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Coping with Infertility: An Explorative Study of South African Women’s Experiences  [PDF]
Athena Pedro
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.51008
Abstract:

The expectation of getting married and having children is for many individuals a natural part of adult life. Many young people anticipate the prospect of becoming biological mothers and fathers. This expectation of parenthood emanates as individuals and couples are socially groomed to aspire to this social norm. Therefore, infertility can be a very traumatic and tormenting time for many men and women who aspire to conform to these socio-cultural conventions of normative parenthood and who believe that childbearing is central to their lives. Infertility is medically defined as the inability to achieve a pregnancy after a period of at least twelve months of regular sexual intercourse without contraception. For both men and women infertility may present pervasive feelings of incompleteness, a sense of failure and inadequacy. However, infertile women tend to endure a myriad of feeling losses and high levels of suffering and sorrow as a result of their inability to have children. This study explored a sample of South Africa women’s experiences of coping with infertility. Utilising a qualitative methodology, a diverse group of 21 married women who were diagnosed with primary infertility were recruited. Semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews were conducted and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results of the study indicated that the women reported emotional turmoil characterised by emotions such as disappointment and shock, anger and frustration, a deep sense of sadness and then progressed to experience a sense of acknowledgement that a problem existed. The findings of this study suggest that severe psychological and emotional strain accompany infertility. The coping strategies employed by these women in the study included social withdrawal and women isolating themselves from social events and social gatherings, avoiding pregnant women and women with children, engaging in escapism strategies on both a psychological level and a physical level. Employing an escapism strategy on a psychological level would involve deliberately thinking about strategies to avoid thinking about infertility, pregnancy or babies. Escapism on the physical level would include engaging in activities like shopping, working longer hours, sleeping more than usual, engaging in activities that would occupy an individual to the extent that they cannot think about

Thermochemical parameters of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline adducts of some divalent transition metal bromides  [PDF]
Pedro O. Dunstan
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.37075
Abstract: The adducts [MBr2(L)n], where M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu or Zn; L = 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (THQ); n = 0.75, 1 or 2 have been obtained from the interaction in hot solution of THQ with the metal(II) bromides. The compounds were characterized by melting points, elemental analysis, thermal analysis and IR spectroscopy. From calorimetric studies in solution, the standard enthalpies of formation of them and several other thermochemical parameters were determined. The mean standard enthalpies of the metal(II)-nitrogen bonds have been estimated.
An exploratory study of South African women’s experiences of In Vitro Fertilisation and Embryo Transfer (IVE-ET) at fertility clinics  [PDF]
Athena Pedro, Kelvin Mwaba
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.38063
Abstract: Infertility is considered to be a growing problem worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, at least 20%-50% of couples of reproductive age experience a fertility problem and 30% are diagnosed with infertility. This study explores the experiences of women in South Africa who are involuntary childless and explores their psychological and emotional experiences of In Vitro Fertilisation and Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET). Utilising a qualitative methodology, a diverse group of 21 married women diagnosed with infertility and who had undergone at least two cycles of IVF-ET were recruited. Semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews were conducted and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results of the study indicated that the women perceived themselves as not conforming to a dominant belief system and as a result felt compelled to explore all the medical options available. They reported emotional turmoil characterised by primary binary emotions of anxiety-excitement and nervousness-optimistic. These emotions were experienced throughout the five stages of the IVF-ET treatment cycles. A synopsis of the psychological and emotional responses to the IVF-ET treatment is discussed. The findings of this study suggest the need for the incorporation of a mandatory psychosocial intervention as part of infertility management. Greater attention to the psychological and emotional repercussions of infertility treatment could lead to a more personalised client-approach which, in turn, would prepare infertile women and couples for the emotional demands of the treatment.
Patterns of Interpersonal Coordination in Rugby Union: Analysis of Collective Behaviours in a Match Situation  [PDF]
Marta Rodrigues, Pedro Passos
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.34034
Abstract: This study aims to analyze how intra-team coordination patterns in the team sport of rugby union influenced successful performance. We hypothesized that high interpersonal coordination patterns are a crucial issue to cross (or not) the gain line. Video record and digitizing procedures were used as a method to collect data for further analysis of interpersonal coordination patterns that took place during the formation of subunits of attack. The results showed the existence of three types of outputs, which differ depending on the correlations between attackers and defenders. Therefore, for high and positive values of interpersonal coordination (r values between 0.8 < r < 1), there are possibilities of action that lead to success when the opponents have inverse or lower values of correlation. The conclusion was that interpersonal coordination within subunits becomes a relevant factor in analyzing the success in each game situation.
A Qualitative Exploration of South African Women’s Psychological and Emotional Experiences of Infertility  [PDF]
Athena Pedro, Michelle Andipatin
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.45040
Abstract:

Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Africa, the study of reproductive health in Africa, has for the most part, not addressed the impact of involuntary childlessness on women. In contrast, the health priority has been on fertility regulation rather than on infertility. In Sub-Saharan Africa, at least 20% - 50% of couples of reproductive age experience a fertility problem and 30% are diagnosed with infertility. This study explored a sample of South Africa women’s psychological and emotional experiences of infertility or involuntary childlessness. Utilising a qualitative methodology, 21 married women who were diagnosed with infertility were recruited. Semi-structured, indepth individual interviews were conducted and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results of the study indicated that the women reported emotional turmoil characterised by emotions such as disappointment and shock, anger and frustration, a deep sense of sadness and then progressed to experience a sense of acknowledgement that a problem existed. Within each of these emotional phases the emotions of hope and optimism were present. The findings of this study suggest that severe psychological and emotional tug-of-war effects accompany infertility. Possible coping strategies for women struggling with infertility are discussed.

Thermochemical Parameters of Tetramethylthiourea Adducts of Certain Metal(II) Bromides  [PDF]
Pedro Oliver Dunstan
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2015.51002
Abstract: Complexes of the general formula [MBr2(TMTU)n] (where M is Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn or Cd; TMTU is Tetramethylthiourea; n is 0.75, 2 or 3) were obtained by the reaction of salts and ligand in solution. The bromides were selected among several other salts because they had thermochemical data in the literature. Properties as capillary melting points; C, H, N, Br and metal contents; TG/DTG and DSC curves; and IR and electronic spectra were determined. The values of several thermodynamic parameters for the complexes were found by solution calorimetry. From them, the standard enthalpies of the metal-sulphur coordinated bonds were calculated. The standard enthalpies of the formation of the gaseous phase adducts also were estimated.
The Presence of Carnism on Portuguese Television  [PDF]
Rui Pedro Fonseca
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38004
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a research about carnism on Portuguese television. It begins by presenting a case study of MasterChef program (TVI) which conveys carnism in both practices and language, and from which some characteristics of their dominant representations are described. Subsequently, the paper presents the indicators of the presence of carnism in the Portuguese television programming between 2013 and 2014, in the TVI, RTP1 and SIC channels. The data reveals that there is hegemony of the carnist ideology in the main channels of the Portuguese television. Also, the samples collected and viewed show no mention of the impacts of carnism in its various dimensions (non-human animals, environment, human health and sustainability).
An Iterative Method for Solving Two Special Cases of Lane-Emden Type Equation  [PDF]
Pedro Pablo Cárdenas Alzate
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.43021
Abstract:

In this work we apply the differential transformation method or DTM for solving some classes of Lane-Emden type equations as a model for the dimensionless density distribution in an isothermal gas sphere \"\" and as a study of the gravitational potential of (white-dwarf) stars ,\"\" which are nonlinear ordinary differential equations on the semi-infinite domain [1] [2]. The efficiency of the DTM is illustrated by investigating the convergence results for this type of the Lane-Emden equations. The numerical results show the reliability and accuracy of this method.

A Survey of the Implementation of Numerical Schemes for Linear Advection Equation  [PDF]
Pedro Pablo Cárdenas Alzate
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2014.48052
Abstract:

The interpolation method in a semi-Lagrangian scheme is decisive to its performance. Given the number of grid points one is considering to use for the interpolation, it does not necessarily follow that maximum formal accuracy should give the best results. For the advection equation, the driving force of this method is the method of the characteristics, which accounts for the flow of information in the model equation. This leads naturally to an interpolation problem since the foot point is not in general located on a grid point. We use another interpolation scheme that will allow achieving the high order for the box initial condition.

IoT Testbed Business Model  [PDF]
Edgar M. Silva, Pedro Maló
Advances in Internet of Things (AIT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ait.2014.44006
Abstract: The Internet-of-Things (IoT) is today one of the hypes in the technological world but despite the enormous attention and research investment, the clear business value is still hard to perceive. IoT deployments are costly to be installed, managed and maintained, and need to provide a very clear value to justify the investments. For another viewpoint, IoT technologies need to be proven before deployment, which implies the need to test and assess IoT solutions in real settings and involve the actual target users. And as such, this presents an opportunity to have IoT deployments with a clear business model mainly focused on real-life large-scale research and technological experimentation. This would mean having a sustainable IoT infrastructure in-place based on the provision of experimentation services and a trial environment to industry and research, which then could also present an opportunity to establish added-value (business) services. This is the exact idea of the flagship SmartSantander testbed facility and especially its major deployment in the city of Santander, Spain. The SmartSantander facility business model is built around experimentally-driven research and technology development thus attracting many experimenters from industry and European research projects. This model makes it possible to sustain an outstanding large-scale IoT deployment of around 12,000 sensors and on top of it the development of new the development of new services and applications especially targeting the needs of users (citizens, businesses, authorities) in smart-cities. This paper studies the business model of outstanding SmartSantander facility in order to provide a generic Business Model for IoT testbeds that can provide guidance and be adapted by owners (or owners to-be) wishing to exploit their IoT deployments as facilities supporting experimentation and trials of IoT solutions.
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