unidirectional from export to gdp revealing support to the hypothesis and an outward oriented policy.
A Note on the Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: A Time Series Approach
PER-OLA MANESCHI?LD
Cuadernos de Economía , 2008,
Abstract: The export-led growth hypothesis is analysed for Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico using cointegration and causality techniques. Cointegration isfound for Argentina and Mexico in both a pre-break and post-break period, where the break is related to the introduction ofthe NAFTA. Furthermore, the causal relationship is either bi-directional or unidirectional from export to GDP revealing support to the hypothesis and an outward oriented policy. Este artículo analiza la hipótesis de crecimiento impulsado por las exportaciones para Argentina, Brasil y México utilizando técnicas de cointegración y causalidad. Encontramos que existe cointegración para Argentina y México tanto en el período anterior como posterior al quiebre estructural relacionado con la introducción del NAFTA. Además, la relación causal es bidireccional o unidireccional desde la exportación o hacia el PIB apoyando la hipótesis de una política orientada a las exportaciones.
A Note on Money and Economic Growth in the Baltic States
Per-Ola Maneschi?ld
Engineering Economics , 2006,
Abstract: In a neoclassical framework, it is established that thereal money stock is an important input in the aggregateproduction function. This importance is due to thatmoney is assumed to release capital and labour from thedistribution and exchange process of goods and servicesallowing them to be more effectively used in the productionprocess. Thus, the theoretical literature seems ingeneral to be supportive of money as an input in the productionfunction since it is argued to what extent ratherthan whether theory incorporates money as an input.However, the empirical literature is less clear on moneyas a significant input in the production process. Conclusionsin the empirical literature is that the output elasticityof real money is negligible in developed economieswhile it is highly significant for developing economieswhere the experience from transition economies is neglected.This paper builds on the Solow (1957) seminalapproach adopted in Startz (1984) to evaluate the role ofthe real money stock in the production process in the BalticStates. The results of the paper systematically revealpositive output elasticities of money in the Baltic States.
New efficient ligand for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions running under air
Per-Fredrik Larsson,Peter Astvik,Per-Ola Norrby
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.8.221
Abstract: A new efficient ligand, N,N’’-dimethyldiethylene triamine (DMDETA), has been synthesized and evaluated for sub-mol % copper-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions. The efficiency of the ligand was determined by kinetic methods. DMDETA proved to display efficiency similar to DMEDA and, in addition, the resulting catalyst was tolerant to air.
Striated Muscle as Implantation Site for Transplanted Pancreatic Islets
Daniel Espes,Olof Eriksson,Joey Lau,Per-Ola Carlsson
Journal of Transplantation , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/352043
Abstract: Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment for selected patients with brittle type 1 diabetes. In the clinical setting, intraportal transplantation predominates. However, due to extensive early islet cell death, the quantity of islets needed to restore glucose homeostasis requires in general a minimum of two donors. Moreover, the deterioration of islet function over time results in few insulin-independent patients after five-year followup. Specific obstacles to the success of islet transplantation include site-specific concerns for the liver such as the instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction, islet lipotoxicity, low oxygen tension, and poor revascularization, impediments that have led to the developing interest for alternative implantation sites over recent years. Within preclinical settings, several alternative sites have now been investigated and proven favorable in various aspects. Muscle is considered a very promising site and has physiologically properties and technical advantages that could make it optimal for islet transplantation.
Striated Muscle as Implantation Site for Transplanted Pancreatic Islets
Daniel Espes,Olof Eriksson,Joey Lau,Per-Ola Carlsson
Journal of Transplantation , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/352043
Abstract: Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment for selected patients with brittle type 1 diabetes. In the clinical setting, intraportal transplantation predominates. However, due to extensive early islet cell death, the quantity of islets needed to restore glucose homeostasis requires in general a minimum of two donors. Moreover, the deterioration of islet function over time results in few insulin-independent patients after five-year followup. Specific obstacles to the success of islet transplantation include site-specific concerns for the liver such as the instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction, islet lipotoxicity, low oxygen tension, and poor revascularization, impediments that have led to the developing interest for alternative implantation sites over recent years. Within preclinical settings, several alternative sites have now been investigated and proven favorable in various aspects. Muscle is considered a very promising site and has physiologically properties and technical advantages that could make it optimal for islet transplantation. 1. Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with typical onset during childhood or adolescence. Patients suffering from the disease require multiple daily insulin injections coordinated alongside vigilant monitoring of blood glucose levels. For some patients, glucose homeostasis is not optimized despite these efforts, leading to repeated hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic events. Such repeated episodes of severe hypoglycemia, requiring medical assistance, predicate a patient being considered for islet transplantation. Currently, intraportal transplantation is performed in the majority of clinical cases. The liver was selected as the optimal implantation site for islet transplantation in the beginning of the 1970s, the basis of experimental studies by Kemp et al. [1]. However, clinical results of islet transplantation were meager with less than 10% of transplant recipients displaying insulin independency. The introduction of the Edmonton-protocol ten years ago drastically improved the outcome to a rate of 80% insulin independency after one year [2]. Nevertheless, this procedure requires the islets of multiple donors and provides inadequate long-term results. Only 10% of transplant recipients have maintained insulin-independency after five years despite continuing efforts [3]. Fundamentally, however, intraportal transplantation must be considered successful. The main stimulus for islet transplantation, repeat episodes of severe hypoglycemia, is prevented in most patients irrespective of insulin
Female Mice are Protected against High-Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Syndrome and Increase the Regulatory T Cell Population in Adipose Tissue
Ulrika S. Pettersson, Tomas B. Waldén, Per-Ola Carlsson, Leif Jansson, Mia Phillipson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046057
Abstract: Sex differences in obesity-induced complications such as type 2 diabetes have been reported. The aim of the study was to pinpoint the mechanisms resulting in different outcome of female and male mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice fed control or HFD were monitored for weight, blood glucose, and insulin for 14 weeks. Circulating chemokines, islet endocrine function and blood flow, as well as adipose tissue populations of macrophages and regulatory T-lymphocytes (Treg) were thereafter assessed. Despite similar weight (43.8±1.0 and 40.2±1.5 g, respectively), male but not female mice developed hyperinsulinemia on HFD as previously described (2.5±0.7 and 0.5±0.1 pmol/l, respectively) consistent with glucose intolerance. Male mice also exhibited hypertrophic islets with intact function in terms of insulin release and blood perfusion. Low-grade, systemic inflammation was absent in obese female but present in obese male mice (IL-6 and mKC, males: 77.4±17 and 1795±563; females: 14.6±4.9 and 240±22 pg/ml), and the population of inflammatory macrophages was increased in intra-abdominal adipose tissues of high-fat-fed male but not female mice. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory Treg cell population increased in the adipose tissue of female mice in response to weight gain, while the number decreased in high-fat-fed male mice. In conclusion, female mice are protected against HFD-induced metabolic changes while maintaining an anti-inflammatory environment in the intra-abdominal adipose tissue with expanded Treg cell population, whereas HFD-fed male mice develop adipose tissue inflammation, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and islet hypertrophy.
Sustained Beta-Cell Dysfunction but Normalized Islet Mass in Aged Thrombospondin-1 Deficient Mice
Carl Johan Drott, Johan Olerud, Hanna Emanuelsson, Gustav Christoffersson, Per-Ola Carlsson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047451
Abstract: Pancreatic islet endothelial cells have in recent years been shown to support beta-cell mass and function by paracrine interactions. Recently, we identified an islets endothelial-specific glycoprotein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), that showed to be of importance for islet angiogenesis and beta-cell function in young mice. The present study aimed to investigate long-term consequences for islet morphology and beta-cell function of TSP-1 deficiency. Islet and beta-cell mass were observed increased at 10–12 weeks of age in TSP-1 deficient mice, but were normalized before 16 weeks of age when compared to wild-type controls. Islet vascularity was normal in 10–12 and 16-week-old TSP-1 deficient animals, whereas islets of one-year-old animals lacking TSP-1 were hypervascular. Beta-cell dysfunction in TSP-1 deficient animals was present at similar magnitudes between 10–12 and 52 weeks of age, as evaluated by glucose tolerance tests. The insulin secretion capacity in vivo of islets in one-year-old TSP-1 deficient animals was only ~15% of that in wild-type animals. Using a transplantation model, we reconstituted TSP-1 in adult TSP-deficient islets. In contrast to neonatal TSP-1 deficient islets that we previously reported to regain function after TSP-1 reconstitution, adult islets failed to recover. We conclude that TSP-1 deficiency in islets causes changing vascular and endocrine morphological alterations postnatally, but is coupled to a chronic beta-cell dysfunction. The beta-cell dysfunction induced by TSP-1 deficiency is irreversible if not substituted early in life.
Transcriptional Profiling of Human Brain Endothelial Cells Reveals Key Properties Crucial for Predictive In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Models
Eduard Urich, Stanley E. Lazic, Juliette Molnos, Isabelle Wells, Per-Ola Freskg?rd
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038149
Abstract: Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BEC) constitute the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which forms a dynamic interface between the blood and the central nervous system (CNS). This highly specialized interface restricts paracellular diffusion of fluids and solutes including chemicals, toxins and drugs from entering the brain. In this study we compared the transcriptome profiles of the human immortalized brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 and human primary BEC. We identified transcriptional differences in immune response genes which are directly related to the immortalization procedure of the hCMEC/D3 cells. Interestingly, astrocytic co-culturing reduced cell adhesion and migration molecules in both BECs, which possibly could be related to regulation of immune surveillance of the CNS controlled by astrocytic cells within the neurovascular unit. By matching the transcriptome data from these two cell lines with published transcriptional data from freshly isolated mouse BECs, we discovered striking differences that could explain some of the limitations of using cultured BECs to study BBB properties. Key protein classes such as tight junction proteins, transporters and cell surface receptors show differing expression profiles. For example, the claudin-5, occludin and JAM2 expression is dramatically reduced in the two human BEC lines, which likely explains their low transcellular electric resistance and paracellular leakiness. In addition, the human BEC lines express low levels of unique brain endothelial transporters such as Glut1 and Pgp. Cell surface receptors such as LRP1, RAGE and the insulin receptor that are involved in receptor-mediated transport are also expressed at very low levels. Taken together, these data illustrate that BECs lose their unique protein expression pattern outside of their native environment and display a more generic endothelial cell phenotype. A collection of key genes that seems to be highly regulated by the local surroundings of BEC within the neurovascular unit are presented and discussed.
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