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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2454 matches for " Per ?kesson "
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Plasma concentrations of Gas6 (growth arrest specific protein 6) and its soluble tyrosine kinase receptor sAxl in sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndromes
Carl Ekman, Adam Linder, Perkesson, Bj?rn Dahlb?ck
Critical Care , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/cc9233
Abstract: We have developed reproducible and accurate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for both Gas6 and sAxl and used them to investigate plasma samples from 70 patients with severe sepsis, 99 patients with sepsis, 42 patients with various infections causing fever but no systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), 20 patients with SIRS without verified infection, and 100 blood donors that served as controls. Correlations between Gas6 and sAxl concentrations and other commonly used analytes were investigated.The patients with severe sepsis, sepsis, infection or SIRS had all increased concentrations of Gas6, approximately double compared to what was found in the controls. The concentrations of sAxl were also increased in the patient groups compared to the controls. Gas6 correlated with C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and interleukin 6, whereas sAxl correlated to bilirubin and procalcitonin.We can confirm results of earlier studies showing that circulating Gas6 is increased in sepsis and related syndromes. sAxl is increased, but less pronounced than Gas6. The concentrations of Gas6 and sAxl correlate with a number of inflammatory markers, suggesting a role in systemic inflammation.Gas6 is a vitamin K-dependent protein, which was initially described as a protein expressed during growth arrest [1]. It is structurally related to the anticoagulant protein S, the two proteins having 44% amino acid identity [2]. Both Gas6 and protein S bind the TAM family of tyrosine kinase receptors that comprises Tyro3, Axl and Mer [3]. The binding of Gas6 to Axl induces Axl phosphorylation and activation of the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway, which has prosurvival and antiapoptotic effects [4]. Gas6 has also been shown to be important for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells [5,6]. Gas6 can regulate the inflammatory response by downregulating TNFα, IL-6 and interferon secretion in dendritic cells [7], and, interestingly, animals lacking the TAM family of receptors develop autoimmune diseases [8]. Gas6
Decreased plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein M in sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndromes
Sunil B Kumaraswamy, Adam Linder, Perkesson, Bj?rn Dahlb?ck
Critical Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/cc11305
Abstract: Plasma samples from patients with (1), severe sepsis with shock (n = 26); (2), severe sepsis without shock (n = 44); (3), sepsis (n = 100); (4), infections without SIRS (n = 43); and (5) SIRS without infection (n = 20) were analyzed. The concentrations of apoM, apoA1, and apoB were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were measured with a commercial HDL/LDL cholesterol test.ApoM concentrations correlated negatively to acute-phase markers. Thus, apoM behaved as a negative acute-phase protein. Decreased values were observed in all patient groups (P < 0.0001), with the most drastic decreases observed in the severely sick patients. ApoM levels correlated strongly to those of apoA1, apoB, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. The HDL and LDL cholesterol levels were low in all patient groups, as compared with controls (P < 0.0001), in particular, HDL cholesterol. ApoA1 and apoB concentrations were low only in the more severely affected patients.During sepsis and SIRS, the plasma concentrations of apoM decrease dramatically, the degree of decrease reflecting the severity of the disease. As a carrier for barrier-protective S1P in HDL, the decrease in apoM could contribute to the increased vascular leakage observed in sepsis and SIRS.Apolipoprotein M (25 kDa) is associated mainly with HDL and, to a minor extent, with apoB-containing lipoproteins [1,2]. It is anchored to the lipoprotein particles with a retained signal peptide [1,3,4]. Its normal plasma concentration is approximately 23 mg/L (0.9 μM). In normal plasma, it has been estimated that around 5% of HDL particles contain an apoM molecule [5]. The plasma concentration of apoM correlates with the plasma levels of total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol [6]. ApoM is a member of the lipocalin protein family, a group of proteins with a characteristic coffee filter-like structure and a hydrophobic binding pocket [2,7]. The elucidation of the three-dimensional structure reve
Elevated plasma levels of heparin-binding protein in intensive care unit patients with severe sepsis and septic shock
Adam Linder, Perkesson, Malin Inghammar, Carl-Johan Treutiger, Anna Linnér, Jonas Sundén-Cullberg
Critical Care , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/cc11353
Abstract: A prospective study was conducted of two patient cohorts treated in the ICU at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge in Sweden. A total of 179 patients was included, of whom 151 had sepsis (126 with septic shock and 25 patients with severe sepsis) and 28 a non-septic critical condition. Blood samples were collected at five time points during six days after admission.HBP levels were significantly higher in the sepsis group as compared to the control group. At admission to the ICU, a plasma HBP concentration of ≥15 ng/mL and/or a HBP (ng/mL)/white blood cell count (109/L) ratio of >2 was found in 87.2% and 50.0% of critically ill patients with sepsis and non-septic illness, respectively. A lactate level of >2.5 mmol/L was detected in 64.9% and 56.0% of the same patient groups. Both in the sepsis group (n = 151) and in the whole group (n = 179), plasma HBP concentrations at admission and in the last measured sample within the 144 hour study period were significantly higher among 28-day non-survivors as compared to survivors and in the sepsis group, an elevated HBP-level at baseline was associated with an increased case-fatality rate at 28 days.Plasma HBP levels were significantly higher in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock compared to patients with a non-septic illness in the ICU. HBP was associated with severity of disease and an elevated HBP at admission was associated with an increased risk of death. HBP that rises over time may identify patients with a deteriorating prognosis. Thus, repeated HBP measurement in the ICU may help monitor treatment and predict outcome in patients with severe infections.Sepsis is defined as the systemic inflammatory response to infection. In its more severe forms it causes tissue hypoperfusion, hypoxia, lactic acidosis, and organ dysfunction [1,2]. Despite increasing awareness of the diagnosis, faster administration of antibiotics and intravenous fluids, better technological support of organ function and other recent advance
New approaches to pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis
kesson,Kristina;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862003000900008
Abstract: osteoporosis has been recognized as a major public health problem for less than two decades. the increasing incidence of fragility fractures, such as vertebral, hip, and wrist fractures, first became apparent from epidemiological studies in the early and mid-1980s, when effective treatment was virtually unavailable. pharmacological therapies that effectively reduce the number of fractures by improving bone mass are now available widely in countries around the world. most current agents inhibit bone loss by reducing bone resorption, but emerging therapies may increase bone mass by directly promoting bone formation - as is the case with parathyroid hormone. current treatment alternatives include bisphosphonates, calcitonin, and selective estrogen receptor modulators, but sufficient calcium and vitamin d are a prerequisite. the availability of evidence-based data that show reductions in the incidence of fractures of 30-50% during treatment has been a major step forward in the pharmacological prevention of fractures. with all agents, fracture reduction is most pronounced for vertebral fracture in high-risk individuals; alendronate and risedronate also may protect against hip fracture in the elderly. new approaches to pharmacological treatment will include further development of existing drugs, especially with regard to tolerance and frequency of dosing. new avenues for targeting the condition will emerge as our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of bone remodelling increases, although issues of tissue specificity may be difficult to solve. in the long term, information gained through knowledge of bone genetics may be used to adapt pharmacological treatments more precisely to each individual.
Making Migrants Responsible for Development: Cape Verdean Returnees and Northern Migration Policies Wenn Migranten für Entwicklung verantwortlich gemacht werden: Rückkehrer nach Kap Verde und vom Norden“ gepr gte Migrationspolitik
Lisa ?kesson
Africa Spectrum , 2011,
Abstract: In recent years, there has been a surge of “Northern” policy documents concerned with increasing the positive effects of international migration in countries of origin. This article contrasts some basic assumptions in policies on migration, return and development with an anthropological study of Cape Verdean returnees, and it reveals some important disparities between the returnees’ experiences and the ideas underpinning policy documents. The article analyses the role returnees’ savings and skills play in local change in Cape Verde, and in particular it looks into entrepreneurial activities. This is related to a discussion of the conditions that must be fulfilled in order to make it possible for return migrants to contribute to positive social change. In conclusion, the article shows that structural conditions have a fundamental impact on individual migrants’ abilities to support development, a perspective often left out of contemporary policies. In jüngster Zeit entstand eine Flut politischer Dokumente im “Norden”, die sich mit den positiven Effekten internationaler Migration in den Ursprungsl ndern der Migranten besch ftigen. Der vorliegende Beitrag kontrastiert einige grundlegende Annahmen im Bereich der Migrations-, Rückkehrer- und Entwicklungspolitik mit den Ergebnissen einer anthropologischen Studie über Rückkehrer nach Kap Verde und deckt einige gravierende Differenzen zwischen diesen Grundannahmen und den Erfahrungen der Rückkehrer auf. Die Autorin analysiert, welche Bedeutung die Ersparnisse und die Qualifikationen der Rückkehrer für den lokalen gesellschaftlichen Wandel haben und ist dabei insbesondere an unternehmerischen Aktivit ten interessiert. Darauf aufbauend diskutiert sie, unter welchen Bedingungen zurückkehrende Migranten positiv zum sozialen Wandel beitragen k nnen. Sie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass die M glichkeiten für einzelne Rückkehrer, die Entwicklung ihres Heimatlandes positiv zu beeinflussen, stark von strukturellen Gegebenheiten abh ngen – eine Tatsache, die bei politischen Planungen vielfach unberücksichtigt bleibt.
Cape Verdean Notions of Migrant Remittances
Lisa ?kesson
Cadernos de Estudos Africanos , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/cea.168
Abstract: The transfer of money from migrants to their non-migrant relatives is a key, symbol of the quality and meaning of transnational kinship relations. This article analyses how people in Cape Verde view migrant family members’ economic obligations and it examines the concomitant moral discourse. Through a detailed ethnographic study the article explores how gender and kinship positions interplay with the moral obligation to send remittances, and it also inquires into the differences between rural and urban people’s attitudes towards monetary gifts. Moreover, the importance of the receiver’s status in the local society is discussed and the role of the personal relation between the sender and the receiver. Thus the analysis goes beyond an instrumental and rationalistic approach to remittances, which is common in much research, and explores the significance of this money for emotions and social relations. Para os seus parentes n o emigrantes as remessas dos emigrantes s o um símbolo chave da qualidade e do significado das rela es de parentesco transnacionais. Este artigo analisa como as pessoas em Cabo Verde encaram as obriga es económicas dos emigrantes membros de família e examina o discurso moral concomitante. Através de um estudo etnográfico detalhado o artigo explora como posi es de género e parentesco interagem com a obriga o moral de enviar remessas e também investiga as diferen as entre as atitudes das pessoas rurais e urbanas relativamente às ofertas monetárias. Além disso, discute-se a importancia do estatuto do receptor na sociedade local e o papel da rela o pessoal entre remetente e receptor. Assim, a análise vai além de uma abordagem instrumental e racionalista das remessas, o que é habitual em muitas pesquisas, explorando o significado deste dinheiro em termos de emo es e rela es sociais.
New approaches to pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis
kesson Kristina
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003,
Abstract: Osteoporosis has been recognized as a major public health problem for less than two decades. The increasing incidence of fragility fractures, such as vertebral, hip, and wrist fractures, first became apparent from epidemiological studies in the early and mid-1980s, when effective treatment was virtually unavailable. Pharmacological therapies that effectively reduce the number of fractures by improving bone mass are now available widely in countries around the world. Most current agents inhibit bone loss by reducing bone resorption, but emerging therapies may increase bone mass by directly promoting bone formation - as is the case with parathyroid hormone. Current treatment alternatives include bisphosphonates, calcitonin, and selective estrogen receptor modulators, but sufficient calcium and vitamin D are a prerequisite. The availability of evidence-based data that show reductions in the incidence of fractures of 30-50% during treatment has been a major step forward in the pharmacological prevention of fractures. With all agents, fracture reduction is most pronounced for vertebral fracture in high-risk individuals; alendronate and risedronate also may protect against hip fracture in the elderly. New approaches to pharmacological treatment will include further development of existing drugs, especially with regard to tolerance and frequency of dosing. New avenues for targeting the condition will emerge as our knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of bone remodelling increases, although issues of tissue specificity may be difficult to solve. In the long term, information gained through knowledge of bone genetics may be used to adapt pharmacological treatments more precisely to each individual.
LL-37 at the local site of streptococcal skin and soft-tissue infections
Pontus Thulin, Linda Johansson, Parham Sendi, Erika Hertzén, Adam Linder, Perkesson, Bertil Christensson, Malak Kotb, Donald Low, Birgitta Agerberth, Anna Norrby-Teglund
Critical Care , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/cc5994
Abstract: Thirty-seven biopsies from 17 patients suffering from GAS skin and soft-tissue infection were obtained and graded according to disease severity (erysipelas, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis). Three additional biopsies served as negative controls. Tissue sections were immunostained for LL-37, GAS, SpeB and specific cell markers. Sections were investigated by light and confocal microscopy, and results were quantified by in situ imaging.High expression of LL-37 was detected in erysipelas and severe soft-tissue infections, and showed a significant positive correlation to bacterial load (P < 0.001 and P = 0.042, respectively). Confocal microscopy identified neutrophils as the main source of LL-37 at the epicenter of infection, and the degree of neutrophil infiltration showed a significant positive correlation to LL-37 levels (P < 0.001). LL-37 and SpeB were detected in the same biopsy areas, and colocalization was confirmed by confocal microscopy.Despite the high expression of LL-37 in close proximity to streptococci at the local site of infection, there seems to be a significant lack of antimicrobial effect, as evident by the bacterial load. The colocalization of SpeB and LL-37 suggests that this streptococcal factor probably contributes significantly to a resistance mechanism towards antimicrobial peptides at the local tissue site.
HMGB1 expression in streptococcal soft-tissue infections correlates with disease severity
Parham Sendi, Linda Johansson, Pontus Thulin, Adam Linder, Perkesson, Bertil Christensson, Donald Low, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Carl-Johan Treutiger
Critical Care , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/cc5995
Abstract: Thirty-seven biopsies from 17 patients suffering from streptococcal skin and soft-tissue infection were obtained and graded according to disease severity (erysipelas, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis). Three additional biopsies served as negative controls. Tissue sections were immunostained for HMGB1, group A streptococcus, and specific cell markers. Sections were investigated by light microscopy, and results were quantified by in situ imaging.HMGB1 was found both intracellularly and secreted in the tissue. Its expression increased in parallel to disease severity and was significantly higher in necrotizing fasciitis than in erysipelas (P = 0.023). HMGB1 showed a positive correlation to neutrophils (P < 0.01) in erysipelas, but not in severe infections. A correlation to bacterial load was not found.In contrast to erysipelas, large amounts of necrotic tissue are present in severe skin infections, which probably contribute considerably to the expression of HMGB1. The high values may disturb a statistical correlation to the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration in the tissue. However, our results suggest that the massive HMGB1 expression at the local site of infection is probably an important mediator and enhancer of inflammation in skin tissue and soft-tissue infections, as evident by its expression in correlation to disease severity.
Unschooling, Then and Now
Kellie ROLSTAD,Kathleen KESSON
Journal of Unschooling and Alternative Learning , 2013,
Abstract: While the accountability and standardization movement continues to narrow curriculum in the US, unschooling families are redefining learning and recreating community in an atmosphere of love and trust. As professors of education and unschooling mothers, Rolstad and Kesson compare their unschooling experiences in two different eras, one in the early days of unschooling (1980s), and the other in the first decade of the 21st century. Kathleen Kesson was an unschooling pioneer when her children were unschooled in the early 1980s, and her children are now adults. She describes what it was like to unschool then, to do what she terms ‘old school unschooling.’ Only a generation later, Kellie Rolstad began unschooling her three children, in a world transformed by the Internet and ease of access to both information and social networking, key components of unschooling today. Rolstad describes how her unschooling children connected play in real and virtual worlds, exploring ideas differently in many aspects from how Kesson’s children played and explored, and yet fundamentally and remarkably the same. In this article, Rolstad and Kesson share their experiences of trusting children, of giving them the space and the resources to learn and grow in the ways that are best for them, comparing along the way what it was like to unschool then and what it is like to unschool now, in this era when our society has come to distrust children more than ever.
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