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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 34253 matches for " Paulo Hilário Nascimento; "
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Diagnósticos histopatológicos das pneumoconioses
Capelozzi, Vera Luiza;Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento;
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-37132006000800015
Abstract: asbestos-related diseases constitute a major health problem due to the great number of workers exposed to asbestos over the past 50 years. personal injury lawsuits against industries that deal with asbestos number in the hundreds, and new cases continue to be filed. the scientific issues related to asbestos are complex, and, although the broad outlines of asbestos-related diseases have been well-established, many significant aspects (such as the pathology involved) are poorly understood. in brazil, asbestos has been mined commercially since 1940, with production levels recently approaching 200,000 tons/year, resulting in the asbestos exposure of approximately 10,000 workers in the mining activity, and an unknown number of workers in asbestos-cement industry, primarily roofers and concrete rooftop water tank installers. one study, using appropriate methods of scientific investigation to evaluate the effects of such exposure on the health of asbestos mine workers in brazil was conducted as part of a multicenter study and entitled "morbidity and mortality among workers exposed to asbestos in mining activities, 1940-1996". drawing upon the experience acquired during the course of that study, the objective of the current report was to give an overview of asbestos-related diseases, with a special focus on the difficulties involved in establishing the histopathological diagnosis.
Effects of Environmental Water Contamination in the Reproductive System of Mice  [PDF]
Paulo Augusto Amador Pereira, Ana Júlia Lichtenfels, Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira, Olaf Malm, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Alfésio Luís Ferreira Braga, Chin An Lin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.47A014
Abstract:

This study investigated the effects on the reproductive system of balb-c mice exposed to water collected from different sources near to a deactivated fertilizer waste depositary. Eighty male mice were separated in four groups: Group A (mineral water); Group B (water from the water treatment station); Group C (water from Cubatao city); Group D (water from the waste depositary region). They were exposed to water since they were weaned until they reached sexual maturity, then they were coupled with females in reproductive age and after this mating time they were sacrificed. The evaluated parameters were testicle weight, sperm analysis, pregnancy rate, sex ratio of the offspring and Sertoli cell count. The analysis of the water did not show presence of pollutants in the Group “A” and Group “C” water. Group “B” showed low level of cadmium, 3.58 ± 0.50 μg/L. Group “D” showed the presence of PAH’s and high levels of lead (221 ± 16 μg/L), cadmiun (12.6 ± 1.2 μg/L) and mercury (5.3 ± 1.1 μg/L). The tests of Levene and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were employed to verify the homogeneity of the variances and the tack to the normal curve, respectively. ANOVA was used for parametric tests and Kruskall-Wallis was used for non-parametric tests, while Turkey tests were employed for multiple comparisons. There were no differences between groups in testicle weight, sperm analysis, pregnancy rate and Sertoli cell count. There was a significant reduction in sex-ratio of the offspring in Group B. This alteration cannot be explained by the cadmium levels in Group B water. In the present study we cannot associate the exposition to contaminated water from the waste depositary and reproductive alterations.

Elemental Composition of PM2.5 in Araraquara City (Southeast Brazil) during Seasons with and without Sugar Cane Burning  [PDF]
Flavio Soares Silva, Ricardo Henrique Moreton Godoi, Romà T auler, Paulo Afonso de André, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Rene van Grieken, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de Marchi
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.65041
Abstract: Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 μm (PM2.5), present in polluted air, has been associated with a large spectrum of health impairments, mainly because of its deep deposition into the lungs. Araraquara City (Southeast Brazil) is surrounded by sugar-cane plantations, which are burned to facilitate the harvesting; this process causes environmental pollution due to the large amounts of soot that are released into the atmosphere. In this work, the elemental composition of PM2.5 was studied in two scenarios, namely in sugar-cane harvesting (HV) and in non-harvesting (NHV) seasons. The sampling strategy included one campaign in each season. PM2.5 was collected using a dichotomous sampler (10 L·min-1, 24 h) with PTFE filters. Information concerning the bulk elemental concentration was provided by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Enrichment factor analysis indicated that S, Cl, K, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb were highly enriched relative to their crustal ratios (to Al). Principal component analysis was used to get some insight about the sources of the elements. Principal component 1 (PC1) explained 30.5% of data variance. The elements that had high loading (>0.7) were: S, Cr, As, and Pb; these are associated with combustion of fossil fuels. In principal component 2 (PC2), Cl, Cu, Zn, and Cd showed high loadings; these elements are associated with biomass burning. The Ni concentration found is three times larger than the threshold of risk for lung cancer, as recommended by the World Health Organization.
Remodelamento br?nquico na asma
MAUAD, THAIS;SOUZA, SANDRINI LOPES DE;SALDIVA, PAULO HILáRIO NASCIMENTO;DOLHNIKOFF, MARISA;
Jornal de Pneumologia , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-35862000000200009
Abstract: the relationship between structure and function in asthma has been extensively studied. all the compartments of the airway have been shown to have some structural alterations contributing to functional defects. the structural alterations are thought to be a consequence of the chronic inflammation present in asthmatic airways, leading ultimately to remodeling. the decline of the ventilatory function over time in some asthmatic patients may be a consequence of airway remodeling. in this review, the authors describe the phenomena leading to airway remodeling and discuss the role of inflammatory mediators involved in this process. the structural alterations of the asthmatic airways are presented and the possible correlated functional defects are discussed.
Modelos MLG e MAG para análise da associa??o entre polui??o atmosférica e marcadores de morbi-mortalidade: uma introdu??o baseada em dados da cidade de S?o Paulo
Concei??o, Gleice Margarete de Souza;Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento;Singer, Julio da Motta;
Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-790X2001000300007
Abstract: in this study, we have described and compared two classes of models - the generalized linear models (glm) and the generalized additive models (gam) _ which can be used to evaluate the association between atmospheric pollution and morbidity and mortality counts. we consider gam as an alternative for modeling unspecific nonlinear relationships, and show that this class of models constitute a good option to represent both seasonality and the relation between the outcome and the meteorological variables. as an illustration, we evaluate the association between mortality in elderly people and air pollution in s?o paulo, brazil for the period ranging from 1994 to 1997. the two modeling classes have produced coherent results, but the most sophisticated models were more powerful to detect significant effects. associations between mortality and the levels of co, so2 and, in to a lesser extent, pm10 were observed.
Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil
Ferron,Mariana Maleronka; Lima,André Klafke de; Saldiva,Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Gouveia,Nelson;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102012000200004
Abstract: objective: to estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. methods: a cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in porto alegre, southern brazil. blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. a preliminary environmental evaluation was carried out with direct analysis of soil and indirect analysis of air pollution with bioindicators to identify possible sources of contamination. to analyze lead concentrations from the different collection sites, for each type of material studied, anova was performed with a brown-forsythe adjustment for heteroscedasticity and with dunnett's t3 procedure for multiple comparisons of unequal variances. results: blood lead levels > 10.0 μg/dl was found in 16.5% of children. recycling of waste at home, low father's education level, and increased age of children were associated with increase blood lead levels. high lead levels were found in soil, and there was little indication of lead air pollution. conclusions: a high prevalence of lead poisoning was identified, and the potential sources of contamination in this community appear related to waste recylcing activities. studies should be conducted with other populations of brazilian children and evaluate potential sources of local and general contamination, to accurately characterize this issue in brazil.
Spatial analysis of urban violence based on emergency room data
Lima,Liliam Pereira de; Singer,Julio da Motta; Saldiva,Paulo Hilário do Nascimento;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102008000400010
Abstract: objective: to estimate the spatial intensity of urban violence events using wavelet-based methods and emergency room data. methods: information on victims attended at the emergency room of a public hospital in the city of s?o paulo, southeastern brazil, from january 1, 2002 to january 11, 2003 were obtained from hospital records. the spatial distribution of 3,540 events was recorded and a uniform random procedure was used to allocate records with incomplete addresses. point processes and wavelet analysis technique were used to estimate the spatial intensity, defined as the expected number of events by unit area. results: of all georeferenced points, 59% were accidents and 40% were assaults. there is a non-homogeneous spatial distribution of the events with high concentration in two districts and three large avenues in the southern area of the city of s?o paulo. conclusions: hospital records combined with methodological tools to estimate intensity of events are useful to study urban violence. the wavelet analysis is useful in the computation of the expected number of events and their respective confidence bands for any sub-region and, consequently, in the specification of risk estimates that could be used in decision-making processes for public policies.
Prostate carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: case report and literature review
Fernandes, Raquel Civolani Marques;Matsushita, Marcus de Medeiros;Mauad, Thais;Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento;
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0041-87812001000500005
Abstract: neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic carcinomas generally confers a more aggressive clinical behavior and less favorable prognosis than usual prostatic carcinomas. in this manuscript, we report a case of a 58-year-old man with prostatic carcinoma who died 1 year after initial diagnosis. autopsy showed a disseminated prostatic carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. there were metastasis to the spleen, an organ infrequently involved by disseminated epithelial neoplasms. neuroendocrine differentiation was demonstrated by immunohistochemical studies in the biopsy and autopsy material.
Avalia??o antropométrica e consumo alimentar em crian?as menores de cinco anos residentes em um município da regi?o do semiárido nordestino com cobertura parcial do programa bolsa família
Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Médici;Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz;Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento;
Revista de Nutri??o , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-52732010000200005
Abstract: objective: the objective of this study was to assess the health and nutritional status of children under five years of age and to associate the quality of the foods consumed with the bolsa família program in a city located in the brazilian semi-arid region. method: a total of 189 children from a sample of 411 households in the city of jo?o camara (rn) were assessed. weight and height were measured and socioeconomic and food habits were determined with the use of questionnaires. the nutritional status of the children was determined with the weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height indicators. univariate analyses were done and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to test the hypothesis of the study. results: of the studied children, 4.3% were underweight, 9.9% were stunted and 14.0% were overweight. the nutritional status of children whose families receive the bolsa família financial aid was not significantly different from those whose families do not receive the aid. in both groups, the consumption of fruits and non-starchy vegetables was low and similar. children from families who receive the aid were 3 times more likely to eat junk food (or 3.06 - ci 1.35-6.95). conclusion: the food intake patterns of this population indicate that they are at food and nutritional risk. health professionals need to intervene in order to promote healthier eating habits.
Prostate carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: case report and literature review
Fernandes Raquel Civolani Marques,Matsushita Marcus de Medeiros,Mauad Thais,Saldiva Paulo Hilário Nascimento
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas , 2001,
Abstract: Neuroendocrine differentiation in prostatic carcinomas generally confers a more aggressive clinical behavior and less favorable prognosis than usual prostatic carcinomas. In this manuscript, we report a case of a 58-year-old man with prostatic carcinoma who died 1 year after initial diagnosis. Autopsy showed a disseminated prostatic carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. There were metastasis to the spleen, an organ infrequently involved by disseminated epithelial neoplasms. Neuroendocrine differentiation was demonstrated by immunohistochemical studies in the biopsy and autopsy material.
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