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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 185545 matches for " Pedro Barbas de; "
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Produ??o de memórias falsas com listas de associados: análise do efeito do nível de processamento e da natureza da prova de memória
Rodrigues, Eduarda Pimentel;Albuquerque, Pedro Barbas de;
Psicologia USP , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-65642007000400008
Abstract: false memories have been widely studied using an experimental procedure called drm paradigm (deese/roediger/mcdermott). this paradigm produces memory illusions due to the presentation of lists of words associated to a critical nonpresented word. one line of research on this topic aims at identifying the moment when the false memories are created and the explanation of the mechanisms underling false memories. in this paper we present a review about the effect of level-of-processing and the nature of memory task for the boost or inhibition of false memories created by means of lists of semantic associates.
Recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure/tidal ventilation titration in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome: translating experimental results to clinical practice
Carmen Barbas, Gustavo de Mattos, Eduardo Borges
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3800
Abstract: It is well known that the main phenomenon of hypoxemia in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is the high shunt fraction caused by the nonaerated areas of the lungs. During the disease process, the volume of extravascular lung water and the lung weight increase and promote the collapse of peripheral airways and lung parenchyma, mainly in the gravitation-dependent lung regions (Fig. 1). This phenomenon can be exacerbated by anesthesia and conditions of chest wall impairment. The relationship between the nonaerated, poorly aerated, normally aerated and hyperinflated lung regions depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the ALI/ARDS and the net result of the interaction of the pressure applied to the lung parenchyma (airway pressure/end expiratory pressure) and chest wall mechanics, as illustrated in the report by Henzler and colleagues [1] appearing in this issue of Critical Care. The most important force is not the airway pressure or tidal volume itself but the stress and strain that this airway pressure/tidal volume generates and the duration of these stresses and strains. At the bedside, the rough equivalent of stress is transpulmonary pressure, and the rough equivalent of the strain is tidal volume/end expiratory lung volume [2].This modern and complex mechanical ventilatory approach of ALI/ARDS recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)/tidal ventilation titration is a meshwork of interdependent but heterogeneously affected lung subunits that are behave according to different and multiple pressure–volume envelopes of the respiratory system during mechanical ventilation, which in some cases can be represented by respiratory mechanics (depending on the heterogeneity and etiology of the ALI/ARDS and the net results of the mechanical configuration of the respiratory system and the applied inspiratory/expiratory pressure along the mechanical ventilatory support duration) [3]. In 1998, a Brazilian prospective, random
Síndrome de Churg-Strauss
Barros, Juliana Monteiro de;Antunes, Telma;Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente;
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-37132005000700008
Abstract: churg-strauss syndrome is characterized by asthma, eosinophilia and various degrees of systemic vasculitis. the most severe forms of the disease, presenting cardiac, gastrointestinal, central nervous system and renal involvement, require cyclophosphamide therapy.
Outras vasculites pulmonares
Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente;Barros, Juliana Monteiro de;Santana, Alfredo;
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-37132005000700009
Abstract: among the various forms of pulmonary vasculitis are microscopic polyangiitis, takayasu's arteritis, beh?et's syndrome and henoch-sch?nlein purpura, as well as those forms related to rheumatologic diseases. the diagnosis is made through analysis of clinical manifestations, together with radiological and pathological findings.
Correlation between surgical lung biopsy and autopsy findings and clinical data in patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory failure
Canzian, Mauro;Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos;Taga, Marcel Frederico de Lima;Barbas, Carmen Silvia Valente;Capelozzi, Vera Luiza;
Clinics , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322006000500009
Abstract: introduction: surgical lung biopsy is an invasive procedure performed when other procedures have failed to provide an urgent and specific diagnosis, but there may be reluctance to perform it in critically ill patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. purpose: to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, the changes in therapy and survival of patients with diffuse lung infiltrates, mostly presenting acute respiratory failure, who underwent surgical biopsy. methods: we retrospectively examined medical records and surgical lung biopsies from 1982 to 2003 of 63 patients older than 18 years with diffuse infiltrates. clinical diagnoses were compared to histopathological ones, from biopsies and autopsies. laboratory and epidemiological data were evaluated, and their relationship to hospital survival was analyzed. results: all histological specimens exhibited abnormalities, mostly presenting benign/inflammatory etiologies. fifteen patients had an etiologic factor determined in biopsy, most commonly mycobacterium tuberculosis. the preoperative diagnosis was rectified in 37 patients. autopsies were obtained in 25 patients and confirmed biopsy results in 72% of cases. therapy was changed for 65% of patients based on biopsy results. forty-nine percent of patients survived to be discharged from the hospital. characteristics that differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors included sex (p = 0.05), presence of comorbidity (p = 0.05), spo2 (p = 0.05), and presence of diffuse alveolar damage in the biopsy (p = 0.004). conclusion: surgical lung biopsy provided a specific, accurate etiologic diagnosis in many patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates when clinical improvement did not occur after standard treatment. surgical lung biopsy may reveal a specific diagnosis that requires distinct treatment, and it would probably have an impact in lowering the mortality of these patients.
Síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus
Pincelli Mariangela Pimentel,Barbas Carmen Sílvia Valente,Carvalho Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de,Souza Luiza Terezinha Madia de
Jornal de Pneumologia , 2003,
Abstract: A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus é uma doen a de conhecimento relativamente recente e freqüentemente fatal, apresentando-se como síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. No Brasil, desde o primeiro surto, relatado em novembro/dezembro de 1993, em Juquitiba, 226 casos já foram registrados pela Funda o Nacional da Saúde. A doen a afeta indivíduos previamente hígidos, apresentando-se com pródromo febril e sintomas semelhantes aos de um resfriado comum, podendo rapidamente evoluir para edema pulmonar, insuficiência respiratória aguda e choque. A hemoconcentra o e a plaquetopenia s o comuns da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus, e o quadro radiológico típico é de um infiltrado intersticial bilateral difuso, que progride rapidamente para consolida es alveolares, paralelamente à piora do quadro clínico. A mortalidade inicial era em torno de 75% e declinou para aproximadamente 35%, nos últimos anos. Os pacientes que sobrevivem geralmente recuperam-se completamente, cerca de uma semana após o estabelecimento do quadro respiratório. O agente causal, n o reconhecido até há pouco, foi identificado como um hantavírus, cujo reservatório natural s o animais roedores da família Muridae, subfamília Sigmodontinae. O tratamento específico antiviral ainda n o é bem estabelecido, estando em estudo a eficácia de ribavirina. Cuidados de terapia intensiva como ventila o mecanica e monitoramento hemodinamico invasivo s o necessários nas formas mais graves da doen a. Essas medidas, se instituídas precocemente, podem melhorar o prognóstico e a sobrevida dos pacientes com síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus.
Parallel Driving and Modulatory Pathways Link the Prefrontal Cortex and Thalamus
Basilis Zikopoulos, Helen Barbas
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000848
Abstract: Pathways linking the thalamus and cortex mediate our daily shifts from states of attention to quiet rest, or sleep, yet little is known about their architecture in high-order neural systems associated with cognition, emotion and action. We provide novel evidence for neurochemical and synaptic specificity of two complementary circuits linking one such system, the prefrontal cortex with the ventral anterior thalamic nucleus in primates. One circuit originated from the neurochemical group of parvalbumin-positive thalamic neurons and projected focally through large terminals to the middle cortical layers, resembling ‘drivers’ in sensory pathways. Parvalbumin thalamic neurons, in turn, were innervated by small ‘modulatory’ type cortical terminals, forming asymmetric (presumed excitatory) synapses at thalamic sites enriched with the specialized metabotropic glutamate receptors. A second circuit had a complementary organization: it originated from the neurochemical group of calbindin-positive thalamic neurons and terminated through small ‘modulatory’ terminals over long distances in the superficial prefrontal layers. Calbindin thalamic neurons, in turn, were innervated by prefrontal axons through small and large terminals that formed asymmetric synapses preferentially at sites with ionotropic glutamate receptors, consistent with a driving pathway. The largely parallel thalamo-cortical pathways terminated among distinct and laminar-specific neurochemical classes of inhibitory neurons that differ markedly in inhibitory control. The balance of activation of these parallel circuits that link a high-order association cortex with the thalamus may allow shifts to different states of consciousness, in processes that are disrupted in psychiatric diseases.
Altered neural connectivity in excitatory and inhibitory cortical circuits in autism
Basilis Zikopoulos,Helen Barbas
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00609
Abstract: Converging evidence from diverse studies suggests that atypical brain connectivity in autism affects in distinct ways short- and long-range cortical pathways, disrupting neural communication and the balance of excitation and inhibition. This hypothesis is based mostly on functional non-invasive studies that show atypical synchronization and connectivity patterns between cortical areas in children and adults with autism. Indirect methods to study the course and integrity of major brain pathways at low resolution show changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) or diffusivity of the white matter in autism. Findings in post-mortem brains of adults with autism provide evidence of changes in the fine structure of axons below prefrontal cortices, which communicate over short- or long-range pathways with other cortices and subcortical structures. Here we focus on evidence of cellular and axon features that likely underlie the changes in short- and long-range communication in autism. We review recent findings of changes in the shape, thickness, and volume of brain areas, cytoarchitecture, neuronal morphology, cellular elements, and structural and neurochemical features of individual axons in the white matter, where pathology is evident even in gross images. We relate cellular and molecular features to imaging and genetic studies that highlight a variety of polymorphisms and epigenetic factors that primarily affect neurite growth and synapse formation and function in autism. We report preliminary findings of changes in autism in the ratio of distinct types of inhibitory neurons in prefrontal cortex, known to shape network dynamics and the balance of excitation and inhibition. Finally we present a model that synthesizes diverse findings by relating them to developmental events, with a goal to identify common processes that perturb development in autism and affect neural communication, reflected in altered patterns of attention, social interactions, and language.
Induction of Fetal Hemoglobin In Vivo Mediated by a Synthetic γ-Globin Zinc Finger Activator
Flávia C. Costa,Halyna Fedosyuk,Renee Neades,Johana Bravo de Los Rios,Carlos F. Barbas III,Kenneth R. Peterson
Anemia , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/507894
Abstract: Sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia patients are phenotypically normal if they carry compensatory hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) mutations that result in increased levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF, γ-globin chains) in adulthood. Thus, research has focused on manipulating the reactivation of γ-globin gene expression during adult definitive erythropoiesis as the most promising therapy to treat these hemoglobinopathies. Artificial transcription factors (ATFs) are synthetic proteins designed to bind at a specific DNA sequence and modulate gene expression. The artificial zinc finger gg1-VP64 was designed to target the −117 region of the Aγ-globin gene proximal promoter and activate expression of this gene. Previous studies demonstrated that HbF levels were increased in murine chemical inducer of dimerization (CID)-dependent bone marrow cells carrying a human β-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (β-YAC) transgene and in CD34
Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to vivax malaria: case report and literature review
Lomar, André V.;Vidal, José E.;Lomar, Frederico P.;Barbas, Carmen Valente;Matos, Gustavo Janot de;Boulos, Marcos;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702005000500011
Abstract: severe pulmonary involvement in malaria has been frequently reported in cases of plasmodium falciparum infection, but rarely in vivax malaria. among the 11 previous cases of vivax-related severe respiratory involvement described in the literature, all except one developed it after the beginning of anti-malarial treatment; these appear to correspond to an exacerbation of the inflammatory response. we report the case of a 43-year-old brazilian woman living in a malaria-endemic area, who presented acute respiratory distress syndrome (ards) caused by p. vivax before starting anti-malarial treatment. the diagnosis was made based on microscopic methods. a negative rapid immunochromatographic assay, based on the detection of histidine rich protein-2 (hrp-2) of p. falciparum, indicated that falciparum malaria was unlikely. after specific anti-plasmodial therapy and intensive supportive care, the patient was discharged from the hospital. we conclude that vivax malaria-associated ards can develop before anti-malarial therapy.
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