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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223790 matches for " Payaningal R. Somanath "
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Rac1 Activation Driven by 14-3-3ζ Dimerization Promotes Prostate Cancer Cell-Matrix Interactions, Motility and Transendothelial Migration
Anna Goc, Maha Abdalla, Ahmad Al-Azayzih, Payaningal R. Somanath
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040594
Abstract: 14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed dimeric adaptor proteins that have emerged as key mediators of many cell signaling pathways in multiple cell types. Its effects are mainly mediated by binding to selective phosphoserine/threonine proteins. The importance of 14-3-3 proteins in cancer have only started to become apparent and its exact role in cancer progression as well as the mechanisms by which 14-3-3 proteins mediate cancer cell function remain unknown. While protein 14-3-3σ is widely accepted as a tumor suppressor, 14-3-3ζ, β and γ isoforms have been shown to have tumor promoting effects. Despite the importance of 14-3-3 family in mediating various cell processes, the exact role and mechanism of 14-3-3ζ remain unexplored. In the current study, we investigated the role of protein 14-3-3ζ in prostate cancer cell motility and transendothelial migration using biochemical, molecular biology and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing approaches as well as cell based functional assays. Our study indicated that expression with wild-type protein 14-3-3ζ significantly enhanced Rac activity in PC3 cells. In contrast, expression of dimer-resistant mutant of protein 14-3-3ζ (DM-14-3-3) inhibited Rac activity and associated phosphorylation of p21 activated kinase-1 and 2. Expression with wild-type 14-3-3ζ or constitutively active Rac1 enhanced extracellular matrix recognition, lamellipodia formation, cell migration and trans-endothelial migration by PC3 cells. In contrast, expression with DM 14-3-3ζ or DN-Rac1 in PC3 cells significantly inhibited these cell functions. Our results demonstrate for the first time that 14-3-3ζ enhances prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration in vitro via activation of Rac1-GTPase and is an important target for therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer.
Vascular Protection by Angiotensin Receptor Antagonism Involves Differential VEGF Expression in Both Hemispheres after Experimental Stroke
Weihua Guan, Payaningal R. Somanath, Anna Kozak, Anna Goc, Azza B. El-Remessy, Adviye Ergul, Maribeth H. Johnson, Ahmed Alhusban, Sahar Soliman, Susan C. Fagan
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024551
Abstract: We identified that the angiotensin receptor antagonist, candesartan, has profound neurovascular protective properties when administered after ischemic stroke and was associated with a proangiogenic state at least partly explained by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). However, the spatial distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms and their receptors remained unknown. Protein analysis identified a significant increase in vascular endothelial grow factor B (VEGFB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the ischemic hemispheres (with increased VEGF receptor 1 activation) of treated animals (p<0.05) which was co-occurring with an increase in protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation (p<0.05). An increase in VEGFA protein in the contralesional hemisphere corresponded to a significant increase in vascular density at seven days (p<0.01) after stroke onset. Vascular restoration by candesartan after stroke maybe related to differential regional upregulation of VEGFB and VEGFA, promoting a “prosurvival state” in the ischemic hemisphere and angiogenesis in the contralesional side, respectively. These vascular changes in both hemispheres after effective treatment are likely to contribute to enhanced recovery after stroke.
The Effect of Input DNA Copy Number on Genotype Call and Characterising SNP Markers in the Humpback Whale Genome Using a Nanofluidic Array
Somanath Bhat, Andrea M. Polanowski, Mike C. Double, Simon N. Jarman, Kerry R. Emslie
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039181
Abstract: Recent advances in nanofluidic technologies have enabled the use of Integrated Fluidic Circuits (IFCs) for high-throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping (GT). In this study, we implemented and validated a relatively low cost nanofluidic system for SNP-GT with and without Specific Target Amplification (STA). As proof of principle, we first validated the effect of input DNA copy number on genotype call rate using well characterised, digital PCR (dPCR) quantified human genomic DNA samples and then implemented the validated method to genotype 45 SNPs in the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, nuclear genome. When STA was not incorporated, for a homozygous human DNA sample, reaction chambers containing, on average 9 to 97 copies, showed 100% call rate and accuracy. Below 9 copies, the call rate decreased, and at one copy it was 40%. For a heterozygous human DNA sample, the call rate decreased from 100% to 21% when predicted copies per reaction chamber decreased from 38 copies to one copy. The tightness of genotype clusters on a scatter plot also decreased. In contrast, when the same samples were subjected to STA prior to genotyping a call rate and a call accuracy of 100% were achieved. Our results demonstrate that low input DNA copy number affects the quality of data generated, in particular for a heterozygous sample. Similar to human genomic DNA, a call rate and a call accuracy of 100% was achieved with whale genomic DNA samples following multiplex STA using either 15 or 45 SNP-GT assays. These calls were 100% concordant with their true genotypes determined by an independent method, suggesting that the nanofluidic system is a reliable platform for executing call rates with high accuracy and concordance in genomic sequences derived from biological tissue.
A case of hemeplegic migraine with leptomeningeal angiomatosis.
Girija A,Somanath V
Neurology India , 2002,
Abstract: A 43 year old man with thirty years history of recurrent hemiplegic migraine, consistently occurring on one side (left sided paresthesia and weakness of less than forty five minutes followed by right sided headache) and lately increasing to once in three days was investigated. CT head and carotid angiogram showed gyral calcification with prominent medullary and subependymal veins confirming the diagnosis of leptomeningeal angiomatosis. Management and followup is discussed.
LCASE: Lightweight Cellular Automata-based Symmetric-key Encryption
Somanath Tripathy,Sukumar Nandi
International Journal of Network Security , 2009,
Abstract: We propose a lightweight block cipher that supports 128-bit block size with 128-, 192- and 256-bit keys, to confirm with the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) specification. All components of LCASE are chosen to be cellular automata-based so as to achieve higher parallelism and simplify the implementation. Apart from that, the other virtues of LCASE are its high speed and cheap cost along with being resistant against timing analysis attacks.
Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome - A Report Of Nineteen Cases
Girija AS,somanath V,John JK,Jose J
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2001,
Abstract: Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) is a rare disorder of the neuromuscular junction. We report here 19 patients, 7 sporadic and 12 from 6 families, with the age at diagnosis ranging between 1.5 years to 26 years (Mean-15yrs). There were 7 males and 12 females. All patients had ophthalmoplegia. Bulbar and limb muscle weakness with preserved reflexes was observed in 12 patients, All except tow presented with fluctuating opthalmoplegia, one each for cosmetic appearance and one for fatigue, Three patients had prognathism. All patients had normal ECG and serum creatine kinase levels. Acetylcholine receptor (AchR) antibodies were absent in all. Electrophysiological workup showed a decremental response to repetitive nerve stimulation at low rates (LRS) in all, Electrophysiological workup showed a decremental response to repetitive response to single stimulus. Needle EMG was normal. All patients had good response to parenteral neostigmine which was confirmed electrophysiologically. Second degree consanguinity was observed in 4 sporadic and 4 familial cases. Spontaneous remission was reported in none. This group of cases conforming to the class of CMS are noteworthy, because of high number, paucity of dysmorphic features, relatively benign course and response to anti cholinesterase drugs, Recognition of this entity from autoimmune myasthenia gravis by seronegativity and onset at birth or childhood is important as immunotherapy and thymectomy ineffective in CMS.
Epilepsy, Acquired Aphasia with Focal Cortical Dysplasia
Girija A.S,Somanath V
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 1999,
Abstract: A six year old boy having complex partial seizures with secondary generalization of four months duration developing isolated expressive dysphasia, later progressing to global aphasia is being reported. His awake EEG showed a left temporal spike wave discharge and sleep EEG showed continuous spike and ware discharges. MR imaging demonstrated focal cortical dysplasia in the left frontal and opercular region, a combination that has not been reported earlier.
Multidrug resistant yeasts in synanthropic wild birds
Alexander Lord, Kavitha Mohandas, Sushela Somanath, Stephen Ambu
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-0711-9-11
Abstract: Species characterisations of yeast isolates and determinations of antimycotic susceptibility profiles were undertaken using the commercial characterization kit, Integral System Yeasts Plus (Liofilchem, Italy).Fourteen species of yeasts were detected in the bird faecal samples.Candida albicans was present in 28.89% of bird faecal samples, Candida krusei (13.33%), Candida tropicalis (4.44%), Candida glabrata (4.44%), Candida parapsilosis (2.22%), Candida lambica (2.22%), Candida stellatoidea (2.22%), Candida rugosa (2.22%) and Candida lusitaniae (2.22%). Amongst the non-candidal yeast isolates, Cryptococcus laurentii was present in 6.67% of bird faecal samples, Cryptococcus uniguttulatus (4.44%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (4.44%), Trichosporon pullulans (2.22%), Trichosporon pullulans/Cryptococcus albidus (8.89%) and Rhodotorula rubra/Rhodotorula glutinis (4.44%). Of the isolated yeasts, 18.1% (or 26/144) were found to be resistant to all 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against i.e. Nystatin, Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Econazole, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Fluconazole 16 and Fluconazole 64. 45.8% (or 66/144) of the bird faecal yeast isolates were resistant to four or more of the 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against.This finding is of public health significance as these synanthropic wild birds may be reservoirs for transmission of drug resistant yeast infections to humans.Wild birds that inhabit urban regions have long been known to harbour human pathogens with zoonotic potential. Amongst reported cases are Listeria monocytogenes in wild birds around Helsinki [1], Chlamydophila psittaci in pigeons and other free-living species in Zagreb [2], Campylobacter spp. in ducks in Washington [3], Salmonella spp. in gulls in the Czech Republic [4], pathogenic Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella spp., Aeromonas hydrophilia and Providencia alcalifaciens in Canada geese found in London parks [5], Cryptosporid
On The Ternary Quadratic Equation
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The ternary quadratic Diophantine equation 5(x^2+y^2 )-9xy=19z^2 is analyzed for its patterns of non zero distinct integral solutions.
The Association between Noncommercial Partnerships and Risk of HIV among Female Sex Workers: Evidences from a Cross-Sectional Behavioral and Biological Survey in Southern India
Renuka Pulikallu Somanath,Ram Manohar Mishra,Niranjan Saggurti,Prabhakar Parimi
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/108630
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