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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 248 matches for " Penelope Hawe "
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A typology of practice narratives during the implementation of a preventive, community intervention trial
Therese Riley, Penelope Hawe
Implementation Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-4-80
Abstract: We undertook a narrative analysis of in-depth, unstructured field diaries kept by nine community development practitioners for two years. The practitioners were responsible for implementing a multi-component, preventive, community-level intervention for mothers of new babies in eight communities, as part of a cluster randomised community intervention trial. We constructed a narrative typology of approaches to practice, drawing on the phenomenology of Alfred Schutz and Max Weber's Ideal Type theory.Five types of practice emerged, from a highly 'technology-based' type that was faithful to intervention specifications, through to a 'romantic' type that held relationships to be central to daily operations, with intact relationships being the final arbiter of intervention success. The five types also differed in terms of how others involved in the intervention were characterized, the narrative form (e.g., tragedy, satire) and where and how transformative change in communities was best created. This meant that different types traded-off or managed the priorities of the intervention differently, according to the deeply held values of their type.The data set constructed for this analysis is unique. It revealed that practitioners not only exercise their agency within interventions, they do so systematically, that is, according to a pattern. The typology is the first of its kind and, if verified through replication, may have value for anticipating intervention dynamics and explaining implementation variation in community interventions.Although there are established methods for tracking the delivery of health promotion and preventive interventions [1,2], the dynamic of what happens in practice still remains elusive [3]. Many large-scale community-level preventive interventions over the last 20 years have failed or have had very modest effects [4,5]. This has been attributed in part by many commentators to the fact that investigators rarely examine in detail what happens within
Small area contextual effects on self-reported health: Evidence from Riverside, Calgary
Jenny Godley, Valerie A Haines, Penelope Hawe, Alan Shiell
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-264
Abstract: We merge data from the 2001 Census for Riverside, Calgary with a 2004 random telephone survey of Riverside residents. Our data are unique in that we have information on individuals from every DA wholly contained in the Riverside community. These data enable us to conduct multinomial logistic regression analyses of self-reported health using both individual-level and DA-level variables as predictors.We find significant variation in measures of DA socio-economic status within the Riverside community. We find that individual self-reported health is affected by variation in an index of DA-level socio-economic disadvantage, controlling for individual variation in gender, age, and socio-economic status. We investigate each aspect of the DA index of disadvantage separately, and find that average education and the percent of households that are headed by a lone parent are most important.These findings demonstrate that, even within a cohesive community, contextual effects on health can be located at a smaller geographic level than the Census tract. Research on the effects of local area socio-economic disadvantage on health that combines administrative and survey data enables researchers to develop more comprehensive measures of social and material deprivation. Our findings suggest that both social and material deprivation affect health at the local level.There is evidence showing the effects of place of residence on health, over and above individual characteristics [1-3]. Empirical evidence demonstrates that local socio-economic disadvantage has a negative impact on many objective measures of health status, including mortality [4,5], cardiac disease [6], obesity [7,8], depression [9], and maternal and child health [10,11]. Additionally, much research shows the negative impact of neighbourhood disadvantage on health care utilization [12], and on subjective measures of self-reported health, controlling for individual-level variables [13,14]. This paper focuses on the effects o
Using Social Network Analysis to Identify Key Child Care Center Staff for Obesity Prevention Interventions: A Pilot Study
Jennifer Marks,Lisa M. Barnett,Chad Foulkes,Penelope Hawe,Steven Allender
Journal of Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/919287
Abstract: Introduction. Interest has grown in how systems thinking could be used in obesity prevention. Relationships between key actors, represented by social networks, are an important focus for considering intervention in systems. Method. Two long day care centers were selected in which previous obesity prevention programs had been implemented. Measures showed ways in which physical activity and dietary policy are conversations and actions transacted through social networks (interrelationships) within centers, via an eight item closed-ended social network questionnaire. Questionnaire data were collected from (17/20; response rate 85%) long day care center staff. Social network density and centrality statistics were calculated, using UCINET social network software, to examine the role of networks in obesity prevention. Results. “Degree” (influence) and “betweeness” (gatekeeper) centrality measures of staff inter-relationships about physical activity, dietary, and policy information identified key players in each center. Network density was similar and high on some relationship networks in both centers but markedly different in others, suggesting that the network tool identified unique center social dynamics. These differences could potentially be the focus of future team capacity building. Conclusion. Social network analysis is a feasible and useful method to identify existing obesity prevention networks and key personnel in long day care centers. 1. Introduction Obesity prevention efforts in childhood are needed to arrest the increasing prevalence of obesity [1–3] and its associated health risks [4]. Children’s food preferences and eating patterns developed by early exposure to foods [5], along with physical activity and inactivity behaviors, have been shown to track from childhood into adulthood [6]. Regulated center-based childcare (such as long day care) may provide an opportune setting for promoting obesity preventing behaviors in preschool children [7, 8]. A systematic review in 2010 of interventions in childcare settings described one third of the studies as promising in improving children’s dietary and/or physical activity behaviors [9], whereas a systematic review in 2011 of interventions in early childhood was critical of current intervention design concluding that social and environmental factors were not given adequate consideration within intervention design and implementation [10]. Those who critique intervention design argue that interventions to tackle childhood obesity must consider a complex system of individual, social, and environmental
Genes, animal models and the current understanding of psychiatric disease
Penelope Austin
BMC Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-9-78
Abstract: Although neuropsychiatric diseases show substantial heritability, their inheritance is not simple. As for other common diseases that do not show simple Mendelian inheritance, the prevailing hypothesis of the last half-century has been that many common alleles, each of modest effect, combine with environmental factors to cause disease. For neuropsychiatric disorders, however, this thinking has been challenged by recent findings of an increasing number of rare mutations that have a large effect on disease susceptibility.In their review article [1], Kevin Mitchell, Josh Huang, Bita Moghaddam and Akira Sawa lay out a framework for studying the effects of these rare variants in animals, explaining why they see this as the best way to model psychiatric disease. Previously, animal models were developed on the basis of behavioral assays that appeared to represent some aspect of psychopathology, and viewed as valid when the behaviors in question were modified by medication used to treat the disease. Such models have yielded few new drugs, whereas modeling causal genetic variants in animals offers the possibility of identifying disease pathology at multiple levels and developmental timepoints, and the hope of new targets of direct relevance for therapeutic intervention in humans.In a separate article [2], Aiden Corvin, a psychiatrist and member of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium responsible for recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on psychiatric disease, considers the implications of recent genetic findings for schizophrenia patients. Currently, schizophrenia is diagnosed on the basis of combinations of symptoms that no one of which is on its own specifically diagnostic of schizophrenia; and the few treatments available are only partially effective, and only in a subset of patients. Corvin looks to a future in which diagnosis will be guided by molecular etiology, and patients may be treated with drugs known to be effective for the particular genetic subtype of di
Breast cancer risk perception: what do we know and understand?
Penelope Hopwood
Breast Cancer Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/bcr83
Abstract: Identification of breast and ovarian cancer predisposing genes [1,2] has created a demand for personalized risk information in families with a cancer family history. Services have developed to respond to this new need, and genetic risk counselling for women with histories of familial breast or ovarian cancer is widely advocated [3,4,5]. Guidelines for clinicians have been published [4,6,7], and the need to tailor information to the individual's affective state and to consider pre-existing perceptions has been recognized [8]. Psychosocial research has explored women's knowledge of personal risk before and after genetic counselling, and has begun to determine the emotional costs and benefits of acquiring risk information. It is evident that a wide range of methods have been used to examine risk perceptions, resulting in apparently contradictory results. It is therefore timely to review the state of our knowledge about risk perception and to consider whether an accurate understanding of risk matters.Studies in the UK and USA have shown that women's perceptions of the population risk of cancer and their personal vulnerability are at variance with medical perspectives. Before genetic risk counselling, a minority of women have an accurate view of the chances of developing breast cancer, and the majority either over- or underestimate [9,10]. There are interesting differences between findings, with the extent of risk overestimation appearing to be much greater in studies conducted in the USA [11,12] and Canada [13] than in UK studies [9,10], which have sometimes identified a larger proportion of underestimators. These differences may be due to true cultural differences, although access to risk information and methodological differences (such as sample derivation and the measurement of risk perception) also contribute. Genetic risk counselling has been shown to improve significantly the accuracy of risk perception [10,11,12,14,15,16], but up to 30% of UK women and two-thirds
Music and the emergence of experimental science in early modern Europe
Penelope Gouk
SoundEffects , 2012,
Abstract: The seventeenth century witnessed major advances in physics and experimental science. This paper argues that while the role of new visual technologies (e.g. the microscope) has been well studied, less attention has been paid to acoustic technologies in early modern natural philosophy. In particular, I attend to the relationship between making music, a specific form of organised sound mediated through instruments, and the production of new scientific knowledge. On the one hand, this relationship developed in the context of acoustics, a new discipline first mapped out by Francis Bacon. On the other hand, music’s relationship to natural philosophy was also more fundamental, since harmony was understood as an organising principle of the universe, the laws of musical strings providing a model for other forms of vibrative motion. I also show the importance of musical training for Galileo’s experiments and the significance of harmony for Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke.
Rese a de "Agriculture and economic development in Europe since 1870" de Pedro Lains and Vicente Pinilla (eds).
Penelope Francks
Ager : Revista de Estudios Sobre Despoblación y Desarrollo Rural , 2009,
Knowledge, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Namibia
Penelope Tom
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine , 2013,
Abstract: Background: This study examined the practices, knowledge, attitudes, and the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV-positive patients with regard to the disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Windhoek, Namibia.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding the disclosure of HIV status at Betesda Clinic in Namibia, and to determine the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study and 263 HIV-positive patients were enrolled in the study.Results: Analyses revealed that knowledge on disclosure was good, with 68% who thought it was important. The majority (73%) have disclosed and 60% disclosed within 1 week of receiving their results. The most common reasons for disclosure were that 32% needed help, 25% wanted his or her partner to go for testing, and 20% wanted to let relatives know. Reasons for non-disclosure were mainly the fear of gossip (79%). Seventy-three per cent had disclosed to their partners, and 23% had disclosed to more than one person. People’s reactions were supportive in 43%, whereas 29% understood, 9% accepted and 6% were angry. Upon disclosure 40% received help, 24% of partners were tested, 23% received psychological support and 5% were stigmatised. Disclosure was higher amongst the married and cohabitating.Conclusion: The attitude was positive with regard to knowledge of disclosure, with most participants thinking that disclosure was important and good. The attitudes and actual practices of disclosure were encouraging; however, people are disclosing only to trustedindividuals in the society and the fear of stigma is still present although the actual stigma was very low.
Políticas de la materia y residuos sólidos: descentralización y sistemas integrados
Penelope Harvey
Anthropologica , 2012,
Abstract: The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems This article and the previous Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state. Este artículo, y el anterior Encuentros y desencuentros del estado local y regional en la gestión integrada de los residuos sólidos. Una tarea pendiente en el Valle Sagrado de Teresa Tupayachi, son trabajos complementarios sobre la gestión de residuos sólidos en el valle del Vilcanota en Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi trabajaron juntas el tema. El presente artículo investiga cómo se experimentan y entienden las discontinuidades entre diversas instancias del Estado. A partir de un estudio etnográfico del Valle Sagrado, en el departamento de Cusco, el artículo examina las políticas de la materia que implica la gestión de residuos sólidos en tiempos neoliberales. Enfrentados con el problema de cómo manejar los residuos sólidos, los ciudadanos del Cusco y del Valle Sagrado experimentan una falta de responsabilidad institucional y demandan mayor presencia del Estado. El artículo describe los esfuerz
Analysis Based Blind Compressive Sensing
Julian W?rmann,Simon Hawe,Martin Kleinsteuber
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1109/LSP.2013.2252900
Abstract: In this work we address the problem of blindly reconstructing compressively sensed signals by exploiting the co-sparse analysis model. In the analysis model it is assumed that a signal multiplied by an analysis operator results in a sparse vector. We propose an algorithm that learns the operator adaptively during the reconstruction process. The arising optimization problem is tackled via a geometric conjugate gradient approach. Different types of sampling noise are handled by simply exchanging the data fidelity term. Numerical experiments are performed for measurements corrupted with Gaussian as well as impulsive noise to show the effectiveness of our method.
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